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Патент USA US2135056

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Nov. 1, 1938.
‘ 2,135,056
Original Filed Nov. 15, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet l
, ' NOV‘ 1, 1938' ‘
Origihal Filed Nov. '15, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Nov. 1, 1938.
Original Filed Nov. 15, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 3 .
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Nov. 1, 1938. ‘
F. s. scHADE
Original Filed Nov. 15, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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/7PA/Bi4lr 8734/1415 ,v SCI/A05
Patented Nov. 1, 1.938
Frank‘Stanley Schade, Holyoke, Mass., assignor to
National Blank Book Company, Holyoke, Mass.
a corporation of Massachusetts
Original application November I5, 1934, Serial No.
- 753,111.
Divided and this application May 18,
1935, Serial No. 22,153
4 Claims. (01'. 129-_1)
My invention relates to a method of reenforcing
the binding margins of sheets or leaves intended.
for use with loose leaf binders and the like.
The principal object of the invention is to re
5i‘ enforce such leaves, even when formed of thin 1
paper, in a manner to provide an adequate resist
ance to tearing of the paper around the openings,
through which the binding member or members
pass, without materially or noticeably adding to
' the thickness of the sheet at the binding edge.
The reenforcements heretofore available have
taken the form of stripsor wafers of paper, cloth,
or metal stock, glued or riveted to the paper edges;
Except in the case of leaves of suf?cient thickness
15 ‘to permit the countersinking of the reenforcement
in the material of the sheet, all of the prior re
enforcements have added materially to the thick
ness of‘ the binding edge ofthe sheet or leaf to
which they are applied, both from the added
20 thickness of the reenforcement itself, which has’
form the capacity contents of a loose leaf binder
there is no increased thickness at the binder edge
of the stack which is discernible to the eye.
While it is possible to roll sheets of metal to the
requisite thinness, ?lms so produced have a tend
ency to curl, which is objectionable. I have found
that an electrolytically deposited ?lm stays ?at.
I securethe metal ?lm to the sheet by means of a
thermo-plastic cement‘ 'in a manner hereafter
fully described, and in so doing do not add even
measurablyitojthe thickness of the reenforced
portion of the sheet.
More speci?cally considered, my method in
cludes certain preferred manipulative steps which
are carried out by the device disclosed and claimed 151’.
in my copending application Serial No. ‘753,111,
?led November 15, 1934, - of which the present
application is a division.
-> My method is easiest described with reference
to the device of the above mentioned application,
been substantial, and from the thickness of the V and such parts as are of assistance in understand- >
adhesive coating or other means used to secure ing the method as a Whole are included in .the‘ac
the reenforcement in place, which has at least companying drawings in which-—
l is a front elevational view of a device for’
been appreciable. Since the only method hereto
25 ' fore known of securing a reenforcement which
did not noticeably increase the thickness of the‘
leaf at its binding edge is applicable only to thick
leaves capable of having the reenforcement em
bedded in the thickness of the leaf itself,'this
30 .highly desirable feature has been unavailable in
the cheap paper leaves of a thickness such as that
of ordinary writing or typewriting paper which
most needs reenforcement because of its thinness.
My invention for the ?rst time makes it possible
. to adequately reenforce the binding edges of these
thin, widely used leaves'without any noticeable
addition to their thickness, and further to do this
as a factory operation at a cost which rendersi
the reenforced sheets competitive in price‘with the
40 present unreenforced sheets.
Broadly, and in brief, my method consists in
applying to the binding edge of the sheet, or to
the portions of that edge which are adjacent or
surround the openings through which the bind
45 r ing mechanism passes, a ?lm of metal comparable
in thinness and physical‘ characteristics to the
metal coating which might be deposited on the
paper by electro-deposition if it were commercial~
1y possible to so treat these cheap leaves. A ?lm
50 of this character having a thickness of the order
of l3/10,000'of an inch has been found to give
adequate reenforcement at the binding edge, yet
such a thickness is not discernible except by
scienti?c instruments. Even when a large num
55 ber of so reenforced leaves are stackedtogether to
carrying ‘out the method;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view substantially on line
2—2 of Fig.1;-
Fig. 3 is a sectional view substantially on line
3'—3 ‘of Fig. 1, showing the parts in initial posi
Figs. 4 to 7 inclusive are fragmentary views
similar to Fig. 3, but showing the-parts in suc
cessive operating positions;
Fig. 8 is a view substantially on line 8-—8 of
Fig. 3;
-Fig. 9 is a fragmentary plan view showing a
portion of the reenforced. edge of a sheet or leaf;
_ and
Figs. 10 and 11' are diagrammatic, exaggerated,
sectional views of the reenforced portion of the
leaf, illustrating the manner in which the metal
?lm‘is secured to the paper, but without intend
ing to show the parts to scale. '
As the ?rst step of my method I apply to one
side of a sheet or strip I, formed from a ?lm of
electrolytically deposited metal, preferably cop
per, a coating of a thermo-plastic cement, indi
cated at 2 in‘Fig. 10. This coating is too thin to
be shown in the'Figures 2 to 7 inclusive, even
though the thickness of the copper ?lm l and the
paper sheet 3 in said ?gures is greatly exaggerated
and the ?lm and sheet just indicated without
any attempt to show relative thicknesses. There
are a number of thermo-plastic cements on the
market suitable for my purpose and I intend to
include within that term, as used in this speci?ca
tion and the claims, such thermo-plastic mate
rials as “bakelite”. The coating 2 is permitted
to harden or set and in such hardened condition
tends to slightly stiffen the: metal ?lm. In one
satisfactory form the reenforcement as shown in
Fig. 9 is in the form of a wafer-like portion of
?lm 5 surrounding the hole 6 through which the
binder mechanism passes. The wafer, as shown,
10 is formed with a straight edge ‘I coinciding with
sheet, as shown at the zone 25 in Fig. 11, so that
upon cooling and setting of the sheet the metal
?lm is held to the sheet by the interlocking of
the cement material in the paper and without any
intervening layer of cement to increase the thick
ness of the assembly. This ‘?lling of the inter
stices of the paper with cement probably adds to
the resistance of the paper to tearing at the re
enforcement. It is again.emphasized that Figs.
10 and 11 are greatly exaggerated views and that 10
the edge of the paper sheet 3‘ and a rounded edge I the thicknesses actually being dealt with are
8 substantially concentric with the opening 6.
The wafers are advantageously formed, at the
time of their application to'the sheet, from a strip
15 of metal ?lm.
The device shown in Fig. 1 is
designed to simultaneously apply three wafers in
desired spaced relation along the binding edge of
the sheet. Each wafer is applied by an applying
unit, the three units being designated as A, B,
20 and C in Fig. 1, and the sectional views of ‘unit A
in Figs. 3 to 5 inclusive are applicable to all three
units. The speci?c mechanism by which the
operation of the individual units is timed and
their simultaneous operation effected is fully de
25 scribed in the parent case and need not be de
scribed here.
Referring to Figs. 2 to '7 inclusive, a strip I of
coated ?lm is fed to each of the applying units
from a suitable roll supply (not shown) between
lfeed rolls Ii and I2 to the applying units. These
feed rolls are intermittently driven, by any suit
able means, to advance the ‘strip the length of
one wafer at each operation. The feed rolls push
the strip into a guide member If: which guides it
> to the point of application. The feed rolls I I and
I2 are respectively provided with convex and con
cave surfaces so as to bend the weak strip slightly
in transverse section as it feedsit to the guide I4,
as the strip in this form better sustains the strain
incident to pushing the strip into and through
the guide I4 which delivers it in its original ?at
Referring to Fig. 3, the parts are shown at the
start of the applying operation. The strip is in
guide Id in position to be fed forward. The leaf
or paper sheet 3 is positioned with the edge which
is to be reenforced against a shoulder I6 formed
on the base of the unit. Upon the operation of
the feed rolls the strip is advanced, as shown in
50 Fig. 4, into overlapping relation with the mar
ginal portion of the sheet 3,: the thermo-plastic
coating carried by the stripbeing between the
strip and sheet. In this position the overlapping
portion of the strip underlies a heated presser bar
' I8, through which a punch I9 operates, and. the
adjacent portion of the strip underlies a cutting
member 20 and a stripper or- holding member
2|. The bar I8 applies a yielding pressure by
means of springs or the like, not shown.
The heated presser bar is next brought down
onto the overlapping portions of the strip and
sheet as shown in Fig. 5, and remains in this
position during the remainder of the applying
operation. The result of this application of heat
and pressure is best described by reference to the
highly exaggerated sectional views in ‘Figs. 10
and 11.
Referring to Fig. 10, the strip I with its hard
ened thermo-plastic coating 2 is shown in over
70 lapping relation with the sheet 3 ready for the
application of heat and pressure by the bar I8.
The heat from the, bar readily transmitted
through the thin metal ?lm I softens the thermo
plastic coating 2 and in this condition it is forced
75 'into the interstices between the ?bers of the paper
exceedingly small. The thickness of the coating
2 is measurable on the strip I by means of scien
ti?c instruments, but after the strip has been
applied to the paper as described the coating 2 15
is not measurably present at the reenforced area
of. the sheet, even by the aid of such instruments.
‘ While the bar I8 is functioning to secure the
metal ?lm to the paper as above described, a
holding member 2I and cutter 20, carried by a 20
vertically reciprocating head 22, are moved down
wardly. The member 2I is cushioned by a spring
23 and, contacting with strip I in advance of the
cutter, clamps the strip while the cutter severs
the strip, as shown in Fig. 6, spring 23 yielding 25
as the cutter advances. As best shown in Fig. 8,
the member 2| is round in cross-section, and
cutter 20 which ?lls the space between member
2I and bar I8 is provided with an arcuate face
25 sliding on member 2| and a plane face 26 slid 301
ing on the adjacent face of bar I8. The edge of
face 26 severs the strip ?ush with the edge of
sheet 3 to form edge ‘I of the wafer while the
arcuate face forms a- curved edge on the end of
strip I which will become the edge 8 of the wafer 35'
to be applied by the next operation.
Fixed in the head 22 and moving with the cut
ter 20, the punch I9 passes through the opening
30 in bar I8 and punches ‘hole 6 through the now
severed wafer 5 and thepaper sheet. Openings
32 and 33 formed in the base 34 respectively re
ceive the punch and cutter and provide channels
of escape for the waste from the punching and
cutting operations.
The parts are now returned to original posi
tion and, aswill be clear from Fig. '7, the mem
ber 2I remains in position until the punch and
cutter have been withdrawn. After member 2I
has been raised, the bar I8 is lifted, thus restor
ing the partsto the starting position of Fig. 3,
and the sheet, with the reenforcement of its bind
ing edge completed as shown in Fig. 9, is re
It will be noted that the cutting and punching
operations take place during the time that the 55
heat and pressure of bar I8 are securing the metal
?lm to the paper so that the time consumed for
the whole operation is minimized. It will also be
noted that the metal ?lm is securely clamped at
both sides of the cutter when the latter operates,
and that there is no slack between the clamping
means (bar I8 and member 2|) and the cutter
20, since the latter completely ?lls the gap be
tween bar I8 and member 2|.
Other sequences of ‘the operative steps could be 65
followed, but that above described is preferred as
best controlling the critically thin metal ?lm and
providing the reliability and certainty necessary
for a commercially practical factory operation.
I claim:
l. The method of reenforcing small areas of
binding hole locations in paper sheets which con
sists in moving a narrow ribbon of metal foil ?at
wise at right angles to the edge of the paper until
the ribbon covers only a small. area of the paper
at a binding hole location, pressing the over
lapped portion of the ribbon hard and flatwise
heating the overlapped portion of the ribbon
over its whole area for sticking such portion and
against the paper and also gripping a portion of
the ribbon to hold it tightly a short distance back
of the paper margin and while so pressed and
then by substantially simultaneous operations,
die cuttingand discarding two portions of the
gripped, perforating the hole in the ribbon and
paper and also stamping out the piece of the
ribbon immediately back of the edge of the paper
of the reenforced hole within the binding hole
location and the other discarded portion being an
area starting from the edge of the paper and
extending rearwardly of the ribbon to arc-shaped
cut across the ribbon, whereby the ribbon by such 10
successive feeding and cutting operations on it
will repeatedly supply an arc-shaped front edge
to avoid corners of the reenforcing material
within the area of the reenforced margin in suc
cessive applications of applying the small reen 15
forcement pieces to loose leaf sheets.
4. The method of making improved loose leaf
paper book sheets having metal reenforced bind
to round o?f the end of the ribbon for a successive
10 feeding step, and square off the paper overlapping
portion with the edge of the paper, said stamped
out piece being the area of the ribbon between the
pressure area of the overlapped portion and the
gripping contact of the ribbon a short distance
15 back of the overlapped portion whereby the re
enforcing pieces are successively made from the
ribbon by simultaneously punching the binding
hole, squaring o? the piece with the edge of the
paper, and rounding off the ribbon for the front
20 end of the next piece.
2. The method of the preceding claim in which
the ribbon is provided with a coating of thermo
ribbon area, one discarded portion being the area
ing holes which consists in covering an area about
the size of a ?nger print on the binding margin 20
of a paper sheet with the forward end of a ribbon
of sheet metal foil, much thinner than the paper
plastic cement to avoid adhesive action in the
sheet, having the sheet contacting side of the
gripping step occurring back of the paper edge
metal foil supplied with cold thermo-plastic ce
25 and insuring adhesive action in the step of press
ing the overlapped part of the ribbon, said press
ing step including the application of heat with
the pressure on the overlapped portion.
3. The method of making and applying small
30 pieces of reenforcement material to loose leaf
sheets at their binding holes which consists in
feeding the reenforcement material in the form
of a narrow thermo-plastic cement coated ribbon,
?atwise and with its forward end overlapping the
35 small area of a binding hole location from the side
edge of the sheet, simultaneously pressing and
ment when it comes in contact with the covered 25
area, and with the materials in this relation and
condition simultaneously applying a hot iron over
the said covered area only, applying pressure over
said area to press the foil and paper together,
cutting off the metal foil along the marginal edge 30
of the sheet by punching out and discarding a‘
portion of said ribbon between that edge and a
new end of the ribbon to avoid’ conduction of
heat to the new end, and repeating the cycle of
operations for each paper hole reenforcement.
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