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Патент USA US2134785

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Nov. 1, 1938“
M. w. GOLDBERG ET AL
2,134,785 I
ART OFQMANUFACTURING LADLES
Filed Oct. 2, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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)7? ' W INVENTOR.
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ATTORNEY§ .
Nov. 1, 1938.
M. weowsE-Rg ET AL
‘
2,134,785
ART OF MANUFACTURING LADLES
Filed Oct. 2', 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
I
I
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ATTORNEYé.
Patented Nov. 1, 1938
2,134,785
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
ART OF MANUFACTURING LADLES
Max W..Goldberg and Wallace W.“ Drissen, Port
Washington, Wis., assignorsto Modern Equip
ment' Company, Port Washington, Wis., a‘ cor
notation of - Wisconsin
Application October 2, 1935, Serial No. 43,1465
8' Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in the
art of? manufacturing ladles'.
Heretoiore, in‘ foundry practice, it hasv been
customary to utilize relatively small sized. ladles
which hold only. a limited quantity of‘ molten
metal. Necessarily, therefore, these ladies must
be‘frequently re?lled andia‘ large number kept‘ in
constant’ use in order to handle mold require
ments. Thus, a relatively large number of attend
910 ants are neededi‘to take care of the plurality of
small ladles, which results in high-overhead; It
has» been impractical heretofore to utilize ladles
‘of larger size as the large quantity‘ of molten
metal wouldradiate an excessive amount of heat,
making it impossible for attendants to remain
near enough‘ to take care of the pouring opera
(Cl. 22-81)
tureof' the‘ lining. Furthermore, the ?re clay is
inserted in the ladle while in a wet and plastic
condition-.‘and when‘ it hardens there is consider—
able moisture left within the pores thereof. If
the ladle‘were ?lled with‘hot metal while in this
condition, the heat would bake the exposed sur
face of, the ?re‘clay‘ lining and‘ thereby trap the
moisture between'the metal. wall of the ladle and
said-exposed'surface of the lining. Furthermore,
the heat of the molten metalwould change the 10
moisture into steam‘ and. cause undesirable
“sweating”. ,With thelsmall ladles now used this
condition is not’ sufficiently serious to cause
trouble‘ and it‘ can‘ usually be eliminated by ap
plying heat to a the‘ exterior" heat jconducting wall 15
ent application relating to a ladle of still larger
of the ladle before. it‘ is filled‘ with molten mate
rial. to: thereby drive the moisture through the
exposed‘, surface ofthe‘lining before said surface
has‘ been‘. baked to non-porous‘ condition.- With
an; insulated ladle,,however, exterior-heat is in
effective to drive out moisture as the insulated
‘walls of; the ladle do not permit passage of the
heat to: the ?re clay, lining; In, View of the fact
that the present invention‘ contemplates insu
lated? ladles of‘ large‘ capacity, it isv important to
provide. a: construction and? method. of manufac 25
ture which‘ will‘ obviate the danger of rupture of
'size having a cover of such size and weight as to
. the lining. and the danger of moisture remaining
tions. Furthermore, in'viewof the large capacity,
the ladles could not be emptied rapidly enoughto
prevent solidi?cation therein.
The present invention‘ comprehends means
whereby theme of large ladles is rendered entirely
practical‘and this result is brought about through
the use of insulation‘ and through the use cfI a
protecting insulated cover. In‘ my application
Serial Number 746,042 is disclosed a ladl'e having
one form of cover operating mechanism, the pres
require operating'mechanism of substantiallydif
ferent design.
7
It is, therefore, one of the objects of the present
invention to provide a ladle which can be fur
nished in large sizes so that a single ?lling of‘ the
ladle will take care of the pouring of a large num
35 , ber of molds which number would ordinarily re
in the?re clay and changing into steam, as this
condition would be so» aggravated in a large
container as torresult in, the creation of ‘steam
pressure of suf?cient force to, cause distortionvo-f
30
the‘ ladle‘ bottom and.‘ disruption of the lining.
It' is therefore one of the objects of the pres
ent invention to provide an improved ladle con
quire the use of several times as many small ladies structed in a novel‘manner to provide for the use
and the use of ‘a corresponding number of attend
of‘insulation so‘that the heat‘ of the molten metal
ants.
will be retained within the ladle to keep the
A further object of the invention is to‘ provide ‘ metal-in said-molten- condition and to protect the
40 an improved ladle having a cover adapted to pro
attendants from- radiating heat, the ladle being
tect the attendants from radiating heat and further so constructed as to obviate the afore 40
adapted to maintain the" metal in molten condi
mentioned danger of the lining buckling and of
tion until it has‘all been poured.
A further object of the invention is to provide
in a device as above described; means for facilitat
ing movement of the cover to open position, this
requiring a special type of construction due to
the excessive size and weight of the cover.
A more speci?c object of the invention is to pro
50 vide novel means for simultaneously elevating the
cover and swinging, it laterally to a position to
expose the ladle top for ?lling purposes.
In’ the construction of ladles it is common
practice to line the metallic bowl portion‘v with
5 01 , ?re ‘clay and’ this liningvprocess is usually carried
out by the user. For a ladle of large size, how
everr such as is contemplated by the present in
vention, the difference in the coefficient of ex
pansion between the metal of the ladle and the
, ?re, clay lining islsuch, as to cause danger of rup
moisture remaining in the ?re clay.
‘
A- more speci?c object of the present invention
‘is ‘to accomplish the above object by lining the
‘ladle, and in‘extremely large sized outfits, also the
cover, with insulating ?re brick, said brick being
45
so‘arranged‘ in the ladle and cover as to provide
for expansion differences between the metal and
thebrick, and the bottom of the ladle being aper 50
tured to provide for freeing of moisture which is
inherent in the'mortar holding the ?re bricks to
gether, which moisture’ cannot be freed in any
ordinary manner due to the permanently insu
lated structure of the ladle bowl.
55
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved ladle having double walls formed
in a novel manner toprovide for the effective use
of insulation therebetween.
With the above and other objects in view the
2
2,134,785
invention consists in the improved art of manu
facturing ladles and all its parts and combina
tions as set forth in the claims, and all equivalents
thereof.
In the accompanying drawings in which the
same reference numerals designate the same
parts in all of the views:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of the improved ladle
and cover;
10
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view thereof, the dot
and dash lines indicating the cover in a position
to expose the interior of the ladle;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of
Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged plan view of a modi?ed
form of cover adapted for ladles of still larger
size;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5-5 of
Fig. 4; and
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on
line 6—6 of Fig. 5.
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
the ladle bowl proper has an inner cylindrical wall
8 formed of rolled steel or other suitable material.
25 A bottom 9 of similar material has its periphery
welded to the lower edge of the cylindrical wall
8 as at I0 and said bottom is provided with a
plurality of apertures | I. After the inner wall is
formed an outer cylindrical wall I2 is placed
30 therearound. The upper portion of said wall is
formed of a separate inwardly inclined strip I3
welded as at I4 to the upper edge of the wall I2
and also welded as at I5 to the exterior of the in
ner wall 8, the line of welding being spaced some
35 what below the upper edge of said wall 8. Small
tubes I6 have their upper ends welded in regis
tration with the apertures | I of the bottom 9. In
sulation | ‘I is then packed between the walls 8 and
I2 and a layer is also placed adjacent the exterior
of the bottom wall 9. An outer bottom wall I8 is
40 then inserted in position and welded to the lower
periphery of the wall I2 as at I9 and also welded
to the lower ends of the tubes I6, said wall being
formed with apertures 20 which register with the
lower ends of said tubes.
45
A cover 2| having a peripheral ?ange 22 has
oppositely disposed recesses 23 which register
with pouring spouts 24 on the bowl. Said cover
has welded or otherwise secured to its upper sur
face a pair of spaced tubes 25 through which rods
50 26 and 21 loosely extend. An arm 28 is secured
to each end of the rod 26 and the lower end of
each arm is pivotally mounted on a stud 29 car
ried by the side of the ladle. A substantially U
shaped arm 30 has its ends connected to the ends
55 of the rod 21 as at 3| and the central portion of
said arm 3|] is rigidly secured to a pivot member
32 which pivot member is pivotally mounted and
connected as at 33 to the rear of the ladle. A
hand lever 34 is insertible in a socket 35 which
60 socket is also rigidly secured to the pivot mem
ber 32.
From the above it may be seen that by move
ment of the handle 34 from the full line position
of Fig. l to the dotted line position, that the cover
65 will be swung upwardly and rearwardly to expose
the top of the ladle for ?lling purposes. It will
further be seen that when the cover is down,
metal may be poured from either one of the
spouts 24.
70
'
The ladle I2 has supporting trunnions I2’ pro
jecting from opposite side portions thereof. These
trunnions are commonly employed for coopera
tion with a supporting bail so that the ladle may
be supported by such a bail for tilting movement.
It is to be noted that the pivot points 29 for the
cover arms 28 are located above the trunnions I 2'.
It is also to be noted that the bearing portions
of the trunnions I2’ are outwardly of the pivotal
connections 29. Thus the ladle may be supported
by a bail, and the bail will in no way interfere
with operation of the cover arms or with open
ing and closing of the cover.
The inside of the cover for ladles which are not
too large in size may be lined with ?re clay 36
or other suitable material which ?re clay is held
in position by any suitable retaining means such
as wire mesh 31, said mesh being secured to the
peripheral ?ange 22 of the cover and to transverse
reinforcing members 38.
Instead of lining the ladle with ?re clay in 15
the ordinary manner, ?re brick is utilized. Ac
cordingly, a thin layer of sand or the like 39 is
placed on the inside of the bottom wall 9 and a
circular ?re brick slab 40 is laid thereon. Curved
?re brick 4| are used for the side walls and said 20
?re brick are secured together by means of ?re
clay mortar and may be secured to the base slab
40 by similar material. Spacing strips of wood
may be used preliminarily between the side walls
of the brick lining and the metal wall 8 and after 25
the ?re brick is permanently in place these wood
en spacing strips may be burned out or otherwise
removed and the space ?lled with sand 42 or other
suitable material to provide an expansion space
between the ?re brick and the inner wall 8 of 30
the ladle. An upper seal 43 of ?re clay may be
used to hold the sand in place in the expansion
space.
Inasmuch as moisture is present in the mortar
used to hold the ?re bricks in place, it is im 35
portant that means be provided for carrying off
this moisture to prevent it from being turned
into steam and cause undesirable sweating. Ac
cordingly, the ducts IS in the bottom of the ladle
provide a drain which will satisfactorily carry
away all moisture driven out of the mortar or out
of the sand. Thus, there is absolutely no chance
of steam being trapped between the ?re clay lin
ing and the inner metal wall of the ladle to cause
distortion of the ladle bottom or disruption of the
lining and in a ladle of the size contemplated
considerable pressure would be developed if this
steam were so trapped and the results might be‘
serious.
Where ladles of still larger size are contemplat
ed it is found that a cover having a solid metal 50
top such as the top 2| shown in Fig. 3 is un
satisfactory as it adds considerable weight.
Furthermore, with a cover such as shown in Fig. 3
wherein the lining 36 is anchored to the top and
side ?anges of the cover, the difference in coef 55
?cient of expansion between the metal of the
cover and the lining is so great as to result in
cracking of the lining where this arrangement is
used in covers of extremely large size.
Accordingly, in Fig. 4 there is illustrated a 60
cover comprising a metallic rim 44 having one
or more recesses 45, there being no metallic top.
Angle bars or other reinforcing means 46 are laid
transversely of the rim and have their ends
welded to the rim to form a reinforced skeleton
structure. The bearing tubes 25 for the cover
lifter may be welded as at 41 to the angle bars.
In this skeleton cover are laid ?re brick 48, said
brick being apertured as at 49 and being laid
with the apertures in registration. This permits
the insertion of rods 50 through all of the aper
tures. The rods may also extend through eye
bolts 5| depending from one or more of the angle
bars and cotter pins or the like 52 may be used
on the outside of the rim 44 to hold the rods in
3
2,134,785
position.
No mortar is employed between the
bricks as they are held in place by the rods which
extend looselytherethrough. A thin wash of ?re
clay may, however, be spread on the top surface
of the bricks as at 53.
nected to said lug, a substantially U-shaped arm
having its central portion rigidly secured to said
pivot member and having its ends pivotally con
nected to opposite sides of the cover, a pair of
arms having lower end portions pivotally con
With this arrangement the metal rim 44 and. ' nected to opposite sides of the ladle and having
angle irons are expanded uniformly as well as the
upper end portions connected to'opposite side
metal rods 50. Due to the rods passing freely portions of the cover spaced from the points of
through apertures win the bricks this expansion connection of the U-shaped arm with the cover,
10 can take place without any danger of cracking or
all of said arms being obliquely disposed when the 1O
disrupting the brick lining. The result is a rela
cover is in closing position, and a hand lever con
tively light weight cover for a very large size ladle nected to said pivot member for swinging said
which is suitably insulated and in which there is arms to simultaneously raise the cover and move
no danger of the lining being disrupted through it laterally to expose the top of the ladle.
15' expansion differences between it and the metal
5. In combination, a ladle, supporting trun 15
portions of the cover.
nions projecting from opposite side portions of
Various changes and modi?cations may occur the ladle, a cover for said ladle, and arms pivotal
to those skilled in the art and all such changes ly connected at their lower ends to the ladle above
are contemplated as may come within the scope
said supporting trunnions and at their upper
20 of the claims.
ends to the cover, said arms being so disposed 20
What we claim is:
when the cover is closed as to provide for bodily
1. In combination, a ladle, supporting trun~ reciprocal movement of all portions of the cover
nions projecting from opposite side portions of a substantially equal distance from a closing posi
the ladle, a cover for said ladle, a tubular mem
tion to a position to expose a portion of the top
ber secured transversely of said cover, a shaft of the ladle, the bearing portions of said support 25
journaled in said tubular member, arms having ing trunnions being outwardly of the pivotal con
lower end portions pivotally connected to said
ladle above said supporting trunnions and having
upper end portions connected to opposite ends of
30 said shaft on the cover, said arms being obliquely
disposed when the cover is in closing position, and
being movable to provide for bodily reciprocal
movement of all portions of the cover a substan
tially equal distance, the bearing portions of said
35 supporting trunnions being outwardly of the piv
otal connections for the cover arms.
2. In combination, a ladle, supporting trun
nions projecting from opposite side portions of
V40
the ladle, a cover for said ladle, a pair of tubular
members secured transversely of said cover in
spaced parallel position, a shaft journaled in each
tubular member, arms having lower end portions
pivotally connected to said ladle above said sup
porting trunnions, and having upper end por
tions connected to opposite ends of said shaft
45
on the cover, said arms being obliquely dis
posed when the cover is in closing position,
and being movable to provide for bodily re
ciprocal movement of all portions of the
cover a substantially equal distance, the bearing
50 portions of said supporting trunnions being out
wardly of the pivotal connections for the cover
arms.
3. In combination, a ladle, a cover for said
ladle, a substantially U-shaped arm having its
55 central portion pivotally connected to the ladle
and having its ends pivotally connected to op
posite sides of the cover, a pair of arms having
lower end portions pivotally connected to op
posite sides of the ladle and having upper end
60 portions pivotally connected to opposite side por
tions of the cover spaced from the points of con
nection of the U-shaped arm with the cover, all
of said arms being obliquely disposed when the
cover is in closing position, and manually operable
65 means for swinging said arms to simultaneously
raise the cover and move it laterally to expose the
top of the ladle.
4. In combination, a ladle, a cover for said ladle,
a lug projecting from an intermediate side por
70 tion of said ladle, a pivot member pivotally con
nections for the cover arms.
’
6. In combination, a ladle, supporting trun
nions projecting from opposite side portions of
the ladle, a cover for said ladle above said sup
30
porting trunnions, arms pivotally connected at
their lower ends to the ladle and at their upper
ends to the cover, said arms being so disposed
when the cover is closed as to provide for bodily
reciprocal movement of all portions of the cover 35
a substantially equal distance from a closing posi
tion to a position to expose a portion of the top
of the ladle, and manually operable means con
nected to one of said arms for controlling said
movement of the cover, the bearing portions of 40
said supporting trunnions being outwardly of the
pivotal connections for the cover arms.
'7. In combination, a ladle, supporting trun
nions projecting from opposite side portions of
the ladle, a cover for said ladle, and arms pivotal
ly connected at their lower ends to the ladle and
at their upper ends to the cover, said arms be‘
ing so disposed when the cover is closed as to pro
vide for bodily reciprocal movement of all por
tions of the cover a substantially equal distance
from a closing position to a position to expose a 50
portion of the top of the ladle, the bearing por
tions of said supporting trunnions being out
wardly of the pivotal connections for the cover
arms.
8. In combination, a ladle, supporting trun 55
nions projecting from opposite side portions of
the ladle, a cover for said ladle, and arms pivotal
ly connected at their lower ends to the ladle at
spaced points above said supporting trunnions
and at their upper ends to the cover at spaced 60
points, ‘said arms being so disposed when the
cover is closed as to provide for bodily reciprocal
movement of all portions of the cover a substan
tially equal distance from a closing position to a
position to expose a portion of the top of the ladle, 65
the bearing portions of said supporting trunnions
being outwardly of the pivotal connections for the
cover arms.
MAX W. GOLDBERG.
WALLACE W. DRISSEN.
70
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