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Патент USA US2135291

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Nov. 1, 1938.
2,135,291
H. PINARD
PIVOTED AXLE FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
Filed Jan. 12, 1938
3 Sheets-Sheet l
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Nov. 1, 1938.
H. PINARD
2,135,291.
PIVOTED AXLE FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
Filed Jan. 12, 1938 ‘
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3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Nov. 1, 1938.
H. PINARD
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2,135,291
PIVOTED AXLE FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
Filed Jan. 12, 1938
Nam.
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Patented Nov. 1, 1938
2,135,291
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,135,291
PIVOTED AXLE FOB. MOTOR. VEHICLES.
Henry Pinard, Manchester, N. H.
Application January 12, 1938, Serial No. 184,624
10 Claims.
In motor vehicles for \oan'ying heavy loads,
such as motor trucks for carrying large quanti
ties of merchandise, it has been common prac
tice to provide the vehicle with an auxiliary set
5 of wheels in back of the usual rear wheels to re
ceive part of the load. Vehicles provided with
such auxiliary wheels are dii?cult to steer and
produce forces which subject parts of the vehicle
to great strain when the vehicle is moving in a
10 curved path. The reason for this is simple. In
a vehicle having only the usual front and rear
sets of wheels, the rear portion of the vehicle
tends to pivot about the point of contact of one
of the rear wheels with the ground when the
15 vehicle is traveling in a curved path. This is
made possible by the differential which permits
one of the rear wheels to rotate at a greater
speed than the other. This same action takes
place in a vehicle having an auxiliary set of
20 wheels in back of the rear wheels but, since the
rear portion of the vehicle cannot pivot simul
taneously about two points, the auxiliary set of
wheels are dragged laterally of the vehicle when
the latter is moved in a curved path. This drag
25 ging of the auxiliary wheels opposes any force
tending to change the direction of movement
of the vehicle from a straight path to a curved
path.
My co-pending application, Serial No. 140,108,
30 ?led May 1, 1937, describes a vehicle having a
set of auxiliary wheels in back of the rear wheels
and which is constructed so as to facilitate steer
ing of the vehicle and to eliminate other objec
tions to previous constructions. This was accom
35 plished by the provision of means permitting the
axle of the auxiliary wheels ‘to pivot about a
point in front of such axle when the vehicle was
moving forward and to pivot about a point in
back of such axle when the vehicle was moving
40 rearward. In the construction speci?cally illus
trated in my above mentioned application, man
ually operable mechanism is provided for shifting
a frame for controlling the point about which
the axle of the auxiliary wheels could pivot.
My present invention contemplates a construc
tion of the same general character. In accord
ance with the present invention, however, the
point about which the axle of the auxiliary wheels
may pivot is controlled by the direction of move
50 ment of the vehicle.
_
These and other features of the invention, will
be more clearly understood from the following
description in conjunction with the accompany
ing drawings: in which,
.1!
‘
Figs. 1 and 2 are plan views of a motor truck
(on. est-97)
chassis embodying the invention and showing the
parts in different operative positions;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
same;
I
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken upon the line 5
4—4 of Fig. 3;
,
Figs. 5, 6, '7 and 8 are fragmentary plan views
of a modi?ed construction showing the parts in
different relations; and
.
Figs. 9 and 10 are sectional views taken on the 10
lines 9—9 and I0—I0 of Figs. 5 and 6, respec
tively.
I
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings as applied to a motor truck chassis
which comprises a chassis frame I0 supported 15
upon the usual sets of front wheels II and rear
wheels I2. The chassis is supported also by a set
of auxiliary wheels I5 positioned in back of the
set of rear wheels I2. The front wheels II, rear
wheels I2 and auxiliary wheels I5 are provided 20
with brakes I6, I‘! and I 8, respectively. The
brakes may be operated by any brake. operating
mechanism and, as illustrated, are operated by
a hydraulic system comprising a compression
cylinder 20 actuated by the usual brake operat- 25
ing pedal 2|. Fluid pressure conduits 22 and 23
extend forwardly and rearwardly respectively
from the compression cylinder 20. The conduit
22 is connected by ?exible conduits 24 with the
front wheel brakes I6 and the conduit 23 is con- 30
nected by flexible conduits 25 and 26 with the
rear‘ wheel brakes I1 and the auxiliary wheel
brakes I8, respectively.
The sets of rear wheels I2 and auxiliary wheels
I5 form part of a carriage C which is arranged to ;
pivot (as described hereinafter) relative to the
other part of the chassis. The carriage C in
cludes two relatively movable frames 21 and 28.
The frame 21 comprises a yoke 30 and a plat
form 3|. The arms of the yoke ‘30 are‘pivotally 40 ‘
connected to the rear vehicle springs 32 by pins
33. The housing 35 for the axle for the rear
wheelsv I2 is rigidly secured in anysuitable man
ner to the ends of the arms of the yoke 30. The
platform portion 3| of the frame 21 extends 45
rearwardly from the yoke 30 in a substantially
horizontal plane and comprises a pair of spaced
longitudinal frame members 36. The ends of
the members 36 are connected by transverse
frame members 8 and 9, each having a horizon- 50 ’
tal guide slot 31 for the frame 28. Cross mem
bers 38 and 39 connect the longitudinal frame
members 36 between the transverse members~8
and 9 and are spaced from the latter an amount
to provide vertical transversely extending tri-_
2,185,291
angularly shaped slots 48 and 4| to permit both
longitudinal and transverse movement between
the two frames. The cross members 88 and 88
are provided with bearings 42 and 48 respec
then as the rearward movement of the vehicle 5
for a purpose described hereinafter.
continues, the frame 28 will pivot about the pin
43 as an axis to bring the set of auxiliary wheels
l5 into the dotted-line position shown in Fig. 2.
‘with the plate 45. A pair of pins 58 and ii pro
ject upwardly from the top surface of the plate
45 and are spaced apart a greater distance than
15 the bearings 42 and 48. The pin it is adapted
‘ to rotatably engage the bearing 48 when the pin
ii is free to move transversely in the slot 40
and the pin BI is adapted to rotatably engage
the bearing 42 when the pin 88 is free to move
transversely in the slot 4!. Separate leaf springs
52 are suitably secured at an intermediate point
to each of the longitudinal frame members 88
so that their ends are adapted to engage oppo
site longitudinal edges of ‘the plate 48 and abut
the spaced. enlargements I! and 88 formed
thereon to exert a resilient force tending to main
tain the pin 5| in the bearing 42 or. the pin 58
or rearward respectively, they will be moved into
such respective positions by the motion of the
vehicle either alone or in conjunction with the 15
application of the vehicle brakes. Thus, it will
be noted that .regardless of the direction of mo
tion of the vehicle, the frame 28 is always free to
pivot about a point in front of the axle for the set
of auxiliary wheels I! with respect to the di 20
rection of motion. Inasmuch as the set of rear
wheels l2 and the set of auxiliary wheels, I! are
carried by a carriage which is pivotally connect
ed to the rear vehicle springs, both of these sets
of wheels will always be in engagement with the
road surface whether passing over a knoll or
upon
the
level.
.
v
V
.
>
a greater proportion of the load carried upon
is supported also by a set of‘ auxiliary wheels
,
Preferably, the pins 88, which pivotally con
nect the carriage C to the chassis. are positioned
35 .the vehicle chassis is supported by the rear
wheels l2 than by the auxiliary wheels, i5.
When the vehicle is moving forwardly, the pin
5| will engage the bearing 42 and the pin 58
will be positioned in the slot 4| as is illustrated
' by the full-line position in Fig. 1.
40
when in this
position the frame 28, carrying the set of aux
iliary wheels I 5, is free to pivot about the pin
5| as an axis.
Consequently, if the vehicle is
steered to the left by turning the front wheels
' II to the dotted-line position as shown in Fig.
45
1, the frame 28 will pivot about the pin 5! so
that the set of auxiliary wheels II will assume
the dotted-line position as shown in Fig. 1. If
the vehicle is steered so as to return the front
wheels II to their full-line position as shown in
50 Fig. 1, to cause the vehicle to move in a straight
forward path, the frame 28 will pivot about the
pin 5| so as to return the set of auxiliary wheels
ii to the full-line position as shown in Fig. 1.
If the vehicle now is stopped and its motion
is started in the rearward direction, the plate
45 is shifted from the full-line position, shown
in Fig. 1, to the full-line position, shown in Fig.
l5’ positioned in back of the set of rear wheels 35
I2’. Theirear and auxiliary wheels are each
provided with the usual brakes l1’ and I8’, re
spectively. The sets of rear wheels l2’ and aux
iliary wheels i5’ form part of a carriage C’
which is arranged to pivot on a transverse axis 40
relative to the other part of the chassis.
The carriage C’. includes two relatively mov
able frames 2'I' and 28'. The frame 21’ com-,
prises a yoke 88' and a platform II’. The arms
of the yoke 88' are pivotally connected to the 45
rear vehicle springs 82' at 88'. The housing 85'
for the axle for the rear wheels i2’ is secured
in any suitable manner to the ends of the arms
of the yoke 88'. The platform 8|’ extends rear
wardly from the yoke 88' in a substantially hori- -
zontal plane and comprises a pair of spaced lon
gitudinal frame members 86'. The forward ends
of the members 86' are connected by the V
shaped portion 88' of the .yoke 88' having a hori
zontal slot 81’. The rear ends of the members 65
88' are connected by a cross member 88' and
also by a member 8' so as to provide a horizontal
2, thereby bringing the pin 88 in'engagement
with the bearing 48 and positioning the pin Ii
slot S therebetween corresponding to the slot
81'. The cross member 88' and the portion 88'
of the yoke 88'. are shaped to provide bearings 60
in the slot 48., In order to assure the shift of
42' and 48' respectively.
the plate 45 \from- the full-line position shown
in Fig. 1 to the full-line position shown in Fig. 2,
as the rearward movement of the vehicle is start
ed, the brake pedal 2| may be depressed to ap—
ply a slight braking pressure upon the vehicle
brakes. When this is done the set of auxiliary
wheels I I will move rearward at a slower rate
than the vehicle inasmuch as a smaller propor
70 tion of the vehicle load is supported by the set
of auxiliary wheels ll than by the set of rear
wheels I2. If the rearward movement of the
vehicle continues in a straight path. theset of
auxiliary wheels I! will remain'in the full-line
position shown in Fig. 2. , However, if the steer
‘is
when motion of the vehicle is started forward
nearer to the axle for the rear wheels l2 than
to the axle forvthe auxiliary wheels 15 so that
moved to such positions.
65
It will be understood that if the pin 5! is not .
in engagement with the bearing 42 or-the pin 10
50 is not in engagement with the bearing 48
In Fig. 5 there is illustrated the rear portion
of a motor truck chassis embodying a modi?ed
form of the invention. This modi?ed construc 30
tion comprises a‘ chassis frame l8’ supported
upon the usual set of front wheels (not shown)
_ and set of rear driving wheels l2’. The chassis
in the bearing 48 when these pins have been
65
as to cause the vehicle to move in a curved path,
tively communicating with the slots 48 and 4|
The frame 28 comprises a plate 45 extending
between and slidably movable in the slots 81 both
longitudinally and transversely of the vehicle
10 chassis. The housing 46 for the axle for the
auxiliary wheels, I! is connected by struts 41
30
ing mechanism of the vehicle is actuated to move
the front wheels from the full-line position
shown in Fig.2, to the dotted-line position so
The frame 28' comprises a plate or red 45'
extending between and slidably movable in the
slots 81' and 8 both longitudinally and trans
versely of the vehicle chassis. The housing 46' 65
for the axle for the auxiliary wheels I5’ is con
nected by struts 41' which are provided with
bearings 5 which surround and rotatably engage
cylindrical portions of the rod 45'.‘ A pair of
pins 58' and 5|’ project upwardly from the top 70
surface of the platform 45' and are spaced apart
a greater distance than the bearings 42' and 43'.
The pin BI’ is spaced a substantially greater
distance from the axle for the auxiliary wheels
l5’ than is the pin 58'. The pins 58' and SI’ 78
2,135,291
are adapted to rotatably engage the bearings 43'
and 42’ respectively, the pin 50’ being out of
engagement with the bearing 43' when the pin
5|’ is in engagement with the bearing 42' and
vice versa. Separate leaf springs 52' are suit
ably secured to each of the frame members 36'
so that their free ends are adapted to engage
opposite longitudinal edges of the platform 45'
and abut an enlargement 55' formed thereon.
Preferably, the pivotal connections 33’ between
the carriage C’ and the springs 32' are positioned
nearer to the axle for the rear wheels l2’ than
to the axle for the auxiliary wheels l5’ so that
a greater proportion of the load carried upon the
15 vehicle chassis is supported by the rear ‘wheels
l2’ rather than by the auxiliary wheels l5’.
The operation of this structure is similar. to
that illustrated in Figs. 1_ to 4. The important
difference between the structure shown in Fig. 5
20 and that shown in Figs. 1 to 4 is that in the latter
the pins 50 and 5| are spaced substantially equi
distant from the axle for the auxiliary wheels,
whereas in the structure shown in Fig. 5 the pin
5|’ is spaced a substantially greater distance from
25 the axle for the auxiliary wheels l5’ than is the
pin 50'. This makes it possible to reverse the
position of the frame 28' in the carriage C’ as is
illustrated in Fig. 6 so that the pin 50' is adapted
to engage the bearing 42' while the pin. 51' is
30 adapted to engage the bearing 43'.
By changing
the position of the frame 28' from that as shown
in Fig. 5 to that as shown in Fig. 6, the axle for
the auxiliary wheels [5' is brought closer to the
35
axle for the rear wheels I2’ which is of advan
tage if it is desired to transfer the carriage C’ to
a shorter truck chassis. This, of course, concen
trates the weight of the load upon the vehicle
at points closer together upon the roadway. It
will be understood, however, that even when the
40 ‘carriage C’ is to be used on a short truck chassis,
the frames 21' and 28' may bear the relationship
shown in Fig. 5 and thus distribute the weight of
the load upon the truck at points upon the road
way spaced farther apart. This may be of ad
45
vantage where the truck is to carry 'an excess load
and is to be driven over roadways which are apt
to be injured by the concentration of heavy loads
thereupon.
50
‘
In certain cases it may be desirable to posi:
tion the rear driving wheels l2’ in back of the
auxiliary wheels l5’, particularly, where the truck
is to be used under conditions where it is neces
sary to back up steep inclines. This may be
55
brought about easily by reversing the carriage C’
so that ‘the rear wheels 12' are in back of the
auxiliary wheels I 5'. Fig. 7 illustrates the con
struction when the carriage C’ has been reversed
from the position shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 8 illus
60 trates the construction when the carriage C’ is
reversed from the position shown in Fig. 6.
I claim:
1. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
65
set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pair of
3
wheels when said movable frame is in the other
of said positions.
4
.
2. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pivotally
mounted carriage having a pair of frames one of
which is movable relative to the other longitu
dinally of the vehicle between two positions, said
rear wheels being mounted upon one of said
frames and said auxiliary wheels. being mounted
upon the other of said frames, means upon said 10
frames adapted to cooperate to permit said aux
iliary wheels to swing about a point in front of -
said ‘auxiliary wheels when said movable frame
is in one‘ of said positions and adapted to co
operate to permit said auxiliary wheels to swing .15
about a point in back of said wheels when said
movable frame is in the other of said positions.
.3. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pivotally
' mounted carriage having a pair of frames one of 20
which is movable relative to the other longitu
dinally of the vehicle between two positions, said
rear wheels being mounted upon one of said
frames and said auxiliary wheels being mounted
upon the other of said frames, means 'upon said 25
frames adapted to cooperate to permit said aux
iliary wheels to swing about a point in front of
said auxiliary wheels when said movable frame
is in one of said positions, and adapted to co
operate to permit said auxiliary wheels to swing 30
about a point in back of said wheels when said
movable frame is in the other of said positions,
the pivotal mounting for said carriage being
spaced a greater distance from the wheels carried
by said movable frame than from the other set
of wheels.
> ~
I
4. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pair of
frames one of which is movable relative to the
other longitudinally of the vehicle between two
positions, one of said sets of wheels being mount-‘
ed upon said movable frame, means upon said
frames adapted to cooperate to permit said aux
iliary wheels to swing about a point in front of
said auxiliary wheels when said movable frame
is in one of said‘ positions, and means upon said
frames adapted to cooperate to permit said aux
iliary wheels to swing about a point in back of
said wheels when said movable frame is in the
other of said positions.
5. In an automotive vehicle having an auxili 50
ary set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pair
of frames one of which is movable relative to the
other longitudinally of the vehicle between two
positions, one of said sets of wheels being mounted
upon said movable frame, a pair of spaced studs 55
carried by the last mentioned frame,‘ the other
of said frames having a pair of bearings spaced
apart a. distance less than the distance between
said studs, one of said bearings being positioned
in front and the other in back of said auxiliary
wheels whereby one of said studs may rotatably
engage one of said bearings when said movable
frame is in one of said positions and the other
one of said. frames and said auxiliary wheels
of said studs may rotatably engage the other of
said bearings when said movable frame is in the 65
other of said positions.
6. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
being mounted upon the other of said frames,
set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pair of
frames one of which is movable relative to the
other longitudinally of the vehicle between two
positions, said rear wheels being mounted upon
70 and means upon said frames adapted to cooperate
frames one of which is movable relative to the
to permit said auxiliary wheels to swing about a . other longitudinally of the vehicle between two 70
point in front of said auxiliary wheels when said positions, one of said sets of wheels being mount
movable frame is in one of said positions and ed upon said movable frame, means upon said
vadapted to cooperate to permit said auxiliary
75 wheels to swing about a point in back of said frames adapted to cooperate to permit said aux
iliary wheels to swing about a point in front of 75
2,135,291 '
said auxiliary wheels when said movable frame
for said carriage being spaced a greater distance
is in one of said positions, means upon said frames
from the wheels carried by said movable frame
adapted to cooperate to permit said‘ auxiliary‘
than from the other set of wheels.
wheels to swing about a point in back of said
wheels when said movable frame is in the other
of said positions, and resilient means interposed
between said frames tending to resist relative
movement thereof.
_'
k
'
7. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
10 set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, is pivotally
mounted carriage having a pair of frames one of
which is movable relative'to' the other longitudi
nally of the vehicle between two positions, one of
said sets of wheels being mounted upon said
movable frame, a pair of spaced studs carried by
the last mentioned frame, the other of said
frames having a pair of bearings spaced apart a
distance less than the distance between said studs,
one of said bearings being positioned in front
and the other in ‘back of, said auxiliary wheels
whereby one of said studs may rotatably en
gage one of said bearings when said movable
frame is in 'one of said positions and the other of
said studs may rotatably engage the other of said
Y . bearings when said nyiovable frame is in the other
of said positions.
-
8. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pivotally
mounted carriagehaving a pair of frames one of
30 which is movable relative to the other longitu
dinally of the vehicle between two positions, one
‘of said sets of wheels being mounted upon said
.movable frame, a pair of spaced studs carried
by the last mentioned frame, the other of said
35 frames having a pair of bearings spaced apart a
distance less than the distance between said
- studs, one of said bearings being positioned in
front and the other in back of said auxiliary
wheels whereby one of said studs may rotatably
40 engage one of said bearings when said movable
frame is in one of said positions and the other of
said studs may rotatably engage the other of
said bearings when said movable frame is in
the other of said positions, the pivotal mounting
’
9. In an automotive vehicle having an auxiliary
set of wheels and a
of rear wheels, means per-v
mitting said auxiliary wheels to swing about a
pivot in front of said auxiliary wheels when the
vehicle is moving forward and about another
pivot in the rear of. said auxiliary wheels when
the vehicle is moving rearward comprising a pair 10
of frames one of which is movable relative to the
other longitudinally of the vehicle between two
positions, one of said sets of wheels being mount
‘ed upon said movable frame, a pair of spaced '
studs carried by one of said frames, the other of 15
said frames having a‘ pair of bearings spaced
apart a distance different than the distance be
tween said studs, said pairs of bearings and studs
being arranged so that one stud may rotatably
engage one of said bearings when said movable 20
frame is in one of said positions and the other
stud may rotatably engage the other bearing
when'said movable frame is in the other of said
positions.
_
' 10. In an automotive vehicle having an auxil
25
iary set of wheels and a set of rear wheels, a pair
of frames one of which is movable relative to the
other longitudinally of the vehicle between two
positions, said rear wheels being mounted upon
one of said frames and said auxiliary wheels be 80
ing mounted upon the other of said frames, and
means upon said frames adapted to cooperate to
permit said auxiliary wheels to swing about a
point in front of said auxiliary wheels when said
movable frame is in one of said positions and 35
adapted to cooperate to permit said auxiliary
wheels to swing about a point in back of said
wheels when said movable frame is in the other
of said positions, said means being arranged with
respect to said auxiliary wheels so that one of 40
said points about which said auxiliary wheels may
swing is closer to the axle for said auxiliary
wheels than is the other of said points.
HENRY PINARD.
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