Патент USA US2135181код для вставки
N0v,1',1938. ‘ ' ' .WJONES ' ‘ DOUBLE WALL. REFRIGERATOR" Filed NOV. 12, ‘2,135,181 ‘ 1934 - . /3 INVENTOR. ‘ WALTER BY’ Jo/vEs/ ,QMM 311 A TTORNEY. 2,135,181 ' Patented, Nov° 1,1938 1 UNITED’ STATES PATENT oer-‘cs , 2,135,181 DOUBLE WALL nnrmonna'ron N. J.,- assignor, by Walter J ones, Princeton, mesne assignments, to Qarrier Corporation, , Newark, N. J., a corporation of Delaware ~ Application November 12, 1934, Serial No. 752,559 4 Claims. (c1. , 62-89) This invention relates to methods of and diagrammatically, a refrigerator adapted to store ‘ means for conditioning, the interiors of refrig . erators or other enclosures used for ‘refrigeration purposes. ' The general object of the invention is to pro vide a double walled enclosure equipped with a system'of air conditioning capable of maintain ing a high relative humidity therein, approach ing the saturation point, at a desirable low dry l0 bulb temperature. ‘ 7 Another object of the invention is to provide a system of air conditioning for use with a re frigerated space in which the transmission of sensible heat through walls or the like will be 15 reduced to a minimum, thereby substantially eliminating reheating of air in the space. Another object of the invention is to providev a system of air conditioning for a refrigerator or the like in which an air current may be routed 20 to .and from the'refrigerated ‘space through an insulating air passage, whereby the relative hu midity in the space will be retained at an opti- . .mum point, regardless of variations in atmos pheric conditions outside the refrigerator. 2 ' referring to similar parts, numeral 3 designates, ‘ A feature of the invention resides in the pro vision of an outer enclosure in combination with an inner enclosure spaced from the outer en meats, for example. While the speci?cation will be directed more particularly to the appli cation of this invention to refrigerators, it may 5 similarly be applied to any enclosure, such as an area in a storage warehouse, where it is desired to maintain a high relative humidity at a suit able low temperature for preserving meats or other products. The refrigerator 3 is provided 10 in the usual manner with access doors, drains, ?xtures for supporting carcasses, lights, etc., not shown. " Inner walls or partitions fl, floor 5 and ceiling 6, are spaced from the outer walls of refrig- 15 erator 3. In ‘e?ect, they constitute false sides. ?oor and ceiling, suitably supported and spaced respectively @i’rom the exterior side walls, ?oor and'ceiling of refrigerator 3, with the result that an air space or‘ passage completely sur- 20 rounds the interior enclosure, numbered '1. ' First considering summer operation and re ferring more particularlyto Fig. ,2, dampers 8 and 9, of conditioner casing Iii, will be in open position, as illustrated, whereas dampers H and- 25 I! will be closed. Air will be forced over cooling ' coils‘ ill by fan It, ?ow through opening I5, damper 9 being open, and enter plenum space closure whereby a current of conditioned air I6. Distributing. openings ii in the partition . may circulate between said enclosures in a course separating plenum space Hi from the refriger- 30 30 to and from a conditioning system. ated area may be spaced to provide an equal dis Another feature of the invention resides in » trlbution over the whole horizontal cross-sec the provision of a conditioning system, 'a dou tional area of the refrigerated space or the open ble walled enclosure,- and a ‘damper arrange ings may be arranged to discharge the air di ' ‘ment for directing a flow of air between the 35 walls of said enclosure in one direction during certain seasons of the year and for reversing the?ow of air during other seasons of the year. Other objects and features for producing and maintaining desired atmospheric conditions in 4 o. refrigerated spaces at a minimum of expense for conditioning, and providing advantages in control, ?exibility of operation to compensate for changes in load, and adaptation to opera; .tion under winter and summer ‘conditions, will 45 be apparent from the following description of typical formsof the invention to be read incon nection with the accompanying drawing, in rectly upon the produce. Thus, for example, 35 openings may be grouped so that the air will impinge upon racks or other supporting means whereon the carcasses are hung. The coils l3 are supplied with refrigerant at a desirable low. temperature from a‘ source served by a refrig- 40 ‘crating machine or the like, with the result that the air leaving the coils is cold and substan tially saturated. In practice, the relative hu midity is between 35-95 per cent in the box. After contacting with the meat or other prod- (45 uce, the air leaves space 1 through discharge openings l8 in the false floor (or the false ?oor may be omitted in some cases), then proceeds which: ' , through the surrounding passages l9 and back Fig. 1 illustrates, diagrammatically, a-double. ' to the‘ coils through inlet "20, the damper 8 50 50 walled refrigerator to which one form "of. ‘the being open. In travelling from space 1 back to invention is applied, and . . .1 > . the conditioning apparatus, the air serves as an Fig. 2 similarly illustrates, in sectional dia insulating bank which absorbs the sensible heat g'rammatic form, a modi?cation and ampli?caé I ?owing inwardly, under summer conditions, _ tion of the system of Fig. '1. 55 Considering the drawing, similar designations through the outer walls of the box 3. This sen- 55 2 2,185,181 , sible heat, therefore, can have no effect in rais ing the dry bulb temperature within space 1 with the result that the usual lowering of rela the refrigerator. By opening the inlet and relief dampers 21 and 28 and keeping closed the damp ers 8, 9, II and 12, a circulation of warmer out side air may be carried on over the coils and the moisture from the coils removed. This ‘avoids 5 sending moisture laden air into space 1, during de ' frosting periods, when relative humidities would otherwise be raised to undesirable high percent— ages. vWhen the ‘defrosting is completed, dampers 21 and 28 may be closed and the dampers 8, 9, II 10 and I2 reset in their normal positions either for summer or winter operation, as hereinbefore de tive humidity due to sensible heat transmission is substantially completely eliminated. This heat coming in through the walls is instead picked up by the movingcurrent of return air and dissipated in its course through the cooling coils. 10 ' ' ' Under winter operating conditions, dampers 8 and 9 will be closed and dampers II and“ open, with the result that the cycle, in effect, is re versed. The advantage in reversing the circula tion, under winter conditions, is that an excessive 15 relative humidity is avoided. The sensible heat in leakage through the walls of refrigerator 3 is usu scribed. . For control of the temperature of coils 13, a dry bulb thermostat 29, in area 1, reflects changes 15 in temperature therein, and may control the oper- , ally very small in the winter time. Consequently, ' ation of a refrigerating machine, or other source . the temperature in the refrigerator will often re main at the desired low point for substantial periods of time without necessity for active refriger of refrigerant, not shown, which functions to sup ~ ation service. Under such conditions, coils l3 will during a considerable period of time be operative only for short intervals. Dehumidi?cation will, therefore, take place only during these short pe ,25 riods and is insufficient to keep the relative hu-i midity in space 1 from rising to an undesirable high point. Wet or slimy surfaces on the meat are produced under such conditions. However, by reversing the circulation, such sensible heat as ,30 is transmitted inwardly through walls of refriger ator 3 will be‘ picked up ?rst by the circulating air and delivered into space 1. This sensible heat ' 'will serve to raise thedry bulb temperature of space 1, thereby reducing the relative humidity. Under practical operating conditions, this sensible heat increment isofte'n found adequate for main taining the percentage of humidity at the pre scribed optimum point for the dry bulb temper ature obtaining in space 1. Should the relativev 40 humidity rise above‘ the desired percentage, a heating element 24 under control of hygrostat 25 will become operative and supply heat to the'air sent through passages‘ 19 to space 1, until such time as the relative humidity drops to the desired 45 point. The heater may be an electrical or steam . device and the hygrostat will ‘control the circuit or ?ow of steam, as the case may be, in the usual manner. In Fig. 1, the operation is substantially the 50 same except that no forced circulation is pro vided. Cooling coils l3 served by refrigerant from a desired source, cool the air, as in Fig. 2. The ply refrigerant to the coils when the temperature in the area rises above a desired degree and to 20 stop the ?ow of refrigerant when the temper- . ature drops to the desired low point. By providing an air space between the inner refrigerated area and the exterior walls, and by circulating air-through said space, the use of ?xed insulating material in the construction of the outer walls of the refrigerator is largely obvi ated. The cushion of air in said space is, in effect, ‘ an insulator under summer operating conditions, preventing transmission of heat through the 30 outer walls from reaching the refrigerated space. - ‘Under winter conditions, too, the cushion of air in the space between the outer and inner walls serves to absorb heat transmitted inwardly through the outer walls. In all seasons of the 35 year, the air in this space, additionally, is an essential element in the control of humidity‘con ditions in the refrigerated space, in a manner impossible of accomplishment by the use of in sulated walls alone. Since certain changes in carrying out the above ~ process and in the constructions set forth, which embody the invention, may be made without de parting from its scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. ' I claim: 1. In a refrigerator, dehumidifying apparatus, means including a fan for circulating air in a closed circuit between said apparatus and the‘ storage area of the refrigerator, means for in relative humidity. After contacting with the car terrupting the circulation of air between said casses-in space 1, it leaves through discharge area and said dehumidifying apparatus, means ports I. and then rises to ‘space 2|, under sum a?‘ording communication between the dehumidi meroperating conditions, clue to its pickup of H fying apparatus only and the atmosphere sur sensible heat in'travelling through passages I 9 rounding the exterior of the refrigerator when between the outer walls of refrigerator 3 and the said circulation of air is interrupted,'said fan inner false sides 4. This absorption of ‘sensible being arranged to circulate air from said exterior heat will be su?icient to cause a movement of atmosphere over said dehumidifying apparatus the air by reason of convection, so that the cycle when said circulation of air between said appara may continue substantially without interruption. tus and said storage area is interrupted. The air, upon reaching the upper space 2|, spills 2. A refrigerator of the character described 65 over side members 22, again to be cooled and de having outer walls, a false ?oor, a false ceiling, humidi?ed. 'Under winter operating conditions, false sides, the, area within the false floor and side members 22 are shifted to the positions ceiling and sides constituting a space for the designated by numeral 23 and element 6 is re storage of produce, the space between said false moved with the result thatthe circulation is re ?oor'and ceiling ‘and sides vand the outer walls versed. Thus, the same objects as are attained of said refrigerator constituting an air passage 70 with the system of Fig. 2 may be carried out with way, refrigcrating coils positioned in the upper Y out the. use of a fan or other air propelling means. portion of said refrigerator, and adjustable ba?le To accomplish defrosting of coils 13, an outside means in combination with said refrigerating air inlet 25 and relief outlet 26 may be provided coils, said ba?‘le means being adapted when in 75 and connect the casing, 10 with an areai outside one position to route air from the refrigerating 75 air leaving cooling coils l3_has a desirable high 3 ' 2,185,181 coils directly into .the'conditioned space and back to the refrigerating coils through said air pas sageway, and adapted, when in another position, to route air from the refrigerating coils through as under said other predetermined operating con ditions the heat in?ltration will be utilized to increase the temperature of air in said space and to lower the relative humidity thereof. said air passageway to said conditioned space and 4. A refrigerator of the character described having outer walls, afalse ceiling, and false sides, the area contained within said false ceiling and then to said refrigerating coils. - ' 3. ,The method of controlling the relative humidity of a refrigerated space which consists in subjecting air to a conditioning step in which 10 heat is abstracted therefrom, routing the condi tioned air successively through said space and then' through a passageway surrounding said space and then reconditioning said air thus cir culated prior to recirculation of the air, such op 15 eration taking place under predetermined operat ing conditions tending to cause undesirably low relative humidity within said space, and, under other predetermined operating conditions- tend ing to cause undesirably high relative humidity 20 within said space,_routing the conditioned air from the conditioning step successively through said passageway and then through said space,‘ whereby under said ?rst-mentioned operating conditions heat in?ltration to said passageway 25 from the ambient atmosphere will be dissipated in the said conditioning step without having ‘affected the air in said refrigerated space, where said false sides constituting a space for the stor age of produce, [the space between said false ceil- ‘ ing and false sides and the outer walls of said 10 refrigerator constituting an air passageway, means providing communication between said air passageway and the lower portion of said storage space, refrigerating coils positioned in the upper portion of said refrigerator, and ad 15 justable bailie means in combination with said refrigerating coils, said baiiie means being adapt ed when in a predeterminined. position to route air from the refrigerating coils directly into the conditioned space and back to the refrigerating 20 coils through said air passagewayhand adapted, when in another predetermined position, to route air from the refrigerating coils through said air passageway to said conditioned space and then to said refrigerating coils. y - ‘ ‘ ~ WALTER 25 JONES.