Патент USA US2134653код для вставки
Oct. 25, 1938. _ v. J. HILL, JR., ET AL I 2,134,653. AIRPLANE FLO'I‘AT ION DEVICE Filed June’ 4.- 1955 -_ / ___ “a , ~‘ \ L_\ 1 }_)7 / /FIGURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 _\ m \ $ \\° N\ ‘ / INVENTORS ‘VALENTINE J/‘l/LL JR. + "*2 -7 @7 I ' \ ' ‘ HENRY ERNE6T Hale/s MW v ~ TORNEY. Oct. 25, 1938. ‘ v. J. HILL, :JR. ET AL 2,134,653 AIRPLANE FLOTATION DEVICE: Filed June 4. 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 wInkbot 555iN INVENTORS VALEN 1.” Patented Oct. 25, 1938 2,134,653 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,134,653 ‘- FLOTATION nnvioi. Valentine J. Hill, In,- Bloom?eld, and Henry - Ernest Hclgis, .Wcst (lrange, N. J., assignors to Walter Kidde & Company, Inc.,' Bloom?eld, N. .i., a corporation or New York Application June 4,1935, Serial No. 2i,8llt 4 Claims. '(oi. cit-107) The present invention relates to automatic submerged before the actuator itself is sub ?otation equipment for aircraft and embodies merged. , more speci?cally an improved mechanism to insure in?ation of the buoyant devices when 5 ever the aircraft alights in water regardless of the position in which the aircraft happens to strike the water. valve.’ , In another application for Letters Patent of . ' A still further object is to provide a valve vent when the airplane descends upon a body of water. terminating at a point which would practically never become submerged before one of the actu 15 . ators. " ' The foregoing objects and others ancillary the airplane, is released from the container by a valve, normally restraining the ?uid in the con tainer, and is led directly to the ?otation bags. The valve releasing the ?uid may be operated thereto we prefer to accomplish as follows: According to the preferred embodiment of our invention, we equip the lever chamber of a valve, 20 such as is shown and described'in the application either by a manual means or by means of actu for United States patent, Serial No. 515,717, ?led on February 14, 1931, with a; vent. The vent is ators which when they strike the water set up an. air pressure impulse which trips the valve. 25 In order that the ?otation system will function automatically when the plane hits the water, whether the airplane alights in an upright or inverted position, several actuators are pro led from the valve to a point which rarely be comes submerged before an actuator has been 25 immersed. - . The features which are novel in this inven tion are set forth with‘particularity in the ap ‘pended claims. However, the, invention itself will best be understood as. to its organization 30 has arisen with such a system in that the valve cand method-of operation, as well as additional would not trip automatically under certain con; ' objects and advantages, from the following de ditlons when the airplane struck the water which scription of a speci?c embodiment of the inven vided. 30 ~ tripped the valve. The in?ated bags will then enable the plane to '20 ' It is a further object to provide the valve vwith a vent which will practically never become sub 10 merged ln water before one of the actuators has bodies-?otation bags mounted on the airplane The w valve with a vent to insure operation at all times. ‘ and adapted to be ?lled with a buoyant ?uid ' buoyant ?uid stored in a container, placed on . . A further object is to provide a water tight the United States, Serial No. 515,717, ?led 10 February 14, .1931, there ‘is disclosed ?otation equipment'for aircraft ofxthe type which em ?oat on the water until it can be rescued. : Accordingly it is an object of the invention to permit the escape of air from the valve under. all conditions» when it is desired to actuate the ' - . Despite this precaution one serious di?culty ‘made the equipment valueless with a consequent One of the conditions under which the valve would not release the in 35 loss ethic and property. . ?ating ?uid occurred when the airplane landed in the water in such a position that the' valve was submerged in the water before any of the actuators had struck-the water. tion and by consideration of the accompanying drawings wherein: , 35 Figure l is a view in side elevation showing ?otation equipment constructed in accordance with the present invention and applied to an air .plane which is indicated in dot and dash lines. Figure 2 is a front view showing the equipment 40 It has been determined that if a valve. which is not water tight is immersed in water before the of Figure 1 and likewise the airplane upon which it has been installed, the. airplane being shown actuating means water will‘leak into the valve in dot and dash lines. - _ ' Figure 3 is an elevational view of the releasing’ 45 and prevent its operation. “If on the other hand “ valve with the lever chamber in section to show the valve was made water tight, the back pres outletfor the vent atone side ofv the chamber. ' sure built up‘ in the valve by the air would be so theFigure 4 is a side elevational view of the lever great as to prevent operation of the valve by a slight air‘ pressure impulse, such as a static chamber showing the vent line connected there— 50 head of sixinches of water set up by an aactuat - Figure 5 is a detail view in section, showing ing meansq ‘ ,I _, - . , - Hence, in the embodiment of the invention which is illustrated in the present application, the valve is provided with means which permit 55 the valve to be tripped even though it should be an actuator adapted to be used in connection with the present invention. ' _ The entire airplane ?otation system has been illustrated for convenience in understanding 55v. ' ,. and it will now be generally described, but ‘for 2 9,184,653’ particular details reference is made to the afore mentioned application for Letters Patent. By reference to Figures 1, 2, it will be seen that a ?otation system for an airplane consists of ?otation bags I which are shown in?ated in the ?gure andwhich are usually mounted on the wings of the airplane. Each bag I has con nected thereto arpipe line 3 which leads the buoyant ?uid from the container 5. The con 10 tainer 5 is usually mounted in a central position ‘ with respect to the bags. The buoyant ?uid, such as ‘carbon dioxide, is stored in the con tainer 5 and will escape therefrom under its own pressure when the releasing valve 1 is ac 15 tuated. ' It is ‘customary to have two means of oper ating the valve 1. A manual means which may be controlled by the pilot or any other person in the barrel and, inasmuch as these openings are radial, the wind pressure externally of the barrel will not be transmitted to the interior thereof. The perforations I‘Ia are so formed. as to prevent the transmission of pressure waves to the actuating mechanism due to wind pres sure externally of the barrel. To this effect the axes of the perforations preferably lie perpendi cular to the axis of the barrel. From the foregoing description it will be ap parent that a releasing mechanism has been provided for systems of the above character wherein automatic’ operation is effected when the plane alights on water, the, apparatus not being susceptible of premature operation or de 15 layed operation by.an excited pilot or passenger. The manual releasing feature is, however, pro vided for use in the event of an emergency. in the plane is usually provided, and in order 20 to make the tripping of the valve automatic when the airplane alights on water the actua tors 9 ‘and II) are connected to‘ the releasing means by actuator pipe lines II and I2. The actuators 9 and III are so designed that, 25 upon being immersed in water, the ‘water will serve to compress the air in the actuator. The pressure built up will be transmitted back through the pipe lines II and I2 to the releasing device, thus providing an impulse to trip the levers which With reference to Figure 3 it may be noted that the air pressure set up by actuator 9' is 20 transmitted to the compartment I3 in the lever chamber 2. ,The actuator pipe line II leading from the actuator is connected to the compart ment I3 at the connection, I4 which is shown ex l 30 operate the valve ‘I. The speci?c form of actuator which has been. found to be highly' effective in systems of'this compartment I3 has as one wall thereof a dia 30 phragm I'I while one Wall of _ the compartment character is illustrated in Figure 5. The actua tors are connected} to the respective pressure 35 chambers by actuator pipe lines II and I2. The di?lculty heretofore encountered in transmitting the actuating pressure to the actuating dia phragm by simply dipping the small boretub ternally in Figure 4. In the same manner the 25 actuator I0 is connected by actuator pipe line I2 to the compartment I5 through-‘the’ connec tion I6. It will thus be seen that each actuator is connected to a separate compartment. The I5 is the diaphragmIS. - ' The lever compartment proper 2| comprises another compartment which has as one wall thereof the flexible diaphragm I9. In the past 35 the compartment 2I hasibeen neither air tight nor water tight, so that when the diaphragm I9 was subjected to an impulse from the actuator ing into water has been overcome by the;_present . III, or to the force set up by the movement of diaphragm I'I due to an air pressure impulse 40 Due to the small bore‘ _of the ac 40 construction. tuator pipe line there is a tendency to retard the entry of the water into the actuator pipe line with the result that the pipe line would have to be immersed to a much greater depth 45 than is/desired before actuation of the valve, would be accomplished. In this connection, it will be understood that the actuating ?uid does not itself normally reach the valve' but in the case of a liquid actuating ?uid, the pressure is transmitted to the valve by compression of from the actuator '9, at a time when the valve was not immersed in water, the air in the com partment 2| ' would not be compressed and would not build up a back pressure to prevent the full operative movement of the diaphragm I9, be cause it would be allowed to escape. However, when the valve became immersed before an ac tuator, which quite often happens in actual prac tice, the air in the compartment 2| would be sealed against escape by the water and the back 50 50 the air normally contained therein and in the . pressure built up by the trapped air and water would oppose the full operative movement of actuator pipe lines leading to the valve. To overcome the resistance to the ?ow of the liquid in the small bore actuator pipe line, an 55 actuator barrel I3a has been provided which is of considerably larger diameter than the small bore actuator lines. The actuator barrel is con nected to the actuator lines by a coupling mem-' ber "Ila and is substantially closed at the other 60 end by means of a cap _I5a. Perforations I'Ia are formed‘ in the barrel I3a adjacent the end to which the cap IE0. is secured. It is preferred that the perforations do not extend to the ?t ting Na in order that a chamber may be pro 65 vided adjacent this end of the actuator in which a pressure may be produced by the head of the liquid in which the actuator is immersed. The . reason for capping the lower end of the barrel is to prevent actuation of the valve due_to a pressure wave caused by the barrel being placed the diaphragm, thereby preventing operation of the valve. , In accordance with the present invention the 55 entire lever chamber 8 is ?rst of all made water tight, inorder to prevent any water from getting into the-compartment 2|, if it should happen that thevalve ‘I is submerged in water before either of the actuators 9 and III. At the same time, in order to prevent the building up of back pressure by the air which would now be trapped in the water tight compartment, a vent aper ture 23, from which is led a vent line 25, is pro vided to permit the escape of air from the com 65 partment 2|. The external connection of this aperture to the vent line 25 is best shown in Fig ure 4. " - It is apparent that the vent line must termi nate at some point which will never be sub in a rapidly moving air stream such, for exam ple, as would be encountered if the barrel were pointed toward the’ nose of an airplane, etc. merged in water before one of the two actuators has created an air pressure impulse resulting in The cap I5a is provided with radial openings _"I6a for draining any water which collects with ?ation of the ?otation bags I. operation of the releasing valve ‘I and hence in - It has been found in the past that the portion 70 9,184,“ 3 wallotsaidsecondcmmbenanactuatorforsaid valveadaptedtosetupanairpressureimpulse upon immersion in water, an actuator line es tablishinz communication between said actuator ' andsaidseeondchambertotransmitpressure impulses theneto,anapertureinawallofsaid ?rst chamber.‘ and a vent line in comnnmlcation with'said aperture, said vent line terminating at 10 ‘a point near the central horizontal axis of the airplane structure. 10 3. In combination with an airplane structure, anairpiane ?otation equipment including a valve, a sealed'air in said valve. at least one diaphragm in said chamber forming a wall there of and adapted to actuate said diaphragm, a pairofactuatorsadaptedtosetupanairpres sure impulse upon immersion in water, one or said actuators being located in the super-structiu'e o! the airplane and the other in the sub-structure thereof. tubes toestablish communication be tweensaidactuatorsandsaidchamber,anaper ture in said chamber on the opposite side of aaiddiaphraam from the points of connection of said tubes, and a vent line in communication -withsaidapesture,saidventlineterminatinzat‘ a point between the actuators and behind them with respectto the nose of the airplane structure. In combination with an airplane structure. an airplane ?otation equipment including a valve. a chamber sealed ‘against the entrance of ex ternal media in said valve, a plurality of movable diapm8 adapted to actuate said valve and . ~dividin: said chamber intoapluraiiivotsep arate sealed compartments, a plurality of actu atorseachadaptedtocreateapresaureimmlse tomoveadiaphragmoneoisaidactuatnrsbeina locatedinthesuper-structureottheairplaneand anotberinthesub-structurethereo?atleastonc oisaideompartmentsbeinaadaptedtocontract, and a vent in communication‘ with said contract ins‘ compartment, said vent terminating at a point between the uppermost and lowermost actuatoraandbehindsaidactuators withrespect totbenoseot'theairplanestnzchxre. vat-mm: a. HILL. 8:. - " HINRY 'smms'r HEIGIB. '