Патент USA US2135056код для вставки
Nov. 1, 1938. ‘F. s. SCHADE ‘ 2,135,056 METHOD FOR MAKING LOOSE LEAF BOOK SHEETS Original Filed Nov. 15, 1934 4 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR Wlwv ATTORNEYS , ' NOV‘ 1, 1938' ‘ F. s. SCHADE 2,135,056 METHOD vFOR MAKING LOOSE LEAF BOOK SHEETS Origihal Filed Nov. '15, 1934 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 a \ Q‘ - , INVENTOR I I 54 Ag?’ STANLEY SCHADE Ww+ 3mg, ATTORNEYS _ Nov. 1, 1938. F. S._SCHADE 2,135,056 METHOD FOR MAKING LOOSE- LEAF BOOK SHEETS Original Filed Nov. 15, 1934 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 . 22 /V A\\\ \\\\\\ 7W \\\\\\\ \\\\\\m¢ , Hi5. 75/97 1 @WW ' INVENTOR . I ?rm/v .STA/VLEXSCHA?Z BY" v ATTORNEYS I , Nov. 1, 1938. ‘ F. s. scHADE 2,135,056 METHOD FOR MAKING LOOSE LEAF BOOK SHEETS Original Filed Nov. 15, 1934 @g /9 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 26 ‘0 \\\\\\\\\\ \ \\ ‘\\\\ \\\\ \\\ lNVENTO-R /7PA/Bi4lr 8734/1415 ,v SCI/A05 Wf-WM * ATTORNEYS 2,135,955» Patented Nov. 1, 1.938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. ; . . . 2,135,056' . - (if ' METHOD FOR LOOSE LEAF BOOK SHE TS Frank‘Stanley Schade, Holyoke, Mass., assignor to National Blank Book Company, Holyoke, Mass. a corporation of Massachusetts Original application November I5, 1934, Serial No. - 753,111. Divided and this application May 18, 1935, Serial No. 22,153 4 Claims. (01'. 129-_1) My invention relates to a method of reenforcing the binding margins of sheets or leaves intended. for use with loose leaf binders and the like. The principal object of the invention is to re 5i‘ enforce such leaves, even when formed of thin 1 paper, in a manner to provide an adequate resist ance to tearing of the paper around the openings, through which the binding member or members pass, without materially or noticeably adding to ' the thickness of the sheet at the binding edge. The reenforcements heretofore available have taken the form of stripsor wafers of paper, cloth, or metal stock, glued or riveted to the paper edges; Except in the case of leaves of suf?cient thickness 15 ‘to permit the countersinking of the reenforcement in the material of the sheet, all of the prior re enforcements have added materially to the thick ness of‘ the binding edge ofthe sheet or leaf to which they are applied, both from the added 20 thickness of the reenforcement itself, which has’ form the capacity contents of a loose leaf binder there is no increased thickness at the binder edge of the stack which is discernible to the eye. While it is possible to roll sheets of metal to the requisite thinness, ?lms so produced have a tend ency to curl, which is objectionable. I have found that an electrolytically deposited ?lm stays ?at. I securethe metal ?lm to the sheet by means of a thermo-plastic cement‘ 'in a manner hereafter fully described, and in so doing do not add even measurablyitojthe thickness of the reenforced portion of the sheet. ' More speci?cally considered, my method in cludes certain preferred manipulative steps which are carried out by the device disclosed and claimed 151’. in my copending application Serial No. ‘753,111, ?led November 15, 1934, - of which the present application is a division. -> My method is easiest described with reference to the device of the above mentioned application, been substantial, and from the thickness of the V and such parts as are of assistance in understand- > adhesive coating or other means used to secure ing the method as a Whole are included in .the‘ac the reenforcement in place, which has at least companying drawings in which-— l is a front elevational view of a device for’ been appreciable. Since the only method hereto 25 ' fore known of securing a reenforcement which did not noticeably increase the thickness of the‘ leaf at its binding edge is applicable only to thick leaves capable of having the reenforcement em bedded in the thickness of the leaf itself,'this 30 .highly desirable feature has been unavailable in the cheap paper leaves of a thickness such as that of ordinary writing or typewriting paper which most needs reenforcement because of its thinness. My invention for the ?rst time makes it possible . to adequately reenforce the binding edges of these thin, widely used leaves'without any noticeable addition to their thickness, and further to do this as a factory operation at a cost which rendersi the reenforced sheets competitive in price‘with the 40 present unreenforced sheets. Broadly, and in brief, my method consists in applying to the binding edge of the sheet, or to the portions of that edge which are adjacent or surround the openings through which the bind 45 r ing mechanism passes, a ?lm of metal comparable in thinness and physical‘ characteristics to the metal coating which might be deposited on the paper by electro-deposition if it were commercial~ 1y possible to so treat these cheap leaves. A ?lm 50 of this character having a thickness of the order of l3/10,000'of an inch has been found to give adequate reenforcement at the binding edge, yet such a thickness is not discernible except by scienti?c instruments. Even when a large num 55 ber of so reenforced leaves are stackedtogether to carrying ‘out the method; 1 . j 7' Fig. 2 is a sectional view substantially on line 2—2 of Fig.1;- _ - ‘ ' Fig. 3 is a sectional view substantially on line 3'—3 ‘of Fig. 1, showing the parts in initial posi tion; 7 Figs. 4 to 7 inclusive are fragmentary views similar to Fig. 3, but showing the-parts in suc cessive operating positions; Fig. 8 is a view substantially on line 8-—8 of Fig. 3; 35 - -Fig. 9 is a fragmentary plan view showing a portion of the reenforced. edge of a sheet or leaf; _ and Figs. 10 and 11' are diagrammatic, exaggerated, sectional views of the reenforced portion of the leaf, illustrating the manner in which the metal ?lm‘is secured to the paper, but without intend ing to show the parts to scale. ' ’ ‘ As the ?rst step of my method I apply to one side of a sheet or strip I, formed from a ?lm of electrolytically deposited metal, preferably cop per, a coating of a thermo-plastic cement, indi cated at 2 in‘Fig. 10. This coating is too thin to be shown in the'Figures 2 to 7 inclusive, even though the thickness of the copper ?lm l and the paper sheet 3 in said ?gures is greatly exaggerated and the ?lm and sheet just indicated without any attempt to show relative thicknesses. There are a number of thermo-plastic cements on the market suitable for my purpose and I intend to 2 2,185,056 include within that term, as used in this speci?ca tion and the claims, such thermo-plastic mate rials as “bakelite”. The coating 2 is permitted to harden or set and in such hardened condition tends to slightly stiffen the: metal ?lm. In one satisfactory form the reenforcement as shown in Fig. 9 is in the form of a wafer-like portion of ?lm 5 surrounding the hole 6 through which the binder mechanism passes. The wafer, as shown, 10 is formed with a straight edge ‘I coinciding with sheet, as shown at the zone 25 in Fig. 11, so that upon cooling and setting of the sheet the metal ?lm is held to the sheet by the interlocking of the cement material in the paper and without any intervening layer of cement to increase the thick ness of the assembly. This ‘?lling of the inter stices of the paper with cement probably adds to the resistance of the paper to tearing at the re enforcement. It is again.emphasized that Figs. 10 and 11 are greatly exaggerated views and that 10 the edge of the paper sheet 3‘ and a rounded edge I the thicknesses actually being dealt with are 8 substantially concentric with the opening 6. The wafers are advantageously formed, at the time of their application to'the sheet, from a strip 15 of metal ?lm. The device shown in Fig. 1 is designed to simultaneously apply three wafers in desired spaced relation along the binding edge of the sheet. Each wafer is applied by an applying unit, the three units being designated as A, B, 20 and C in Fig. 1, and the sectional views of ‘unit A in Figs. 3 to 5 inclusive are applicable to all three units. The speci?c mechanism by which the operation of the individual units is timed and their simultaneous operation effected is fully de 25 scribed in the parent case and need not be de scribed here. Referring to Figs. 2 to '7 inclusive, a strip I of coated ?lm is fed to each of the applying units from a suitable roll supply (not shown) between lfeed rolls Ii and I2 to the applying units. These feed rolls are intermittently driven, by any suit able means, to advance the ‘strip the length of one wafer at each operation. The feed rolls push the strip into a guide member If: which guides it > to the point of application. The feed rolls I I and I2 are respectively provided with convex and con cave surfaces so as to bend the weak strip slightly in transverse section as it feedsit to the guide I4, as the strip in this form better sustains the strain incident to pushing the strip into and through the guide I4 which delivers it in its original ?at form. Referring to Fig. 3, the parts are shown at the start of the applying operation. The strip is in guide Id in position to be fed forward. The leaf or paper sheet 3 is positioned with the edge which is to be reenforced against a shoulder I6 formed on the base of the unit. Upon the operation of the feed rolls the strip is advanced, as shown in 50 Fig. 4, into overlapping relation with the mar ginal portion of the sheet 3,: the thermo-plastic coating carried by the stripbeing between the strip and sheet. In this position the overlapping portion of the strip underlies a heated presser bar ' I8, through which a punch I9 operates, and. the adjacent portion of the strip underlies a cutting member 20 and a stripper or- holding member 2|. The bar I8 applies a yielding pressure by means of springs or the like, not shown. The heated presser bar is next brought down onto the overlapping portions of the strip and sheet as shown in Fig. 5, and remains in this position during the remainder of the applying operation. The result of this application of heat and pressure is best described by reference to the highly exaggerated sectional views in ‘Figs. 10 and 11. > Referring to Fig. 10, the strip I with its hard ened thermo-plastic coating 2 is shown in over 70 lapping relation with the sheet 3 ready for the application of heat and pressure by the bar I8. The heat from the, bar readily transmitted through the thin metal ?lm I softens the thermo plastic coating 2 and in this condition it is forced 75 'into the interstices between the ?bers of the paper exceedingly small. The thickness of the coating 2 is measurable on the strip I by means of scien ti?c instruments, but after the strip has been applied to the paper as described the coating 2 15 is not measurably present at the reenforced area of. the sheet, even by the aid of such instruments. ‘ While the bar I8 is functioning to secure the metal ?lm to the paper as above described, a holding member 2I and cutter 20, carried by a 20 vertically reciprocating head 22, are moved down wardly. The member 2I is cushioned by a spring 23 and, contacting with strip I in advance of the cutter, clamps the strip while the cutter severs the strip, as shown in Fig. 6, spring 23 yielding 25 as the cutter advances. As best shown in Fig. 8, the member 2| is round in cross-section, and cutter 20 which ?lls the space between member 2I and bar I8 is provided with an arcuate face 25 sliding on member 2| and a plane face 26 slid 301 ing on the adjacent face of bar I8. The edge of face 26 severs the strip ?ush with the edge of sheet 3 to form edge ‘I of the wafer while the arcuate face forms a- curved edge on the end of strip I which will become the edge 8 of the wafer 35' to be applied by the next operation. Fixed in the head 22 and moving with the cut ter 20, the punch I9 passes through the opening 30 in bar I8 and punches ‘hole 6 through the now severed wafer 5 and thepaper sheet. Openings 32 and 33 formed in the base 34 respectively re ceive the punch and cutter and provide channels of escape for the waste from the punching and cutting operations. ' The parts are now returned to original posi tion and, aswill be clear from Fig. '7, the mem ber 2I remains in position until the punch and cutter have been withdrawn. After member 2I has been raised, the bar I8 is lifted, thus restor ing the partsto the starting position of Fig. 3, and the sheet, with the reenforcement of its bind ing edge completed as shown in Fig. 9, is re moved. It will be noted that the cutting and punching operations take place during the time that the 55 heat and pressure of bar I8 are securing the metal ?lm to the paper so that the time consumed for the whole operation is minimized. It will also be noted that the metal ?lm is securely clamped at both sides of the cutter when the latter operates, and that there is no slack between the clamping means (bar I8 and member 2|) and the cutter 20, since the latter completely ?lls the gap be tween bar I8 and member 2|. Other sequences of ‘the operative steps could be 65 followed, but that above described is preferred as best controlling the critically thin metal ?lm and providing the reliability and certainty necessary for a commercially practical factory operation. I claim: ' , l. The method of reenforcing small areas of binding hole locations in paper sheets which con sists in moving a narrow ribbon of metal foil ?at wise at right angles to the edge of the paper until the ribbon covers only a small. area of the paper 70 2,135,056 at a binding hole location, pressing the over lapped portion of the ribbon hard and flatwise 3 heating the overlapped portion of the ribbon over its whole area for sticking such portion and against the paper and also gripping a portion of the ribbon to hold it tightly a short distance back of the paper margin and while so pressed and then by substantially simultaneous operations, die cuttingand discarding two portions of the gripped, perforating the hole in the ribbon and paper and also stamping out the piece of the ribbon immediately back of the edge of the paper of the reenforced hole within the binding hole location and the other discarded portion being an area starting from the edge of the paper and extending rearwardly of the ribbon to arc-shaped cut across the ribbon, whereby the ribbon by such 10 successive feeding and cutting operations on it will repeatedly supply an arc-shaped front edge to avoid corners of the reenforcing material within the area of the reenforced margin in suc cessive applications of applying the small reen 15 forcement pieces to loose leaf sheets. 4. The method of making improved loose leaf paper book sheets having metal reenforced bind to round o?f the end of the ribbon for a successive 10 feeding step, and square off the paper overlapping portion with the edge of the paper, said stamped out piece being the area of the ribbon between the pressure area of the overlapped portion and the gripping contact of the ribbon a short distance 15 back of the overlapped portion whereby the re enforcing pieces are successively made from the ribbon by simultaneously punching the binding hole, squaring o? the piece with the edge of the paper, and rounding off the ribbon for the front 20 end of the next piece. 2. The method of the preceding claim in which the ribbon is provided with a coating of thermo ribbon area, one discarded portion being the area ing holes which consists in covering an area about the size of a ?nger print on the binding margin 20 of a paper sheet with the forward end of a ribbon of sheet metal foil, much thinner than the paper plastic cement to avoid adhesive action in the sheet, having the sheet contacting side of the gripping step occurring back of the paper edge metal foil supplied with cold thermo-plastic ce 25 and insuring adhesive action in the step of press ing the overlapped part of the ribbon, said press ing step including the application of heat with the pressure on the overlapped portion. 3. The method of making and applying small 30 pieces of reenforcement material to loose leaf sheets at their binding holes which consists in feeding the reenforcement material in the form of a narrow thermo-plastic cement coated ribbon, ?atwise and with its forward end overlapping the 35 small area of a binding hole location from the side edge of the sheet, simultaneously pressing and ment when it comes in contact with the covered 25 area, and with the materials in this relation and condition simultaneously applying a hot iron over the said covered area only, applying pressure over said area to press the foil and paper together, cutting off the metal foil along the marginal edge 30 of the sheet by punching out and discarding a‘ portion of said ribbon between that edge and a new end of the ribbon to avoid’ conduction of heat to the new end, and repeating the cycle of operations for each paper hole reenforcement. 35 FRANK STANLEY'SCHADE.