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Патент USA US2134882

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Nov. 1, 1938.
D, A. MONRO
Y 2,134,882
FRACI‘IONATING APPARATUS AND METHOD OF FRACTIONATION
Filed July 26., 1935
w-IF-M' if
Bottom Stock’ 2 I’
I. m, 47
..~ -
'
.
1
BOttom Jtocla "8'
>
INVENTOR
Domlld?. Monro
BY
N5.
ATTORNEY
.K
Patented Nov. 1, 1938
2,134,882
umrso STATES PATENT OFFICE
I 2,134,882
FRACTIONATING APPARATUS AND METHOD
OF FRACTIONATION
.
Donald A. Monro, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Stand;
ard Oil Company, Chicago, 11]., a corporation of
Indiana
Application July 26, 1935, Serial No. 33,358
6 Claims. (Cl. 196-73)
This invention relates in general to the pro
duction of a multiplicity of grades of hydrocar
bon stocks in a novel unitary fractionating or
stabilizing apparatus and more especially to im
5 provements in the manufacture of stabilized gas
ble plate which has been designated 2'. The
division plate 6 extends from one side of the
column to the other, thus forming two com
pletely separated sections 1 and -8 in the lower
portion of the column I, the sections ‘I and 8
oline-like constituents and an apparatus there
extending from the bubble plate 2“ to the bottom
for.
of the column.
Hydrocarbon material to be treated, such as
gasoline or naphtha'distillate from a cracking
unit to be stabilized, may be introduced-as feed .10
stock into a line 9 and conducted to the frac
tionating column I through one or more valved
branch lines II. The feed stock is introduced
-
In the manufacture of gasoline it may often
become desirable to produce from a fractionator
or stabilizer column associated with an oil re?n
ing unit, such as a cracking unit, two or more
gasolines differing from one another only in the
degree of stabilization. For instance, it may be
desirable to make one grade of gasoline relatively
low in butanes for use in warm climates and an
above the bubble plate 2* de?ning‘the top of the
separated sections 1 and 8 thus making possible
other grade of gasoline considerably higher in bu—
the collection of only a bottom stock in each of
tanes for use in cold climates. Not only may it
be desirable to produce two or more grades of
the separated sections. Vaporous constituents
separated from the feed stock pass upwardly
gasoline, but it may also be desirable to produce through the fractionating column and the ?nal
overhead product, which consists of undesired a
20 two or more grades of lubricating oils having
different ?ash points or two or more grades of
light constituents, is conducted through a line
asphalt from crude oil or reduced crude oil in a
I! to a condenser 13, from which it is passed to
unitary fractionating or stabilizing apparatus. a receiver l4 having a valved gas outlet line I!
My inventioncontemplates the manufacture of and a liquid withdrawal line IS.’ The liquid prod
I, two or more different grades of hydrocarbon ucts collected in the receiver I4 may be with
stocks in an apparatus particularly adapted for drawn through the line I6 by means of a pump'
the production of such stocks.
I1 and forced through a line l8 to the upper part
An object of my invention is to provide an of the column I as a re?uxing medium for the
30
improved method of producing a plurality of
upwardly rising light constituents. Automatic
grades of hydrocarbon stocks in a unitary frac
tionating or stabilizing column.
Anotherobject of my invention is the provision
regulation of the liquid level in the receiver H
may be accomplished by a liquid level regulat 30
of a new and improved fractionating or stabiliz
ing column with a minimum of heat loss for use
in the production of a multiplicity of hydrocar
ically controlled valve 2| positioned in a line'22,
through which that part of the liquid not desired
bon stocks of different grades.
_
~
. With these and other objects in view, my in-'
ing device I!) suitably connected to an automat
as a re?uxing medium may be withdrawn from
.35
the system.
The liquid» constituents from the feed stock
introduced into the column, as well as any‘heavy
constituents from the re?uxing medium, pass
vention will be described with reference to the
accompanying drawing which illustrates a uni
40 tary apparatus for carrying the same into prac - downwardly through the reflux pipes 5 from one 40
tical effect, without limiting the improvements in fractionating zone to another until they reach
their useful applications to the particular con
the intermediate bubble plate 2“. The bubble
struction which, for the purpose of explanation, plate 2a is- provided, with special re?ux lines '23
and 24, one on each side of the division plate 6.
has been made the subject of illustration.
Referring to the single ?gure, there is shown with each line being provided with a ?aring sec
_ a fractionating or stabilizing column I having a
plurality of bubble plates ,2 spaced therein to
tion extending above the intermediate plate 2‘, 45
the purpose of which willv now be described.
divide the column into a plurality of fraction
ating zones 3. Each of the bubble plates 2 is
provided with a number of hell caps 4 through
As before mentioned, it is desirable in many
instances to produce two grades of bottom stocks
which upwardly rising vaporous products passing
invention the liquid constituents collected on the
through the column are conducted and a re?ux
line 5 through which ‘liquid products from one
intermediate plate 2“ may be divided into two
portions, one portion thereof passing through the
bubble plate, which is adapted to act as a reser
voir for'liquid-products, are conducted to a simi
line 23 into the section ‘I ‘and the other portion
thereof passing through the line 24 into the sec
lar lower bubble plate.
'
The lower portion of the column I in accord
ance with my invention is divided into sections.
As shown, a division plate ii‘extends from the
bottom of the column I to an intermediate bub
in the same apparatus.
In accordance with my
50
_ tion 8.
The quantity of liquid passing into either of the '
sections'may be automatically controlled, if de
sired. I have ‘shown an automatic control ar
rangement which comprises a liquid level regu- .
2
2,134,882
lator 25 having a ?oat arm 26 suitably connected
to a rod 21. The rod 21 is also connected to an'
pors or any other suitable heat carrying me
automatically controlled valve 28, in a draw-oil?
line 29 for the section 8, and a bell crank lever 3|
having a shaft 32 connected thereto. A suitable
brace 3|“ may be secured to the side of the col
umn l for supporting the control arrangement
indicated on the drawing, may be introduced
through a line 45 and passed through the re
boiler 43 where it transmits heat to the liquid
and keeping the shaft 32 in alignment. The
shaft 321s connected to another shaft 33 having
10 arms 34 extending from opposite sides thereof.
is well understood, the heat carrying medium and
the liquid being heated are passed in indirect
heat exchange with each other within the re
passing therethrough, the spent heat carrying
medium being withdrawn through a line 46. As
The shaft 33 may be actuated by the shaft 32
through suitable gears, not shown.
boiler 43.
'
In order to control the amount of, heat, im
Each of the
parted to the liquid passing through the reboiler
arms 34 is provided at the end thereof with a
I have provided a temperature regulator arrange
valve 35 adapted to fit into the ?aring portion
15 of the pipes 23 and 24.
The arrangement thus described makes possi
ble the maintaining of a constant level of liquid
in the lower portion of the section 8.
dium. The heat carrying medium, steam, being
ment comprising a thermostatic, control means 15
41 suitably positioned in the outlet line 44 of
the reboiler 43 which automatically controls a
valve 49 in the line 45 through a connection 48,
Thus if the
liquid level in this section becomes too high, the . thereby admitting more or less heat carrying me
?oat arm 26 actuates the rod 21 which opens the
dium, as the case may be. into the reboiler 43 20
valve 28 in the line 29 for withdrawing liquid
for heating the ?uid passing therethrough.
from this section and at'the same time depresses
the valve 35 into the ?aring section of the reflux
While I have shown and described automatic
means for regulating the liquid levels in various
parts of the apparatus as well as the quantity of
pipe 24 thereby preventing too much liquid from
?owing through this section. If the level of
liquid in the section 8 becomes too low, the re
verse of that described will take place. It will
be evident from the foregoing that a constant
liquid level may always be maintained in the
80 lower portion of the section 8.‘
While the quantity of liquid entering the sec
tion ‘I through the re?ux line 23 is dependent
upon the setting of the valve associated with the
heat carrying medium being introduced into the 25
reboilers, it is to be understood that manual
means may be employed if desired.
'
Moreover, while only two sections in the lower
part of the column have been shown and de
scribed, it is obvious that more than two sections 30
may be provided thereby permitting the produc
tion of more than two grades of hydrocarbon
stocks.
'
From the foregoing description, it will be ap
parent that I have provided a novel method and
apparatus for simultaneously producing a multi
plicity of grades of hydrocarbon stock. For in
stance, if it is desired to produce two grades of
gasoline, the gasoline or naphtha to be stabilized
re?ux line 24, a constant liquid level may never
theless be maintained in the lower portion of
the section ‘I. As shown. a liquid level regulator
33 having a ?oat arm 31 is associated with the
lower portion of the section 1. The arm 31 may
be connected to a rod 38 which actuates an auto
matically controlled valve 39 in a draw-off line ' is introduced into the column i and by properly
4| through which liquid may be withdrawn from adjusting the setting of the valves 35 associated
the lower portion of the section 1. It will thus with the lines‘ 23 and 24 it is possible to regulate
be apparent that a constant liquid level may be the quantity of liquid separately entering the sec
maintained in each of the sections 1 and 8. The tions 1 and 8. By controlling the heating of the
liquid passing from each of these sections through
45. levels of liquid maintained in these sections de
pend upon the quantity of a particular grade of vthe reboiler 43 and back into the lower portion
stock desired and-they may be varied within wide of the section‘ it will be~evident that different
ranges in order to produce the desired quantity grades of gasoline ‘may be obtained. For exam
ple, if summer grade gasoline made to certain
of any particular stock.
‘
speci?cations has a tendency to vapor lock, it is
Whatever grade' stock is desired from each sec
50
possible to produce a gasoline, such as a butane
tion may be produced by controlling the tem
. perature of the portion of the stock introduced absorption naphtha, in one of ~the sections of
into each of the sections. In order to produce the column for back blending to thus obtain a
?nal product having the desired properties. Thus
stocks having different compositions, I have pro
55 vided a reboiler arrangement for the- liquid being such a back blending stock may be produced in
separately treated in each of the sections 1 and the lower portion of the section ‘I and withdrawn
3 thereby effecting a stripping action of the liquid through the bottom withdrawal line 4| as bottom
in each section. The reboiler arrangement in
stock A. Similarly the regular summer speci?ca
cluding the necessary pipes is the same for each tion gasoline may be produced in the lower por
tion of the section 8 and withdrawn through the
60 section and like reference characters will be
applied to like parts of each of the reboilers.
bottom withdrawal line 29 as a bottom stock 13.
The litiuid collecting on the lowermost bubble
My invention as before mentioned may be used'
plate 2 may be withdrawn through a line 42 and
passedthrough a reboiler 43 where it is heated by
65 a suitable heat carrying medium, from which it
is conducted by a line ‘44 to the lower portion of
the section from which itis withdrawn below
to produce di?erent grades of lubricating stocks
the lowermost plate 2. The thus heated liquid
is collected in a body in its respective section and
70 the vaporized constituents, the quantity of which
depends upon the degree of heating, pass up
wardly through the bell caps provided in the
steam required for producing the asphalt or low
ering the ?ash point on one of the grades of
lubricating oil would, be available in the upper
part of the column for stripping the lighter con
stituents from the feed stock from which both
of the different grades of hydrocarbon stock are
lowermost bubble plate 2.
i
The heat supplied to the reboiler 43 may be
75 steam, superheated steam, hot oil, diphenyl vva- v
40
45
50
55
60
having different ?ash points as well as different
grades of asphalt. In these operations, steam 65
may be introduced directly into the lower portions
of each of the sections 1 and 8 and the excess
produced.
_
Obviously many modi?cations will suggest
3
2,184,889
themselves to those skilled in the art but it is to
be clearly understood that my invention is not
to be limited to the precise details of construc
tion and method of operation as many changes
may be made without departing from the spirit
of the invention, or exceeding the scope of the
appended claims.
I claim:
_
‘
stituents in each of said stripping zones to there
by produce a different grade of hydrocarbon oil in
each.
.
4. The method of manufacturing a plurality of
grades of hydrocarbon oils from an unre?ned
supply stock which comprises, introducing said
supply stock into a single fractionating column at
an intermediate point thereof, vaporizing a por
1. A fractionating apparatus for producing a
tion of said stock and collecting unvaporized liquid
plurality of grades of gasolines comprising an
elongated column, a continuous series of con
tiguous bubble plates within said column, a par
low the point of introduction thereof, passing
separate portions of said liquid constituents into
. tition within said column extending from the bot
tom thereof to an intermediate bubble plate for
15 dividing the lower portion of the column into two‘
‘ completely separated sections, means for intro
ducing gasoline-containing oil to be treated into
said column at a point above the said intermedi
ate plate, separate conduits extending through
20 said intermediate plate and into said separate sec
constituents thereof in said column at a point be
10
completely separated stripping zones in the lower
portion of said fractionating column, regulating
the quantity of liquid constituents introduced into 15
each of said stripping zones in response tov varia
tions in the level of liquid collected in one of said
zones, regulating the level of liquid constituents
collected in another of said stripping zones by
separately withdrawing liquid therefrom when 20
the level becomes too high, and separately heat
tions for conducting a separate portion of liquid
gasoline-containing oil ,collected on said inter _ ing the liquid constituents in each of said strip
mediate plate into each of said separated sections, ping zones to thereby produce a different grade
of hydrocarbon oil in each.
means associated with said conduits for regulat
5. The method of manufacturing a plurality of 25
ing the quantity of gasoline-containing oil con
v ducted into each of said separated sections, sepa_
rate means for heating the gasoline-containing
oil being collected in each‘section foraltering the
composition thereof to thereby produce two dif
30 ferent grades of gasoline-containing oil, means for
simultaneously controlling the level of liquid col
lected in one of said sections and the quantity of
liquid being conducted thereinto, separate means
for controlling the level of the liquid collected in
the other section, and means for controlling the
extent of heating of the liquid gasoline being col
lected in each section.
2. In a single unitary fractionating apparatus
for separating liquid mixtures wherein a continu
ous series of contiguous fractionating elements is
provided in a vertical column, the improvement
comprising separate means within said column
extending from the bottom thereof to‘ an inter
mediate point for dividing the lower portion of
45 said column into a plurality of completely sep
arated fractionating sections, means for intro
grades of hydrocarbon oils from an unre?ned
supply stock which comprises, introducing said
supply stock into a single fractionating column at
an intermediatevpoint thereof, vaporizing a por
tion of said stock and collecting unvaporized 30
liquid constituentsthereof in said column at a
point below the point of introduction thereof,
passing separate portions of said liquid constitu
ents into completely separated stripping zones in
the lower portion of said fractionating column, 35
regulating the quantity of liquid constituents in
troduced into each of said stripping zones in re
sponse to the level of liquid collected in one of
said zones, regulating the level of liquid constitu
ents collected in another of said stripping zones
by separately withdrawing liquid therefrom when
the level becomes too high, separately heating the
liquid constituents in each of said stripping zones
to thereby produce a diirerent grade of hydro
carbon oil in each, and controlling the extent of 45
heating to maintain a constant temperature in the
ducing hydrocarbon ?uid to be treated into said . oil introduced into each of said stripping zones.
column above said separated sections, means for
dividing the liquid portion of the hydrocarbon
fluid introduced into the column and conducting
vthe parts thereof into eachrof the separate sec
tions, means for regulating the quantity of liquid
conducted into each of said separated sections,
fractionating means associated with each of said
sections for altering the composition of the hydro
carbon liquid‘being collected therein, and means
for simultaneously controlling the level of liquid
collected in one section and the quantity of liquid
being conducted thereinto.
60
3. The method of' manufacturing a plurality
of grades of hydrocarbon oil from an unre?ned
supply stock which comprises, introducing said
supply stock into asingle fractionating column
at an intermediate point thereof, vaporizing a por
tion of said stock and collecting unvaporized
liquid constituents thereof in said column at a
point below the point of introduction thereof,
" passing separate portions of said liquid constitu
ents into completely separated stripping zones in
70 the lower portion of said fractionating column,
6. A fractionating apparatus for producing a
plurality of fractions of hydrocarbon oils of dif
ferent volatility or ?ash characteristics, which 50
comprises a bubble tower, a large number of con
tiguous bubble plates within said tower, a parti
tion within said tower extending from the bottom
thereof to an intermediate bubble plate for di
viding the lower portion of the tower into two
completely
separated
fractionating
sections,
means for introducing the hydrocarbon oil to be
fractionated into said tower at a point above said
intermediate bubble plate, separate conduits ex
tending through said intermediate bubble plate
and into said separate sections for conducting a
separate portion of liquid from said intermediate.
bubble plate into each of said separated sections,
means associated with said conduits for regulat
ing the quantity of liquid conductedinto each of
said separated sections, separate means for heat
ing the liquids in each section to produce ?nished
oils of different volatility or ?ash point, separate
means for controlling the liquid level in-each of
said sections, and means for separately controlling 70
regulating the quantity of liquid constituents in
the extent of heating of the liquid in each of said
troduced into each of said stripping zones in re
heating means.
sponse to the level- of liquid collected in one of
said zones and separately heating the liquid con
,
DONALD A. MONRO.
'
Patent No. "2,l5!i,882_
CERTIFICATE
OF
CORRECTION.
‘
DONALD A. MoNRof
‘
November 1, 1958.
’
It is hereby certified that error appearsin the printed specification
of the ebove numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first
column, line 50, claim 1, for "gasoline-containing oil" read gasoline; and
that the said Letters Patent should be'read with this correction therein
that the same may conform‘ to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 20th day of December, 'A. D. 1958.
Henry Van Arsdale
(Seal)
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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