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Патент USA US2134951

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NOV. 1, 1938.-
B, P|ESKIER ET AL
‘
2,134,951
TIME DELAY RELAY
Filed March 29, 1935
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INVENTORS
BRUNO PIES/FER
W Go Y
(lQim
ATTORNEY.
Patented Nov. 1, 1938
’ UNITED
2,134,951
STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,134,951
TIME DELAY RELAY
Bruno Piesker and Wilhelm Goy, Frankfort-0n
the-Main, Germany, assignors to Prazisions
Werkstatten Seeger & 00. G. m. b. 11., Frank
fort-on-the-Main, Germany, a corporation of
Germany
Application March 29, 1935, Serial No. 13,684
In Germany January 6, 1934
10 Claims.
U1
(Cl. 175-372)
The present invention relates to electromag~
netic relays, and, more particularly, to relays of
length of the stop pin, this increased the distance
between the pole shoe and the armature and
the type in which pick up and release of an arma
ture by a magnetizable core is delayed.
thereby sped up the release of the armature. Ac
cordingly, it is clear that the art'has been con
It is well known that prior electromagnetic re
lays of the character described were usually re
I'erred to in the art as “time delay relays” and.
obtained the time delay elfect by one of the three
following means:
1. By heating a metallic and deformable con
ductor, for example a wire or strip of metal by the
action of an electric currentand using the heat
expansion for actuating an electrical contact.
2. By connecting condensers or resistances
15 across the relay winding. ‘
3. By arranging short circuit windings or cop
per tubes around the relay winding.
None of these means Was satisfactory or suc
cessful in providing a completely practical and
20 reliable time delay relay. The heating devices
had the disadvantage of taking a‘considerable
time after the completion of the electrical con—
nection before they started to operate at all be
fronted with the serious problem of reconciling in
these two opposite requirements, but, as far as
we are aware, none of the many suggestions and
proposals has been completely satisfactory or suc
cessful.
.
We have discovered that the problem can b
solved in a remarkably simple manner.
10
'
It is an object of the present invention, to pro- '
vide a. simple and efficient time delay relay which
is capable of obtaining very considerable time
diiierences or delays between actuating the mag
netizing current and the actuation, pick up or re
lease of the relay armature.
It is another object of the present invention to
provide a time delay relay capable of very much
delayed operation which is free from the vexatious
elTe'cts of oxidizing, oxide deposits and in uhich
the armature cannot be obstructed in its easy and ’
cause they had to be heated up to a de?nite high
free movement or cannot stick.
It is a further object of the invention to pro
25 operating temperature. In addition, the time de
lay between the connection of the operating cur
rent and that of the controlled current varied
of small dimensions and of low current consump
tion which can be advantageously used in a self
vide a simple and inexpensive time delay relay
considerably with variations of the temperature interrupter circuit for Opening and closing the cir
of the surroundings and of the linevoltage. These cuit of electric lamps at predetermined intervals.
30 devices have been especially unsatisfactory when ' The invention also contemplates a time delay
they have been used in self-interrupter circuits relay which ‘is adapted to be used to produce flash
where it was important to have constant time in
ing light and danger signals.
tervals between successive contact interruptions.
Other and further objects and advantages of
The second and third systems have been part
the invention will appear from the present speci
ly successful in delaying the release of the relay ?cation taken in conjunction with the accom
armature by up to 1% ol‘_a second after interrupt~ panying drawing, ‘in which:
ing the actuating current. However, it was not
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view, partly in sec
possible to increase the time delay beyond this tion, of a time delay relay embodying our inven-'
limit. In addition, relays of this type have been tion, with the copper tube covering the relay
40 rather unreliable and after a relatively short
winding partly broken away for the purposes of 40
operation the armature frequently stuck to the clarity;
.
stop screws, pins or surfaces used to limit move
ment of the armature. . This was known to be due
to the oxidation ‘and corrosion of the stop pins or
45 surfaces under the in?uence of the atmospheric
oxygen. Due to the so-called sticking of relays,
' the stops or intermediate layers,- usually made of
copper, interposed between the armature and the
pole shoe determined the air gap and could not be
reduced below a certain value because these‘old
protective layers of copper or the like were used
up so quickly that the relays stuck after a rela
tively short operating time, ,On the other hand,
if the air gap was increased by providing a thick
er intermediate layer of copper or extending the
Fig. 2 depicts a side elevational view of Fig; 1; -
Fig. 3 illustrates a side elevational view of the
yoke of the relay shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 illustrates a modi?ed form of yoke used
in connection with our improved time delay re
lay; and
'
, Fig. 5 shows a somewhat fragmentary view of
another embodiment of the present invention.
We have discovered that the time delay effect
and the reliability of the relay can be increased by
providing at the pointslwhere the armature is
striking against the pole piece or the yoke an in
termediate layer of very small thickness said layer
consisting of a non-magnetic, non-oxidizable or
2
2,134,951
at least difiicultly oxidizable solid material. This
layer is preferably provided in the form of a coat
ing or plating either on the armature or on the
pole shoe or yoke or on all of them. It is also pos
sible to provide the intermediate layer in the form
of a separate and independent strip or plate of
metal or other suitable material and arranged in
between the armature and the pole shoe. In this
case, however, it is important that oxidation of
10 the surface of the armature, pole shoe and yoke
generally made of iron should be also prevented.
We are aware that intermediate layers of a
non-magnetic material, as, for example, copper,
have been already known in the art, but these
layers have been oxidizable or corrosive or have
contained oxides of these metals which have been
formed either during the actual operation of the
relay or arti?cially, for example, by heat treat
ments. It has also been suggested to use certain
liquids, for example, oil to provide an intermedi
ate layer, but such materials cannot be very well
used for producing a time delay effect because the
effect of the purely physical adhesion is too great
and would considerably increase the current need
25 ed for operating the relay. Preferable non-mag
netic and non-oxidizing substances for providing
an intermediate layer according to the principles
of the present invention are the following:
Pure aluminum or its alloys, gold, silver, tin,
30 cadmium, non-magnetic alloys of nickel, or of
other non-corroding metals. We have found that
non-metallic substances, asfor example, lacquers,
arti?cial resins and other insulating materials
can be used with advantage provided they have
35 the sufficient mechanical strength to resist the
vibrations or shocks during the strike of the ar
mature against the pole. Of these materials,
aluminum is covered by an extremely ?ne layer
or ?lm of its oxide which, however, in contrast to
40 the oxides of iron and copper adheres very ?rmly
to the metal.
In addition, the oxide of aluminum
is completely non-magnetic and provides a satis
factory non-magnetic intermediate layer. As a
matter of fact, it is frequently advisable to pro
vide on purpose a hard and resisting oxide layer
on the aluminum, for example, by means of an
anodic treatment because oxide layers obtained
in this manner provide very durable, non-mag
netic and non-oxidizing intermediate layers which
are very advantageous for the purpose of the
present invention.
In addition to the intermediate layer, we found
that it is of advantage to make the armature, the
pole shoe and the yoke partly or completely of
55 suitable magnetizable metals having a very high
degree of chemical purity so that the formation
of oxides under or through the non-magnetic in
termediate layer is prevented. This can be real
ized, for example, by making armature, pole shoe,
"and yoke completely or only on the surface of a
non-rusting iron-nickel-chromium alloy or of iron
which has been nickel or chromium plated. In
this manner, the non-magnetic intermediate layer
will have an especially long useful life.
65
The non-magnetic and non-oxidizing inter
mediate layer may be made of microscopical
thickness i. e. 0.04 mm. or of any other preferred
thickness. It may be provided, for example, by
electroplating, it may comprise a plurality of in
70 dividual layers provided one on top of the other
or separated from each other by other layers. Of
course, the magnetic forces acting on the arma
ture will be diiferent for different arrangements
of the intermediate layers so that in this manner,
75 within certain limits, any desired time delay of
the armature release can be obtained. In con
trast to the prior relays having stop screws or
pins for adjusting the movement of the armature,
the relay according to the principles of the pres
ent invention has absolutely no air gap in the
magnetic circuit when the armature is picked up
and only the non-magnetic and non-oxidizing
intermediate layer provides a non-magnetic gap.
Of course, this thin, skin-like intermediate layer
cannot be affected by the atmospheric oxygen and 10
the air tight contact of the armature with the
pole shoe prevents direct contact of the oxygen
with the places where the armature is striking.
We have found that the relay embodying our
invention is capable of further re?nements which
are especially important when the relay is used
as a self-interrupter or for short-circuiting itself
in order to provide automatic opening and closing
of contacts at predetermined time intervals. Cir
cuits of this type are especially in use for control
ling the circuit of signal lamps in order to pro
vide flashing light and danger signals. To obtain
the necessary slow operationfit is of importance
that not only the release but also the pick up of
the armature should be considerably delayed.
The greatest time delay in the pick up obtainable
heretofore with telephone relays provided with a
copper cylinder and short circuit winding is ap
proximately 126 of a second. Of course, this time
delay is insui?cicnt for a relay providing a ?ash 30
ing light effect. We have found, however, that
the principles of the present invention can bear»
plied to delaying the pick up of the relay arma
ture, and, more particularly, have found that a
relay of especially slow operation can be provided 35
by applying the non-magnetic and non-oxidizing
intermediate layer on a relay having its armature
bent at an angle. A relay of this type and em
bodying the principles of the present invention
is shown in Fig. 1 of the drawing.
40
Referring now more particularly in Fig. 1,
a yoke I made of a magnetizable material has
secured thereto a magnetizable core 2. This core
is provided with a winding 3 and a pole shoe 4.
An armature 5 made of a ?at piece of a mag
netizable material and bent at an angle is piv
oted or balanced on an edge at 6. Two contact
springs 10 and H having contact points l0’ and
II’ are held by a dielectric l3 and maintain any
electrical circuit closed in the normal position 1'
of rest of the armature, shown in Fig. 1. When
the relay winding proper 3 is energized, one end
of the armature will be picked up by the pole
shoe 4, the other horizontal end of the armature
by means of pin I 2 made of an insulating mate
rial will push contact spring 10 upwards and
will break the circuit between 10' and II’.
All
surfaces of the armature, yoke and pole shoe
which strike against each other in operation are
provided with a very thin intermediate layer 9, 9' 60
and 9" of a non-magnetic, non-oxidizing mate
rial. Of course, in practical operation, it is the
simplest to provide not only these but also all
other surfaces of these co-operating parts with
a thin coating or plating of said non-magnetic
and non-oxidizing material. It is noted that in
contrast to conventional relays, the present re
lay is not provided with stop screws, pins and the
like to limit the movement of the armature, but
the armature when picked up will rest with its 70
full surface on the pole shoe and is separated
therefrom only by the thin intermediate layer
but by no air gap.
We have found that if it is desired to produce
flashing light signals or danger signals by our 75
3
2,134,951
time delay relay, it is to be preferred to con
nect the electric lamp in parallel or across the
relay winding and not in series therewith as
this was customary in prior devices. A circuit of
this type is shown in Fig. 1 in which an electric
lamp I5 is connected across the relay winding 3
which is connected in series with the contact
points I0’ and II’ and a source of current [9.
10
The operation of the relay is the following:
When the circuit of winding 3 is completed, the
winding will be energized and will pick up the
vertical part of the armature 5. This will move
the horizontal part of the armature upwards so
that contact springs I0 and II will be separated
and will break the circuit of the winding between
contact points [0' and H’. Hereafter the play
of the armature begins anew and will be main
tained so long as current is supplied to the relay.
Each time the circuit is interrupted, an induc-.
tion current impulse will be set up in the wind
ing 3 and will light up lamp l5 for a short time
metal or other suitable material. Preferably,
the edge of the yoke I where the armature 5 is
balanced is provided with a suitable groove or de
pression 2| in which the strip 9 is embedded.
This is desirable otherwise the armature would
chafe through the thin intermediate layer where
the same is located on the sharp edge of the yoke
and would considerably shorten its useful life.
A movable intermediate layer similar to strip
No. 9 may also be provided when a thin ?lm of 10
?rm, non-magnetic and non-oxidizing material
is present on the surfaces of the pole-shoe, yoke
or armature. This movable intermediate layer
serves in these circumstances to further improve
the durability of the thin. ?lm.
It is probable
that this intermediate layer in some way or other
weakens the impact of the armature against the
pole-shoe.
If the thin layer is made of a non
magnetic material the movable intermediate
layer may consist of a magnetic or a non-mag
In most cases, we prefer to provide longitudi
nal or transversal slots, cuts or incisions on the
yoke as shown by the reference character IS in
netic material. If it consists of non-magnetic
material it has a magnetic effect in addition to
the intermediate layer on the armature and pole
shoe. The movable intermediate layer may also
be composed of magnetic material such as nickel 25
and chrome-containing iron alloys. In this case
the ?lm of non-magnetic material prevents any
undesired sticking of the armature and the mag
netic movable layer improves the latter’s dura
Figs. 3 and 4.
bility.
with great intensity.
We have found that the
light impulses produced in this manner are very
clearly de?ned and are easily noticed from a
considerable distance so that they have great
advantages over prior danger signals.
'
These incisions or gaps increase
the magnetic stray ?eld of the relay acting on
If the .armature is bent to an angle a suitable
the horizontal part of the armature and pre
groove or depression is provided in which the
vent quick separation of the armature from the
yoke. The increase of the magnetic stray ?eld by
movable layer is embedded in order to prevent
cha?ng of the intermediate layer by the move
ment of the armature.
To protect the winding against injury, it is
means of the incisions on the yoke has the addi
tional effect of delaying the pick up quite con
siderably.
A further means of increasing the time delay
of picking up the armature is to provide under
40 or in front of the pole shoe 4 of the relay shown
in Fig. 1, a U-shaped brake member 8 made of
iron or steel sheet of suitable thickness and
preferably attached [to pole shoe 4 by means of
an extension.
As will be observed from Fig. 2,
this sheet is so bent that its two sides are either
in direct contact with the side of the armature or
they are separated therefrom by a very small air
gap. When the relay winding is energized, and
the armature is attracted by the pole shoe, the
relatively strong magnetic ?eld between the sides
of the U-shaped member, through which the
armature has to move, will slow down the pick—
up of the armature. Preferably, the U-shaped
brake member is made of a very thin sheet of
magnetizable metal so that the sides there
of will be attracted by the stray ?eld of the arma
ture and will be brought into direct contact with
the armature. Thus, the armature on its way
toward pole shoe 4 will slide on the two sides
60 of the U-shaped member and the friction pro
advisable to coverthe same with a metallic tube
I4 which snugly ?ts over the winding. This me
tallic tube will afford the necessary protection
and has the added advantage of further increas 40
ing the time delay of the operation" of the relay
in consequence of the induction currents set up
therein.
The applications of the time delay relay em
bodying the principles of our invention are many.
The relay can be used, for example, in telephone
and signalling equipments where it is necessary
to have a great delay between the energizing of
the winding and the pick up or the release of the
armature. It is of especial advantage when slow
current impulses are to be produced at predeter
mined time intervals, for example, for actuating
signalling lamps or to produce ?ashing light and
danger signals. An important application of the
relay is to produce flashing light signals on motor ;
vehicles to indicate the driver’s intention to stop
or to make a turn.
Although we have described our present inven
tion in connection with a few preferred and prac
tical embodiments thereof, many variations and (10
invention, which in its operation is much simi
modifications are possible and will suggest them
selves to those skilled in the art without de
parting from the principles of the present inven
tion. Especially the details of the invention may
65 lar to the arrangement of the U-shaped mem
be applied whereby in combination with the relay
duced will further slow down the pick-up of the
armature.
_
Fig. 5 illustrates a further embodiment of our
ber described hereinbefore. In this embodiment
a small magnetizable part I"! is pivoted at the
end of the horizontal part of the armature 48.
When the winding of the relay is energized and
70 the armature is attracted, the little part I‘! will
slide along the surface of the yoke I and thereby
will increase the time delay of the pick up. In
the embodiment shown in Fig. 5, the non-mag
netic and non-oxidizing intermediate layer is
75 provided in the form of a separate strip 9 of
illustrated in the designs, in which the arma
ture is bent at an angle but also in combination
with all other known types of relays. We con
sider all of these variations'and modi?cations as
within the true spirit and scope of our invention
as described in the present speci?cation and de
?ned by the appended claims.
We claim:
I. In an electromagnetic relay of delayed op
eration, the combination comprising a magnetiz
4
2,184,951
able core, a winding on said core, a movable ar
mature for said core, a thin intermediate layer
of a solid, non-magnetic and non-oxidizing mate
rial located between the cooperating surfaces of
said core and said armature, and a deformable
plate of magnetizable material located in prox
imity of said armature, said plate capable of be
ing attracted and deformed under the magnetic
action of said armature when said winding is en
10 ergized whereby a surface of said armature will
be frictionally engaged by said deformed plate
and movement of said armature Will be delayed.
2. In an electromagnetic relay of delayed op
eration, the combination comprising a magnetiza
15 ble core, a winding on said core, a movable ar
mature of substantially oblong cross section for
said core, a thin intermediate layer of a non
magnetic and non-oxidizing material located be
release of said armature are delayed and sticking
of said armature is prevented.
6. In a time delay relay, the combination com
prising a magnetizable core, a winding around
said core, a yoke attached to one end of said
core, a pole shoe mounted on the other end of
said core, an armature bent at an angle pivoted
on an edge at the end of said yoke, a thin, mov
able and ?exible strip of a non-magnetic and
non-oxidizing material interposed between and 10
independent from the co-operating surfaces of
said armature, said yoke and said pole shoe, and
a groove provided at ‘the edge of said yoke where
said armature is pivoted to receive and to hold
said strip to prevent cha?ng thereof by said ar
mature, said armature capable of being picked up
when said winding is energized and of being
separated from said pole shoe solely by the thick
tween the co-operating surfaces of said core and
said armature, and a deformable plate constituted
of a magnetizable material located in proximity
ness of said movable and independent strip
of said armature, said plate capable of being
'7. In a time delay relay, the combination com
prising a magnetizable core, a winding around
said core, a yoke attached to one end of. said core,
a pole shoe mounted on the other end of said core, 25
an armature bent at an angle pivoted on an edge
at the end of said yoke, a layer of a solid non
magnetic and non-oxidizing material provided on
attracted and deformed under the 'magnetic ac
tion of said armature when said winding is ener
gized whereby the side surfaces of said arma
ture will be slideably engaged by said deformed
plate and movement of said armature will be
delayed by combinedmagnetic and frictional ac
tion of said plate.
3. In an electromagnetic relay of delayed op
whereby pick up and release of said armature ,are a
delayed and sticking of the armature is prevented.
the co-operating surfaces of said pole shoe, said
yoke and said armature, and a thin, movable .
eration, the combination comprising a magnetiz
and ?exible strip of a non-magnetic and non
able core, a yoke attached to one end of said core,
a pole shoe mounted on the other end of said
core, a winding aroundsaid core, a U-shaped
resilient plate constituted of a magnetizable ma
oxidizing material interposed between and inde
pendent from said co~operating surfaces, said
terial located in proximity of said pole shoe, and
a pivoted armature bent at an angle having one
of its ends between the sides of said U-shaped
plate, the sides of said plate capable of being at
40 tracted and deformed under the magnetic action
of said armature when said winding is energized
to slideably engage the side surfaces of said ar
mature and to delay movement thereof.
4. In an electromagnetic rel'ay of delayed op
eration, the combination comprising a magnetiz
able core, a yoke attached to one end of said core,
a pole shoe mounted on the other end of said
core, a winding around said core, a pivoted arma
ture bent at an angle adapted to complete the
magnetic circuit of said relay, an intermediate
layer of a solid, non-magnetic and non-oxidizing
l'l'iti‘l‘ial between said armature said yoke and
said pole shoe, and a U-shaped resilient plate
constituted of a magnetizable material having
its sides in proximity of the side surfaces of said
armature, the sides of said plate capable of being
armature capable of being picked up when said
winding is energized and of being separated from
said pole shoe solely by the combined thicknesses
of said layer and said movable and independent
strip whereby pick up and release of said arma
ture are delayed and sticking of the armature‘ is
prevented.
“
40
8. In a time delay relay, the combination com
prising a magnetizable core, a winding around
said core, a yoke attached to one end of said core,
a pole shoe mounted on the other end of said
core, an armature bent at an angle pivoted on 45
an edge at the end of said yoke, a layer of a
solid non-magnetic and non-oxidizing material
provided on the co-operating surfaces of said
pole shoe, said yoke and said armature, and a
thin, movable and ?exible strip of a magnetic 50
and non-oxidizing material interposed between
and independent from said co-operating surfaces,
said armature capable of being picked up when
said winding is energized and of being separated
from said pole shoe solely by the combined thick- ;
nesses of said layer and said movable and inde
pendent strip whereby pick up and release of said
attracted and deformed under the magnetic ac
tion of said armature when said winding is ener
armature are delayed and sticking of the arma
gized to slideably engage theside surfaces of said ture is prevented.
armature and to delay movement thereof.
9. In a time delay relay, the combination com
5. In a time delay relay, the combination com
prising a magnetizable core, a winding around
prising a magnetizable core, a- Winding around said core, a yoke attached to one end of said
said core, a yoke attached to one end of said , core, a pole shoc mounted on the other end of
core, a pole shoe mounted on the other end of said said core, an armature bent at an angle pivoted
core, an armature bent at an angle pivoted on
on an edge at the end of said yoke, a layer of
an edge at the end of said yoke, and a thin, mov
solid non-magnetic and non-oxidizing material
able and ?exible strip of a non-magnetic and constituted of a lacquer provided on the co—oper
non-oxidizing material interposed between and
independent from the co-operating surfaces of
said armature, said yoke and said pole shoe, said
armature capable of being picked up when said
winding is energized and of being separated from
said core solely by the thickness of said movable
and independent strip providing a magnetic gap
76 of greatly reduced length whereby pick up and
ating surfaces of said pole shoe, said yoke and
said armature, and a thin, movable and flexible
strip of a magnetic and non-oxidizing material 70
interposed between and independent from said
co-operating surfaces, said armature capable of
being picked up when said winding is energized
and of being separated from said pole shoe solely
by the combined thicknesses of said layer and 75
5
2,134,951
said movable and independent strip whereby
netizable core, a winding around said core, a yoke
attached to one end of said core, a pole shoe
mounted on the other end of said core, a pivoted
armature carrying no current bent at an angle
located between the co-operatlng surfaces of
said pole shoe, said yoke and said armature, said
armature capable of being picked up by and
of striking directly against said core when said
winding is energized and of being separated
therefrom solely by the thickness of said inter
mediate layer of lacquer providing a magnetic gap
of greatly reduced length whereby pick up and re
lease of said armature are delayed and sticking
and capable of substantially completing the mag
of the armature is prevented.
pick up and release of said armature are delayed
and sticking of the armature is prevented.
10. In an electromagnetic relay of delayed
operation, the combination comprising a mag
10
netic circuit, and a thin intermediate layer con
stituted of solid, non-magnetic and non-oxidizing
materials including lacquers and artificial resins
BRUNO PIESKER.
WILHELM GOY.
10
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