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Патент USA US2134653

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Oct. 25, 1938. _
v. J. HILL, JR., ET AL
Filed June’ 4.- 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Oct. 25, 1938.
v. J. HILL, :JR. ET AL
Filed June 4. 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
Valentine J. Hill, In,- Bloom?eld, and Henry
Ernest Hclgis, .Wcst (lrange, N. J., assignors to
Walter Kidde & Company, Inc.,' Bloom?eld,
N. .i., a corporation or New York
Application June 4,1935, Serial No. 2i,8llt
4 Claims. '(oi. cit-107)
The present invention relates to automatic
submerged before the actuator itself is sub
?otation equipment for aircraft and embodies
, more speci?cally an improved mechanism to
insure in?ation of the buoyant devices when
5 ever the aircraft alights in water regardless of
the position in which the aircraft happens to
strike the water.
, In another application for Letters Patent of
A still further object is to provide a valve vent
when the airplane descends upon a body of water.
terminating at a point which would practically
never become submerged before one of the actu 15
The foregoing objects and others ancillary
the airplane, is released from the container by a
valve, normally restraining the ?uid in the con
tainer, and is led directly to the ?otation bags.
The valve releasing the ?uid may be operated
thereto we prefer to accomplish as follows:
According to the preferred embodiment of our
invention, we equip the lever chamber of a valve, 20
such as is shown and described'in the application
either by a manual means or by means of actu
for United States patent, Serial No. 515,717, ?led
on February 14, 1931, with a; vent. The vent is
ators which when they strike the water set up
an. air pressure impulse which trips the valve. 25 In order that the ?otation system will function
automatically when the plane hits the water,
whether the airplane alights in an upright or
inverted position, several actuators are pro
led from the valve to a point which rarely be
comes submerged before an actuator has been 25
The features which are novel in this inven
tion are set forth with‘particularity in the ap
‘pended claims. However, the, invention itself
will best be understood as. to its organization 30
has arisen with such a system in that the valve cand method-of operation, as well as additional
would not trip automatically under certain con; ' objects and advantages, from the following de
ditlons when the airplane struck the water which scription of a speci?c embodiment of the inven
tripped the valve.
The in?ated bags will then enable the plane to
It is a further object to provide the valve vwith
a vent which will practically never become sub 10
merged ln water before one of the actuators has
bodies-?otation bags mounted on the airplane
valve with a vent to insure operation at all times. ‘
and adapted to be ?lled with a buoyant ?uid '
buoyant ?uid stored in a container, placed on .
A further object is to provide a water tight
the United States, Serial No. 515,717, ?led
10 February 14, .1931, there ‘is disclosed ?otation
equipment'for aircraft ofxthe type which em
?oat on the water until it can be rescued.
Accordingly it is an object of the invention to
permit the escape of air from the valve under.
all conditions» when it is desired to actuate the
. Despite this precaution one serious di?culty
‘made the equipment valueless with a consequent
One of the conditions
under which the valve would not release the in
35 loss ethic and property.
. ?ating ?uid occurred when the airplane landed
in the water in such a position that the' valve
was submerged in the water before any of the
actuators had struck-the water.
tion and by consideration of the accompanying
drawings wherein:
Figure l is a view in side elevation showing
?otation equipment constructed in accordance
with the present invention and applied to an air
.plane which is indicated in dot and dash lines.
Figure 2 is a front view showing the equipment 40
It has been determined that if a valve. which
is not water tight is immersed in water before the
of Figure 1 and likewise the airplane upon which
it has been installed, the. airplane being shown
actuating means water will‘leak into the valve
in dot and dash lines.
Figure 3 is an elevational view of the releasing’
45 and prevent its operation. “If on the other hand “ valve with the lever chamber in section to show
the valve was made water tight, the back pres
outletfor the vent atone side ofv the chamber. '
sure built up‘ in the valve by the air would be so theFigure
4 is a side elevational view of the lever
great as to prevent operation of the valve by a
slight air‘ pressure impulse, such as a static chamber showing the vent line connected there—
50 head of sixinches of water set up by an aactuat - Figure 5 is a detail view in section, showing
Hence, in the embodiment of the invention
which is illustrated in the present application,
the valve is provided with means which permit
55 the valve to be tripped even though it should be
an actuator adapted to be used in connection
with the present invention.
The entire airplane ?otation system has been
illustrated for
understanding 55v.
and it will now be generally described, but ‘for
particular details reference is made to the afore
mentioned application for Letters Patent.
By reference to Figures 1, 2, it will be seen
that a ?otation system for an airplane consists
of ?otation bags I which are shown in?ated in
the ?gure andwhich are usually mounted on
the wings of the airplane. Each bag I has con
nected thereto arpipe line 3 which leads the
buoyant ?uid from the container 5. The con
10 tainer 5 is usually mounted in a central position
‘ with respect to the bags. The buoyant ?uid,
such as ‘carbon dioxide, is stored in the con
tainer 5 and will escape therefrom under its
own pressure when the releasing valve 1 is ac
It is ‘customary to have two means of oper
ating the valve 1. A manual means which may
be controlled by the pilot or any other person
in the barrel and, inasmuch as these openings
are radial, the wind pressure externally of the
barrel will not be transmitted to the interior
thereof. The perforations I‘Ia are so formed.
as to prevent the transmission of pressure waves
to the actuating mechanism due to wind pres
sure externally of the barrel. To this effect the
axes of the perforations preferably lie perpendi
cular to the axis of the barrel.
From the foregoing description it will be ap
parent that a releasing mechanism has been
provided for systems of the above character
wherein automatic’ operation is effected when
the plane alights on water, the, apparatus not
being susceptible of premature operation or de 15
layed operation excited pilot or passenger.
The manual releasing feature is, however, pro
vided for use in the event of an emergency.
in the plane is usually provided, and in order
20 to make the tripping of the valve automatic
when the airplane alights on water the actua
tors 9 ‘and II) are connected to‘ the releasing
means by actuator pipe lines II and I2.
The actuators 9 and III are so designed that,
25 upon being immersed in water, the ‘water will
serve to compress the air in the actuator. The
pressure built up will be transmitted back through
the pipe lines II and I2 to the releasing device,
thus providing an impulse to trip the levers which
With reference to Figure 3 it may be noted
that the air pressure set up by actuator 9' is 20
transmitted to the compartment I3 in the lever
chamber 2. ,The actuator pipe line II leading
from the actuator is connected to the compart
ment I3 at the connection, I4 which is shown ex
30 operate the valve ‘I.
The speci?c form of actuator which has been.
found to be highly' effective in systems of'this
compartment I3 has as one wall thereof a dia 30
phragm I'I while one Wall of _ the compartment
character is illustrated in Figure 5. The actua
tors are connected} to the respective pressure
35 chambers by actuator pipe lines II and I2. The
di?lculty heretofore encountered in transmitting
the actuating pressure to the actuating dia
phragm by simply dipping the small boretub
ternally in Figure 4.
In the same manner the 25
actuator I0 is connected by actuator pipe line
I2 to the compartment I5 through-‘the’ connec
tion I6. It will thus be seen that each actuator
is connected to a separate compartment. The
I5 is the diaphragmIS.
The lever compartment proper 2| comprises
another compartment which has as one wall
thereof the flexible diaphragm I9. In the past 35
the compartment 2I hasibeen neither air tight
nor water tight, so that when the diaphragm I9
was subjected to an impulse from the actuator
ing into water has been overcome by the;_present . III, or to the force set up by the movement of
diaphragm I'I due to an air pressure impulse 40
Due to the small bore‘ _of the ac
40 construction.
tuator pipe line there is a tendency to retard
the entry of the water into the actuator pipe
line with the result that the pipe line would
have to be immersed to a much greater depth
45 than is/desired before actuation of the valve,
would be accomplished. In this connection, it
will be understood that the actuating ?uid does
not itself normally reach the valve' but in the
case of a liquid actuating ?uid, the pressure
is transmitted to the valve by compression of
from the actuator '9, at a time when the valve
was not immersed in water, the air in the com
partment 2| ' would not be compressed and would
not build up a back pressure to prevent the full
operative movement of the diaphragm I9, be
cause it would be allowed to escape. However,
when the valve became immersed before an ac
tuator, which quite often happens in actual prac
tice, the air in the compartment 2| would be
sealed against escape by the water and the back 50
the air normally contained therein and in the . pressure built up by the trapped air and water
would oppose the full operative movement of
actuator pipe lines leading to the valve.
To overcome the resistance to the ?ow of the
liquid in the small bore actuator pipe line, an
55 actuator barrel I3a has been provided which is
of considerably larger diameter than the small
bore actuator lines. The actuator barrel is con
nected to the actuator lines by a coupling mem-'
ber "Ila and is substantially closed at the other
60 end by means of a cap _I5a. Perforations I'Ia
are formed‘ in the barrel I3a adjacent the end
to which the cap IE0. is secured. It is preferred
that the perforations do not extend to the ?t
ting Na in order that a chamber may be pro
65 vided adjacent this end of the actuator in which
a pressure may be produced by the head of the
liquid in which the actuator is immersed. The
. reason for capping the lower end of the barrel
is to prevent actuation of the valve due_to a
pressure wave caused by the barrel being placed
the diaphragm, thereby preventing operation of
the valve.
In accordance with the present invention the 55
entire lever chamber 8 is ?rst of all made water
tight, inorder to prevent any water from getting
into the-compartment 2|, if it should happen
that thevalve ‘I is submerged in water before
either of the actuators 9 and III. At the same
time, in order to prevent the building up of back
pressure by the air which would now be trapped
in the water tight compartment, a vent aper
ture 23, from which is led a vent line 25, is pro
vided to permit the escape of air from the com 65
partment 2|. The external connection of this
aperture to the vent line 25 is best shown in Fig
ure 4.
- It is apparent that the vent line must termi
nate at some point which will never be sub
in a rapidly moving air stream such, for exam
ple, as would be encountered if the barrel were
pointed toward the’ nose of an airplane, etc.
merged in water before one of the two actuators
has created an air pressure impulse resulting in
The cap I5a is provided with radial openings
_"I6a for draining any water which collects with
?ation of the ?otation bags I.
operation of the releasing valve ‘I and hence in
It has been found in the past that the portion
upon immersion in water, an actuator line es
tablishinz communication between said actuator '
impulses theneto,anapertureinawallofsaid
?rst chamber.‘ and a vent line in comnnmlcation
with'said aperture, said vent line terminating at
‘a point near the central horizontal axis of the
airplane structure.
3. In combination with an airplane structure,
anairpiane ?otation equipment including a valve,
a sealed'air
in said valve. at least one
diaphragm in said chamber forming a wall there
of and adapted to actuate said diaphragm, a
sure impulse upon immersion in water, one or said
actuators being located in the super-structiu'e o!
the airplane and the other in the sub-structure
thereof. tubes toestablish communication be
ture in said chamber on the opposite side of
aaiddiaphraam from the points of connection
of said tubes, and a vent line in communication
a point between the actuators and behind them
with respectto the nose of the airplane structure.
In combination with an airplane structure.
an airplane ?otation equipment including a valve.
a chamber sealed ‘against the entrance of ex
ternal media in said valve, a plurality of movable
diapm8 adapted
to actuate said valve and
~dividin: said chamber intoapluraiiivotsep
arate sealed compartments, a plurality of actu
and a vent in communication‘ with said contract
ins‘ compartment, said vent terminating at a
point between the uppermost and lowermost
actuatoraandbehindsaidactuators withrespect
vat-mm: a. HILL. 8:. - "
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