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Патент USA US2135181

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Filed NOV.
1934 - .
,QMM 311
' Patented, Nov° 1,1938 1
, 2,135,181
DOUBLE WALL nnrmonna'ron
N. J.,- assignor, by
Walter J ones, Princeton,
mesne assignments, to Qarrier Corporation,
, Newark, N. J., a corporation of Delaware
Application November 12, 1934, Serial No. 752,559
4 Claims.
(c1. , 62-89)
This invention relates to methods of and
diagrammatically, a refrigerator adapted to store ‘
means for conditioning, the interiors of refrig
. erators or other enclosures used for ‘refrigeration
The general object of the invention is to pro
vide a double walled enclosure equipped with a
system'of air conditioning capable of maintain
ing a high relative humidity therein, approach
ing the saturation point, at a desirable low dry
bulb temperature.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
system of air conditioning for use with a re
frigerated space in which the transmission of
sensible heat through walls or the like will be
15 reduced to a minimum, thereby substantially
eliminating reheating of air in the space.
Another object of the invention is to providev
a system of air conditioning for a refrigerator or
the like in which an air current may be routed
20 to .and from the'refrigerated ‘space through an
insulating air passage, whereby the relative hu
midity in the space will be retained at an opti- .
.mum point, regardless of variations in atmos
pheric conditions outside the refrigerator.
referring to similar parts, numeral 3 designates,
A feature of the invention resides in the pro
vision of an outer enclosure in combination with
an inner enclosure spaced from the outer en
meats, for example. While the speci?cation
will be directed more particularly to the appli
cation of this invention to refrigerators, it may 5
similarly be applied to any enclosure, such as an
area in a storage warehouse, where it is desired
to maintain a high relative humidity at a suit
able low temperature for preserving meats or
other products. The refrigerator 3 is provided 10
in the usual manner with access doors, drains,
?xtures for supporting carcasses, lights, etc., not
Inner walls or partitions fl, floor 5 and ceiling
6, are spaced from the outer walls of refrig- 15
erator 3. In ‘e?ect, they constitute false sides.
?oor and ceiling, suitably supported and spaced
respectively @i’rom the exterior side walls, ?oor
and'ceiling of refrigerator 3, with the result
that an air space or‘ passage completely sur- 20
rounds the interior enclosure, numbered '1.
First considering summer operation and re
ferring more particularlyto Fig. ,2, dampers 8
and 9, of conditioner casing Iii, will be in open
position, as illustrated, whereas dampers H and- 25
I! will be closed. Air will be forced over cooling '
coils‘ ill by fan It, ?ow through opening I5,
damper 9 being open, and enter plenum space
closure whereby a current of conditioned air
I6. Distributing. openings ii in the partition .
may circulate between said enclosures in a course separating plenum space Hi from the refriger- 30
30 to and from a conditioning system.
ated area may be spaced to provide an equal dis
Another feature of the invention resides in » trlbution over the whole horizontal cross-sec
the provision of a conditioning system, 'a dou
tional area of the refrigerated space or the open
ble walled enclosure,- and a ‘damper arrange
ings may be arranged to discharge the air di
' ‘ment for directing a flow of air between the
35 walls of said enclosure in one direction during
certain seasons of the year and for reversing
the?ow of air during other seasons of the year.
Other objects and features for producing and
maintaining desired atmospheric conditions in
4 o.
refrigerated spaces at a minimum of expense
for conditioning, and providing advantages in
control, ?exibility of operation to compensate
for changes in load, and adaptation to opera;
.tion under winter and summer ‘conditions, will
45 be apparent from the following description of
typical formsof the invention to be read incon
nection with the accompanying drawing, in
rectly upon the produce.
Thus, for example, 35
openings may be grouped so that the air will
impinge upon racks or other supporting means
whereon the carcasses are hung. The coils l3
are supplied with refrigerant at a desirable low.
temperature from a‘ source served by a refrig- 40
‘crating machine or the like, with the result that
the air leaving the coils is cold and substan
tially saturated. In practice, the relative hu
midity is between 35-95 per cent in the box.
After contacting with the meat or other prod- (45
uce, the air leaves space 1 through discharge
openings l8 in the false floor (or the false ?oor
may be omitted in some cases), then proceeds
through the surrounding passages l9 and back
Fig. 1 illustrates, diagrammatically, a-double. ' to the‘ coils through inlet "20, the damper 8 50
50 walled refrigerator to which one form "of. ‘the being open. In travelling from space 1 back to
invention is applied, and
.1 >
the conditioning apparatus, the air serves as an
Fig. 2 similarly illustrates, in sectional dia
insulating bank which absorbs the sensible heat
g'rammatic form, a modi?cation and ampli?caé I ?owing inwardly, under summer conditions,
tion of the system of Fig. '1.
55 Considering the drawing, similar designations through the outer walls of the box 3. This sen- 55
2,185,181 ,
sible heat, therefore, can have no effect in rais
ing the dry bulb temperature within space 1
with the result that the usual lowering of rela
the refrigerator. By opening the inlet and relief
dampers 21 and 28 and keeping closed the damp
ers 8, 9, II and 12, a circulation of warmer out
side air may be carried on over the coils and the
moisture from the coils removed. This ‘avoids 5
sending moisture laden air into space 1, during de
' frosting periods, when relative humidities would
otherwise be raised to undesirable high percent—
ages. vWhen the ‘defrosting is completed, dampers
21 and 28 may be closed and the dampers 8, 9, II 10
and I2 reset in their normal positions either for
summer or winter operation, as hereinbefore de
tive humidity due to sensible heat transmission
is substantially completely eliminated. This
heat coming in through the walls is instead
picked up by the movingcurrent of return air
and dissipated in its course through the cooling
Under winter operating conditions, dampers 8
and 9 will be closed and dampers II and“ open,
with the result that the cycle, in effect, is re
versed. The advantage in reversing the circula
tion, under winter conditions, is that an excessive
15 relative humidity is avoided. The sensible heat in
leakage through the walls of refrigerator 3 is usu
For control of the temperature of coils 13, a
dry bulb thermostat 29, in area 1, reflects changes 15
in temperature therein, and may control the oper- ,
ally very small in the winter time. Consequently, ' ation of a refrigerating machine, or other source
. the temperature in the refrigerator will often re
main at the desired low point for substantial periods of time without necessity for active refriger
of refrigerant, not shown, which functions to sup
ation service. Under such conditions, coils l3 will
during a considerable period of time be operative
only for short intervals. Dehumidi?cation will,
therefore, take place only during these short pe
,25 riods and is insufficient to keep the relative hu-i
midity in space 1 from rising to an undesirable
high point. Wet or slimy surfaces on the meat are
produced under such conditions. However, by
reversing the circulation, such sensible heat as
,30 is transmitted inwardly through walls of refriger
ator 3 will be‘ picked up ?rst by the circulating
air and delivered into space 1. This sensible heat '
'will serve to raise thedry bulb temperature of
space 1, thereby reducing the relative humidity.
Under practical operating conditions, this sensible
heat increment isofte'n found adequate for main
taining the percentage of humidity at the pre
scribed optimum point for the dry bulb temper
ature obtaining in space 1. Should the relativev
40 humidity rise above‘ the desired percentage, a
heating element 24 under control of hygrostat 25
will become operative and supply heat to the'air
sent through passages‘ 19 to space 1, until such
time as the relative humidity drops to the desired
45 point. The heater may be an electrical or steam
. device and the hygrostat will ‘control the circuit
or ?ow of steam, as the case may be, in the usual
In Fig. 1, the operation is substantially the
50 same except that no forced circulation is pro
vided. Cooling coils l3 served by refrigerant from
a desired source, cool the air, as in Fig. 2. The
ply refrigerant to the coils when the temperature
in the area rises above a desired degree and to 20
stop the ?ow of refrigerant when the temper- .
ature drops to the desired low point.
By providing an air space between the inner
refrigerated area and the exterior walls, and by
circulating air-through said space, the use of
?xed insulating material in the construction of
the outer walls of the refrigerator is largely obvi
ated. The cushion of air in said space is, in effect, ‘
an insulator under summer operating conditions,
preventing transmission of heat through the 30
outer walls from reaching the refrigerated space. -
‘Under winter conditions, too, the cushion of
air in the space between the outer and inner
walls serves to absorb heat transmitted inwardly
through the outer walls. In all seasons of the 35
year, the air in this space, additionally, is an
essential element in the control of humidity‘con
ditions in the refrigerated space, in a manner
impossible of accomplishment by the use of in
sulated walls alone.
Since certain changes in carrying out the above ~
process and in the constructions set forth, which
embody the invention, may be made without de
parting from its scope, it is intended that all
matter contained in the above description or
shown in the accompanying drawing shall be
interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
I claim:
1. In a refrigerator, dehumidifying apparatus,
means including a fan for circulating air in a
closed circuit between said apparatus and the‘
storage area of the refrigerator, means for in
relative humidity. After contacting with the car
terrupting the circulation of air between said
casses-in space 1, it leaves through discharge area and said dehumidifying apparatus, means
ports I. and then rises to ‘space 2|, under sum
a?‘ording communication between the dehumidi
meroperating conditions, clue to its pickup of H fying apparatus only and the atmosphere sur
sensible heat in'travelling through passages I 9 rounding the exterior of the refrigerator when
between the outer walls of refrigerator 3 and the said circulation of air is interrupted,'said fan
inner false sides 4. This absorption of ‘sensible being arranged to circulate air from said exterior
heat will be su?icient to cause a movement of atmosphere over said dehumidifying apparatus
the air by reason of convection, so that the cycle when said circulation of air between said appara
may continue substantially without interruption. tus and said storage area is interrupted.
The air, upon reaching the upper space 2|, spills 2. A refrigerator of the character described
65 over side members 22, again to be cooled and de
having outer walls, a false ?oor, a false ceiling,
humidi?ed. 'Under winter operating conditions, false sides, the, area within the false floor and
side members 22 are shifted to the positions ceiling and sides constituting a space for the
designated by numeral 23 and element 6 is re
storage of produce, the space between said false
moved with the result thatthe circulation is re
?oor'and ceiling ‘and sides vand the outer walls
versed. Thus, the same objects as are attained of said refrigerator constituting an air passage
with the system of Fig. 2 may be carried out with
way, refrigcrating coils positioned in the upper
Y out the. use of a fan or other air propelling means. portion of said refrigerator, and adjustable ba?le
To accomplish defrosting of coils 13, an outside means in combination with said refrigerating
air inlet 25 and relief outlet 26 may be provided coils, said ba?‘le means being adapted when in
75 and connect the casing, 10 with an areai outside
one position to route air from the refrigerating 75
air leaving cooling coils l3_has a desirable high
' 2,185,181
coils directly into .the'conditioned space and back
to the refrigerating coils through said air pas
sageway, and adapted, when in another position,
to route air from the refrigerating coils through
as under said other predetermined operating con
ditions the heat in?ltration will be utilized to
increase the temperature of air in said space and
to lower the relative humidity thereof.
said air passageway to said conditioned space and
4. A refrigerator of the character described
having outer walls, afalse ceiling, and false sides,
the area contained within said false ceiling and
then to said refrigerating coils.
3. ,The method of controlling the relative
humidity of a refrigerated space which consists
in subjecting air to a conditioning step in which
10 heat is abstracted therefrom, routing the condi
tioned air successively through said space and
then' through a passageway surrounding said
space and then reconditioning said air thus cir
culated prior to recirculation of the air, such op
eration taking place under predetermined operat
ing conditions tending to cause undesirably low
relative humidity within said space, and, under
other predetermined operating conditions- tend
ing to cause undesirably high relative humidity
20 within said space,_routing the conditioned air
from the conditioning step successively through
said passageway and then through said space,‘
whereby under said ?rst-mentioned operating
conditions heat in?ltration to said passageway
25 from the ambient atmosphere will be dissipated
in the said conditioning step without having
‘affected the air in said refrigerated space, where
said false sides constituting a space for the stor
age of produce, [the space between said false ceil- ‘
ing and false sides and the outer walls of said 10
refrigerator constituting an air passageway,
means providing communication between said
air passageway and the lower portion of said
storage space, refrigerating coils positioned in
the upper portion of said refrigerator, and ad 15
justable bailie means in combination with said
refrigerating coils, said baiiie means being adapt
ed when in a predeterminined. position to route
air from the refrigerating coils directly into the
conditioned space and back to the refrigerating 20
coils through said air passagewayhand adapted,
when in another predetermined position, to route
air from the refrigerating coils through said air
passageway to said conditioned space and then to
said refrigerating coils.
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