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Патент USA US2135096

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Now 1‘,
G. M‘.‘ BELLANcA _ I
7 2,135,096
- AIRPLANE
' Original Filled March 22, 1934 y
Y‘ s‘ sneets-shéet‘ 1 '
2.135.096
Patented Nov.’ 1, 1938 _
,. _' ‘
ens»;
‘ eaivewcduebei.
.Appllcation'March 22,v >934, Serial No. nasal
I‘
BenewedwMarch 22,'~>1938»:.Zv
‘a p," is
112414-31)“.
combinationsvshownll-in dreams add-area
1 described in the specification; it being understood
‘ This invention relates ‘to improvements in air- -
‘ planes, and more particularly'to improved ?aps
a
' and ‘combinations of ‘airfoils and ?aps:
that these'combinations are given asillustrative
of‘ the principle involvedrather than'as restrictive
'
’ The advantages of a high lift jc'oemcient during
j 5 landing and takeoifs, coupled ‘with a reduced '00-‘:
'
i
, de?nitions‘ of - given; mechanism.
‘
r In ordertomor'e clearly explainythelinvention, '
efficient during normal‘?ight,‘ have long- beenape t
' preciated by airplane ‘designers. Many s'ugges-u > physical embodiments are ' shown in the‘ accom
> I tions have been advanced as to'the best‘methods .‘ panying drawings, in" which:
of attaining these results. of themany proposals v ~ 1 , Figure 1’ is a- top, plan view, ofone type of plane
‘10 there are two which have-achieved not aniinconé‘ embodyingthe principles of the present invention. 10
Figure 2 isa front e'levationof the plane shown
‘siderable success in? actualpperation.‘ "These are
‘
,in Figure
" '
the‘slotted wing and the ?ap.
' ,‘ ‘
1 Figure :3; isqa'nt enlarged
on line
‘ V The flap, so called,’ inits broadest aspect is ‘in
‘
34-4 of'Figure 2.
‘e?ect a device which’ changesthee?’ective‘curvae ‘
‘ ‘
being‘ opened downwardly of the ‘wing‘,‘-the v‘result ‘1 jwingwcellule.
a
_
plansection of “ an. improved 15 '
1
-‘
g
;.
'
_
,
Figure 5 is, anielevationof the;portion of the
is that the wing surfaces ‘are made more concave,“
‘
a
' Finite-‘:4 isiajtop
ll ture of the wing; When'the‘?ap is operated‘ by ~
" Q‘ ‘ giving in effect a high‘cainbered 1wing‘,and 'result- ‘ structureshownf in ‘Figure 4; a
‘Figure 6 Iisian enlarged cross ‘sectional detail
ingin an increase in lift.“ ‘This is true whether a1"
¢ 20 leading edge ‘or a trailing edge-?ap is considered. a taken on line 3-8 'of‘Fig'ure 5.; .1
20'
Figure 'l. is a ‘.plan'view of yet another‘ modi?ca
> The change in‘ curvature is‘ of course ‘greatly ac-'-~
‘ ‘centuated if both a leading and a trailing edge ~> tion of the invention,- utilizing' the flap and an
'fiap' are mounted on the onewing.
‘ '
‘improved-type ofaileron;
‘ 25 'increasedlift is‘ an increased drag.- This‘, how-‘
“ '
'
1Figure 8 is a front elevation
Upon operation of a ?ap,-‘a concomitant of the‘
in-Figure'l.
- ever,‘ is a real advantage, for the increase in drag ‘l ”
1.
v‘
ofithe device shown
a
1
.25
Figure 94s an enlargedcross sectionaldetail -
permits a ‘steeper gliding angle at lower landing ‘ taken-lioniline
> Figure lOis 1‘8-‘-8-‘of
a top plan
Figure
view‘ 8.2.v
of yet: another
i " type ‘
“speeds.
‘ "
_-
I
'
of wing cellule embodying .the present invention.
While the utilization of a flap‘does present some
'30‘ advantages, they are not‘without inherent‘disad
‘ ‘vantages. The employmentofthis extra mech-‘
anism naturally adds weight to‘ the plane. ‘It has
vFigure 11 is a‘ front elevation of the part shown 30
I in Figure-.10.”
Figure 12 is an enlarged cross section talren on
' ‘ been found also that‘ when the flaps are moved to . line l‘2-v-‘l2 of Figure 11.‘ a
v
the operative position the’airplane is more di?i- i » Figure 13‘is a plan‘view of a wing cellule some
. 35
$5 cult ' to control; > A‘niajorireason" for‘ this ‘is that: ~whatsimilarto that shown in Figure‘ 10; v " Fig. 14i's’a‘ front elevation ofithe partvshown
' as the ?ap is depressed,the‘ center of pressure on
the wing is displaced. This of course is a decided‘
" Fig; :15 is an enlarged cross section taken on"
disadvantage, inasmuch as it'changes or modifies
the balance of the airplane. ‘Another drawback ‘
> 40 of such ?aps is that uponoperationthe air ?ow ‘ f
in the rear of the trailing edge of‘ ‘the wing is.
Fig. .16 is a plan view of yet another modi?cation 40
of the invention.‘
. disturbed or rendered more turbulent,- andthis Y ~‘ The fundamental concept. of .the present‘inven
considerably reduces the ‘eii'ectiveness'of; the em- . tion is to obtain the advantagesimdlap operation,
while using a‘simple‘form 'To?splitifnap, and yet '
pennage surfaces and particularly the stabilizer.
Y“ * It is-an object of the'present‘ invention to im
obtain optimum e?ect fronethei'controlsurfaces 45v '
prove the operation of arrairplane by utilizing the
split ?ap principle and correlating this with other
factors. of design."
‘
such asltheailerons. Within the spirit of the pres
ent inventionf'are comprehended a ‘number of
"different speci?c arrangements of 'E'Sombinations
Another object is to provide ‘ an airplane in ‘ wherebyi- thisresult may be1secured,-. namely the
'50 which ?aps are ‘associated in a novel manner with retention of full effectiveness ofgaileron surraces 50
control
surfaces.
>_
.;
.
_
_ r
_ ‘
while'nevertheles's securing the full advantagesjnl
Another object is to provide a novel type of wing ?ap operation,»
cellule' utilizing‘a split ?ap.
‘
'
' It is known to those smned in the irt-tha one
. With these and other equally important objects I of the disadvantages. of the incorporation of?aps
:55 in ‘view, the invention comprehends the several ‘upon ‘airplanes has been the ‘undesirableeffect 55v
2
8,185,096
incidence may be varied and the effective lift
thereby changed to serve as a control surfaceor
upon control surfaces, rendering these as a gen
eral rule, less effective than before the installa
tion of the flap. According to the principles of
the present invention, the full advantages of the
aileron.
.
3
,
of novel types of control surfaces which are spe
It will'be appreciated that by utilizing such a
member, the incorporation of the ?ap and the 5
utilization of the flap principle becomes relatively
simple. In a sense, the aileron l is considerably
ci?callydesigned not only in respect of the struc
displaced from the iiap and whatever the posi
two devices may be secured.
‘
The invention also cgmprehends the provisio
ture' but ‘also their operation, tolcounterbalance tion ofthe ?ap a .smoothuninterrupted flow of
10 or nullify the disadvantages of. the ?ap.‘ This
air over the aileron '4‘ obtains. ' If desired, it will 10
be appreciated that each lift strut 3 and the lift
strut 4 may be employed'as control or aileron
principle will be more readily comprehendedupon
a consideration of several mechanical structures
in which these advantageous results are secured. . surfaces. The method of connecting these up for
As shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3,. the ,advantages 1 simultaneous operation to perform this function
of split flap operation may be secured without ‘will immediately be perceived .by those‘ skilled in
any drastic modi?cations of ‘the main sustenaw the art. If \desired also the aileron 3 may be
mounted for rotation and utilized not as an ai
‘ tion surfaces by utilizing a new type ‘of control
leron but as ameans forlcompensating for the
surface and byproperly positioning this with re
» spectto the location of the flap. ' In order to "shift in the center ‘of pressure on the wing 2, due '
"20 clarify andv simplify the‘idescription, ‘there are , to the operation of theflap 8. Asis known, when 2‘
i-‘~shown in the» drawing only those'portions of an
the?ap I is depressed, the e?ectivecurvature of _
-' airplane which are essential to an understanding
the wing is increased and an increased lift re-U
‘ > of the ‘invention. "In all of the._=?gures, merelyria
vsuits. However, a-concomitantof this increased"
portion of the-fuselage and the wing ‘surfaces are liftand/or the change of the curvature is a shift
’
25 shown. ' It will be understood,‘ however, that these- ‘in {the center of pressure ,of the wing. 2. This
‘figures are intended to illustrate a completely op.-. shift tends to vunbalance the plane. In the'pres
erative machine-‘ The; conventional elements ent‘ invention. 1 however, this _ unbalance 1 is_ com
such as power plant, propeller, and empennage _.pensa_ted for?and equilibrium attained by'a' cor
1 structure arew'ell known to those skilled‘in the: "relation of factors including the effect of the
As shown in Figure l,‘ anairplane made=in ac
downwashlon the, tail surfaces, due tothe op
eration of the flaps, and the rotation of the sup
* cordancé with the present'invention >may com,
;plemental wing {about its axis. It 'willbe‘ ob
30
:art, and are vcontemplated here‘;
'
I .
prise a fuselage ‘I provided with‘ the essential ape ‘ wserved?therefore, that this type of'plane provides
pendages,‘ not shown;'_ Suitably secured to the
for improved operation. The main wings 2 may
bemounted highin the fuselage. While they are 3;
the'fuselage. ~ ~_._sh_own- attached to an; upper portion of the fuse
35 fuselage are the main wings 2. Preferably-these
are secured atan upper portion of
Secured to a lower‘portion of, thefuselage and . lag?ltswill of course be appreciatedthat they
extending upwardly ata decided positive dihedral 1 may, be spaced above; the _ fuselage and " suitably
angle are the strut .wingsi ia'ndL: Preferably ,secured' to. it through the medium. of . cabane
these terminate shortof the underside of ‘the .struts. By positioning the main wing high on the '4‘
wings andlare attached‘to thezwings by‘suitable, -_ fuselage or by spacing it above the fuselage, it
tension means 5 and bracing means 6; The‘front will be appreciated that the depression of the
~ strut wing3 is of airfoil form and is provided with, - traiiingrflap will ‘increase the downwash on the
suitable structural ‘elements such as..spar's and tail surfaces thusyimposing a-fo'rce tending to
ixribs, whereby its functions'as a strutand also -_as .. compensate for the shift in the‘ centerv of pres
1'40
an, airfoil are-subserved.
The liftwstrut 4 may ,
be of'the same general design as the'lift strut I,
sure on, the main wing.‘ With this is correlated
the position and/or movement of theiairfoils 3
- - but differs from it in being mounted for rotation V and l which serve. further to minimize the longi
‘ about the ‘axial. The main wing is constructed.
tudinal unbalancing effect due to the operation
of the. flaps. By employing this relatively high
~position onthe main sustenation surfaces and a
split flap, pivotedfor rotation on the pivot ‘.1 relatively low position ‘of the ailerons, the maxi
Suitable transmission mechanism extends from; mum control effect ‘of the ailerons ‘is secured
without ailerons, but is providedfwith the-?ap I.
. .This ‘?ap: may be. of anyv form; 'it is shown as a. .
‘
the: flap 8 to the cockpit,.by.reason of which the whatever the position of ‘the flap. ‘
'
?apis operated. .As shown ‘in Figure 1,‘the ?ap: .The major advantages abovepointedoutmay'm
may extend the full span of theiwing. IfI de die secured _.,with other and specifically different
.
' sired of course the flap may be terminated short, ,
of the wing span, and instead of being rectilinear, - '
i
t.
structures. ;An example of such structure is
shown in Figuresei, 5 and 6. In these figures, as‘
as showngmay be of any desired con?guration. . It :in Figure l. the structure includeskthe fuselage I,
60 is to be observed that the'main wing 2 is not pro-Y. :with which are'associated the necessary elements .6,
videcl with the usual type of aileron. ,Controlis \(not-shown) such as landing gear, power plant
secured by utilizing the lift struts l ‘as ailerons, and propeller, empennage units andvso forth.
'By rotating these about their axes on one side -. _' Similarly to the device shownin Figure l, the
or the other of theiplane, it will immediately be
airplane shown in Figure 4 is provided with the
65 appreciated thata rolling moment may be given ‘ main wings {which are properly ?lleted at the 65
to
the
airplane.
'~
‘
,
_
.
g
'
_
It will be appreciated in these circumstances
' ‘ that themember 4_ subservesa number of func=
tions.
In the first place, in normal ‘horizontal
fuselage as indicated at 2'. The wing is provided
with the trailing edge ?ap.8 hinged to the under
side of the ‘main wing either on or-adjacent the
.rear spar. The ?ap-.maykextend any predeter
70 ?ight it actsv as an air sustenation surface, add- 7 mined distance along the span of the. wing; as 7‘
ing materially to the lift ofthe-plane. In an ‘shown, it extendsthe full span of the wing.
‘angle ofbank, due to itsdihedral setting, its hori
Associated with the fuselage and the main wing
zontal equivalent increases and thus imposes
is‘the'aileronwing Hi; This preferably tenni
automatically increased lift on 'ithe-low side. By ‘nates short of theunder surface of the main wing
‘Ill rotating this member about its axis, its angle of as at i I and is securely attached} to structural ele- 74
,
3
~ ' mam‘
‘ “ ‘merits of the ‘wing suchas the spare; byzthe se-._-‘:~‘ made,
curing means I! ‘and1'l3. -Theiwingzmay‘ befof»
particularlye?ective in‘ a plane of, the,
:tm-SMWM
Thelift strut I8 is so ‘designed,
,
o
V
.
any’ desired span and chordfdependingupon the- 7 ,both- with-qrespect“ to size and attitude, as to‘
compensatev for, the‘ shift in the center‘ofjpres
characteristics of the particularlplane on' which it
fit is to be'mounted, and the, control e?EectJand/or 3‘ sure on ,the main“ wing ‘a due,’ to" the operation of
described. this compensation, is cor
the degree of maneuverabilityidesired; Theailerey
- on wing" H) which isfshownvisfof the long. narrow‘: related .withthat resulting iron: ‘the effect of l
surfaces due to the
type and‘is’somewhat tapered; Whilethis type-l: ‘the ;downwash;on the
operation of ?ap
1, combination, ’ there
is'not as lei?cient as isfthe short aileron in pro
ducing a roll ‘for a given ‘angle of throw, never-v , ‘fore, in‘ eifect‘ comprises ,a ‘wing ceiule in which
"?lthe‘less ‘it ‘is very effective for all practicalipurie a flap {is operative “but in; which an airfoil of
appreciable
‘poses and has ‘ the ‘ advantage 1 of » requiring 'lessl {1
.10
r-provided, the ‘center of
‘ ‘ effort on‘the part‘of ithe‘i‘pilotj due to the smaller ~v pressure of whichyis substantially __unaifected by
‘moments about‘ the hinge pin. .- It will readily be thee-operation oirthe z?ap on the main wing. ,It 15
':;will thusbe; understood by those skilled in the
15 appreciated that the effective area‘v of th‘e'iwing III art that [theinitialisetting'of the .‘wing sections
may be modi?ed by a designer to'confo'rm’to his '
> particularg'fidea‘s as tol‘the mosteffective wing-1::v liyandjimay, bem‘ade withrespect to the shift
' aileron area‘ ratio. :1
' .
i
v
._ l l
gin the center of pressure orrthearea of the center
.
s
The ‘wing Ill‘ ismounted for rotation on the = ofv pressure; of the main wing,»the areaof the cen 20
axisill, which is'shown as 'approximate'lyvin the» ter as“ modi?ed by a the effect I of u the. downwash.
' area of‘the center'of pressure of the aileron wing.
due‘ to‘the ‘operation of the flap.‘ This type of
The‘: actuation of the‘ flap» 8 increases the ‘lift on
ly,- its eifect in unbalancing the plane due to the
wash‘ on- the taill'surfaces 'which thus "compena 1
?concept involvedlingthe design of, ‘the other modi
The operation of'thi's type'-of=-airplane is, in ‘structure, .~ therefore, _ largely ,mini'miz'es "one of
essentials; the ‘same-as that shown in Figure 1. , the outstanding disadvantages" of , the‘ flap, name
the wing 2.‘ As pointed out hereinbeforeydepres-t'y tshift'in‘ the center of _,pressure on theywing as
'sion of the ‘?ap ‘materially increases thedowne'v } sociated lwiththe :il'ap.v Similarly to the major
Isates in some degree ~forthe‘shlft in the'center‘ ?cations, the aileron-surface is so positioned as
to maintain its~full1eifectivenesa'despite the
of'pressjure on the main wing.~ Further compena
?ap, ‘8._ ‘Ashes, been previously 30
jsation or‘- nuili?cation {of this’shift in pressure f positionohthe.
is secured due?tolthe position and or. potential described,- the lift strut l?ilmayibe mounted for’
i-rotationalong its chord and maybe operated
movement ‘of the'airfoil I0; Thus full effective
ness of the longitudinal’ control lsurfaceslis se ' eithermanuallyorautomaticallyv to vary its'angle _
‘the operation
cured. _ By rotating the strut wing in on one side‘ .' of- incidence simultaneously
.35
of thet?ap, senate-compensate for crnullify
as of‘ the plane‘ to‘ properly change ‘its angle of irr
~ cidence; a rolling moment may be imported‘ to
vqthe unbalance effected, ‘by the operation :of the
A
‘ ‘the entire‘ plane; "It is to lie-‘observed also that
.?ap.
A
a
>
'
'
Yet other» types offrapparatus ‘ may: be con
“the ‘aileron wing in 'is-located within the vertical" structed
.which- include the novel principles of the
plane ‘includinglthe shiftinglcenter of pressure ,~presentinvention.r
'An example of such a :struc
of the main wing 2.» vThis aileron wing therefore
jtendsto minimize theltendency of an unbalanced
condition dueto the change‘v in- the‘center "of '
‘pressure.
"
"
-
>
ture isshown in Figures 10, ligand 12.‘
in
,-crthe_.other devices; thisrstructure'includes a fuse
.llag'e, Ll, a-.:main-upper; wing 2, astub wing i5
‘ and a lift;v strut l5 iconnected'athone' end, to the
'
Another method of ‘securing the full advantage
(if-“thev ilap' ‘ while ‘ yet retainingthe maximum: under side‘of the mainrwing, and at the other
to ‘the-.7 stub wing section ‘ 15$; Iff‘desire'd, the wing l
' effectiveness of ‘the aileron surface is illustrated"? gcellulev may be rigidi?ed by using,,;the inter-plane
"inlthe device shown‘inll‘lgures *7, 81a’nd‘9;
this device memamwmgz-is attached“ as de-.'.
.
- scribed to the fuselage i.> This“ main‘ wing- is,
bracing members i‘i.‘ lnrtlfiisvtypessbf-lplane, as
vin; the. otherskthe aileron-is displaced a suf
provided ‘with a nap 8-‘ extending any desired; M?cientdistance from'the?ap to,‘ insure its e?icient
length‘ of the‘ spam: Associated with the maini " operation,» regardless ofeti'iev “position of the
‘ ‘ wing‘ isastub ‘wing'section l5'and' the; positive One method of accomplishing this,_as shown
A
50.
’ ‘ dihedral'section "I61"i The ‘wing cellule~may be
l
?ap.
par
ticularly inFigure 12, is to mount the split flap:
8 upon the underside of__ the main wing ‘2. l The
additionally strengthened by utilizing interlplane rallerons
maybe’ embodiedlinithe stuhwing or.
braces as‘indicated at» I1; As shown inFigure 1'7;
f the wing section ‘It i's-preferably tapered toward .the lift‘ strut ‘or-‘hath; For-purposes of illustra
' "the tip ‘and islsecured to the'underside of the ?ution, fit ‘ is shown only, as,‘ associated with the lift
" ‘main ‘wing'in a manner similar to or comparable“ strut" vAS shown in Figurel12‘,'the_ aileron 20 is
‘3 with theattachment ‘shown in’ Figures ‘1 andn4'.-: , , ,iviotally _ connected ‘at thef-tfalliviig edge ‘of the
‘strut airfoilv v4 6. .
aileron , maybe .hinged to
60 man of~these structures the'purpose‘vof such, A:“this strut, in, thegusual . inaher. and loperated‘ by
_ " an attachment is to diminish ‘interference effects:
mechanism; Sin‘c'ethe lift strut is
"between the upper surface of‘ithe lift‘strut and, “conventional
of rather‘large area~,‘it
‘readily ‘be perceived
‘
" the under surface ‘b'fthe main wing;
thatsby-rmounting ailerons‘vat the" trailing por
t’tion‘o!
the liftjstrutgsu?icient control‘ area may
j aileron~ ‘surface is displaced from the main wing.
' :becsecured; _It will be observed ‘that this type
V
6
‘
‘
In
the
device shown‘ in Figures "7,
In
8~and9 the»
this particular'case the/aileron ‘leis mounted rofplanej presents improved operation. When the
position above the wing “by! meansrof the
.plane isinnormal horizontal: flight in the air
andthe splitrflap ‘831s closed,- bothjllé wing sec
cockpit. By positioning the aileron above the. tions, Iiand li'contribute tothe lifts The wing
,10 wing and the ‘flap on the lower surface, it will; lsection‘ii; {due to its‘ dihedral setting, tends to
be appreciated that operation ofthe flap does not (render thefplane, automaticallystable and ma
at ‘a
_
n
' aileron braces 19." Theaileron may be'rotated' by‘
means of actuating mechanism extending to the
materially '. affect ‘ the air, ‘?ow '- over. the \ aileron;
, terially » checks‘ sidesllp, it Lateral; control
or
maneuverability ‘of the pianeislsecured by oper
aj‘combinatio'n ofi'?ap anda displaced-aileronis ating?thelaileronstl?ninjthe usual manner.‘ As
"and hence does not diminishits e?lciency. Such,
f
'
4
1 “12,135,096
,
noted above, the rolling moment development by "is : not modi?ed by the operation-of the, ?ap, the >
the aileron 20 onthe lift strut l6, may'be‘supple- ' balance of-the plane is not seriously affected.
While the structures shown in Figures 4,7, .10
‘ mented by ailerons'mounted upon the stub wing
When the flap 8 'is‘operated‘by being de-> f and 13 'includea single 1m strut, it willbe'under;
pressed, the effective lift of the ‘upper wing 2 is stood that the principle of operation involved
increased. Any turbulence‘ or disturbanceiof air» " in these apparatus maybeutilized onv planes
H em
" l5.
'
?ow caused
by the ?ap; 18 has" no material "effect
upon the "aileron 2ll,.due to therather‘wide spac
w bodying twoor more struts,‘ such for example as
" is shown in Figure 1.’ In such cases, one or both
Y o ‘of the vlift struts maybe mounted for rotation
,It will be observed ,fromithe showing in Figures. .so as-to jointly serve as aileronslor-lcontrol sur
" 10V and 12 that the aileron‘y’2ll ‘extends to a’ posi
faces,, or, as described, one ‘may be employed
:ing' of displacement of these two,"i ‘
" tionouite close to'the-underside of the'main‘wing; ‘ as an~.aileron and the other'may be availed of
It ‘will be understood-that ‘this position" may be as a means of automatically restoring the ‘longi
varied within rather'wide limits, depending v*upon ; tudinal balance of the-plane due to the shift in
the‘ desires of the designer."v It'will be observed _ the center; of pressureonthe wing onwhich the v15
that a-device is ‘shoWninTFigures-IO to 12 in
which‘ the aileron extends 'close'to- the upper‘ ~ In the devices shown in Figures 1 to 15, in
wing and that whenthe ‘aileron is in the up ‘elusive, the split flap and ailerons are shown as '
positionthe air ‘flow'is‘restricted‘and' there is ‘being mounted on separate wingmembers or, as
thus produced a desirable yawing e?'ect. >-It will‘ in the caseof Figure9 they aremountedvon the 20.
also‘ be observed'jthat in this structure as in the same wing member and. relatively ,widelyrlspaced.
others, ‘the vwing surface [6 may be so positioned vIt will be'appreciated that the major advantages ‘
with respectto-the‘upper wing l2 vas'to largely ' of the. present invention may be secured with
flap is
2,0
compensate for the shiftinj the center of pres
mounted.
-
.l
v
,
,-
a
.
yet/‘other structures such was onein which the
g
sure on the maini'wing 2.];In
other words, the, split flap, and the aileron are mounted on the
' ' wing settingbf the wing section ‘l6 maybe es
same main wing; An example of such structure
‘_ tablished not only“ with regard to its effective is shown in Figure 16.. In the deviceshown in
'ness as a wing ‘surface, ‘but also its effect in " this ?gure, theairpiane may include the‘fuselage
stabilizing the airplane-when the flap} isioper > I; the; upper main wing 2 and thelife strut 3.
.
25'
‘
25'
at'ed. ‘This effect can be made 'quite- marked,_ . l The root section of the main wing is._provided 30'
particularly in'view of the fact'that' the wing E with the split?ap 23 suitably pivoted to a struc
‘ section I6 is largely within the vertical-plane of - tural part of- the wing, and the aileron 24' is ,
‘the center of pressure‘of the: main wing. ' '
x mounted for pivotal movement at the outer or
,
j The‘ fundamental advantages" of an ’ airplane
35 constructed as shown in Figures 10,’ 11 and 12
tip end ofthe wing. .-,
I
-. "
-
‘It will be seen; that the majorvfactors of opera
.tion hereinbefore described irapplyin the present
may be secured in another'manner, such‘for ex‘
ample as is shown in Figures 13, 14, and 15. In‘ ' case. By properly positioning the ‘lift-strut‘ 3
these ?gures the airplaneicomprise's the fuselage - .~ with respect to the normal center of pressure of
35
'- I, main wing 2, stub ‘wing l5 and lift'strut l6. . the main'wing and properly correlating its wing
main ‘winginay be considered a "conven
setting, it will be appr'eciatedthat material shifts
.40 'The"
tional wing formed‘ with the conventional‘ aileron
. inthe center‘of pressure onrthe main wing, due‘_
"2G mounted,;as‘shown,"at1the trailing edge of ; tothe ‘operation of the flap, can be in a large
the main wing for anaappi'jeciable portion'of its measure compensated.
~ '
span. I This aileron is operated by controls well'
_ .While‘in most of the ?gures of vthedrawings V
known‘ to thoseskilled inthe art. ‘ The lift strut" .a high wing- monoplanehas, been described, it
‘l6; and if desired the-stub wing l5,‘are~provided ;will'be understood that, the, principle described . 45
hereinmay be utilized with a low wing mono
I with the'split ?aps 2| and 22. These ?aps may
' be of conventional vform and are pivotally mount-1
plane. Invsuch circumstances, ,the. main wing
ed' upon'a-structural element of the airfoil sur-w may bev attached to a low part of the fuselage
F50
face. 'Inthis type of construction, it will imme-. , and strut wings 3 may be secured tojthe upper
diatelyjbe perceived that theiadvant'ages of flap part .of the fuselage and extend downwardly at 50
‘ operation are‘secured while ‘yet maintaining the. ,a negative dihedral angleto be attached by suit
' full e?ect of'aileron operation.
The-wing sec
able meansto the upper surface of the main low
'tion l5 occupies ‘a relatively-low position on the , .win‘g'; In other words,-;in a sense, they position
‘wing
fuselage
surface
and depression
does notimaterially
of'the :?ap'22
aii'ectthe
below this
air ; of the main and strutnwi'ng shown, for example, .55
inv Figures 1 ‘and 5, may be inverted or reversed.
flow over the stabilizer " audit elevator. i-The ?ap
vItwillalso be appreciated that in a combina
to
2| "on the‘ wingsection l6}, ‘while occupying a .tion: of the characterdescrlbed, additional bene
flcial functions are obtainable. . For example, the
' distance-laterally of; the fuselage, hence burbling. . lifts'truts may bepivoially mounted at the fuse
“higher position; is nevertheless spaced quite: a...
or turbulence caused‘ by operation ‘of ‘the’ ?ap .2.I'
lage‘and-atvor near theiritiplend, so as to be
does not" 'aifect‘jthe air flow‘ "over - the ‘ empennage rotatable. The lift struts'ma’ybeconnected to
structure to‘any‘considerable extent;
'
controlmeanswithinthe cockpit and the mount
j ' While the ?ap12l' has beenshown as ‘of rela- 1 ing. of the lift struts, and the associated control ~
tiv'ely small dimensions andv being mounted on’v means may be so correlated as'tolutilizev the lift
'the rearvspari of the ‘Wing“e1em‘ent"|6, it will:' Lstrutsas ?oating ailerons. ‘In thesecircum
' readily be‘ appreciated; thatI itv may be‘of any - stances, maximum aileron control is secured even
‘desired sizesand" shape. ~>It will be further athigh or exaggerated angles ofgattack when the
understood ‘that the ?aps 2| ‘and 22 ‘on each mainn-wing approaches its position of vminimum
sideof the plane may be operated simultaneously
"lift.
~"
~
.
-,
,
-
.
70
shown in Figures 13, 14 and '115,l'the operation of. the present invention any. desired type of ?ap
' the?ap will of coursecause a "shift of the center J may be employed-‘ The flap 8 shownin the sev
of pressure above'the' wings "15 'and -‘ I6. I" Since, eral?gures in thezdrawing comprises a member,
however, the centerof'pressure on the main wing :nested inits inoperative-position, withinthe con 75
‘ or separately and successively. In" the ‘device
Itwill be ‘understood that within the scope of ~
e
aiaaooe
I
'
3
-,
.
‘I
5
tour of the main wing and pivotal about a point ~‘ the attitude of the other said airfoil to'c'ompen
on the main wing. This nap. however, may be ; ‘sate for changes in the center of pressure on
spaced from the main wing and may be of a com- _
the main wing due to theoperation of ‘the flap.
pound movement type.- In short, any desired -. _ 2. An ‘airplane comprising a fuselage; a main
type‘ or character of flap maybe employed herein. ‘wing attached to ahigh point of the fuselage at
each side thereof.,- a plurality of rotatable lift
‘ It will be manifestgthat in all of the modi?ca
tions shown the fundamental ‘principle ‘is' the ; struts on each side of the fuselage and attached
same, namely, the concf?ot of securing'full‘value "respectively to tne fuselage and main wings, a
from flap operation whilenevertheless utilizing ~ ‘split ?ap pivotally mounted ‘on the main wing, '
to the greatest possible degree the control sur- ' and ‘means to independently rotate the lift struts 10
faces. In some circumstances, as has been de
scribed, it is possible to ‘aggregate with these ad
to vary the lifting effect of ‘the struts soas to im
jpose av predetermined rolling moment on the‘
vantages the further advantage of an optional or ‘A ' plane and to compensate for changes in the cen
automatic restoration of longitudinal balance by ' ' ter'of pressure of the main wing ‘due to the opera
15 compensating for: or nullifying the e?ect‘of the
shift in the center of pressure on a wing “carrying
a ?ap; ‘
tion of the flap.
,
is
3. An airplane comprising a fuselage, a main
‘ wing section attached to the upper portion of. the
fuselage at'each side thereof, a plurality of 'sub-'
Thereforerwhile speci?c embodiments of the I, s'tantially parallel independently rotatable'strut
invention have been described; it is, to be under
stood that these are given merely as illustrative wings ‘on‘eachvside of tha fuselage and attached 20
of. the principle involved; the speci?c structures , respectively to a lower portion“ of the fuselage and
shown are given merely to typify the ‘embodiment > to the underside. of the main wing; a split ?ap
of such principle and not as definitions-of or 1 pivotally connected to the main wing and being
so positioned that downwash therefrom reacts
limits upon the scope of the invention.
P
25
I
claim:
'
_
_
'
’ 1. An airplane comprising a main‘ wing section
on each side of the fuselage, a split ?ap-pivotally
:upon‘ the horizontal stabilizer of the plane, and
means to change the lifting ‘effect of one of the
strut wings to impose a rolling moment-upon the '
plane and means independently to change the_
mounted on each side of the fuselag'evandat-l' ‘attitude of the other strut wing and compensate
30 tached respectively to the underside of the mainf' for changes in the center of pressure on the main 30
wing and to the fuselage, means to change the wing "due to the operation of the flap.
mounted on each , section; ' a‘ plurality ‘of airfoils
attitude of one of said airfoils to impose arolling. ‘ "
moment on the airplane, and means to change
a ~GIUSEPPE M. BELLANCA.
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