close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2135490

код для вставки
Nov. 8, 1938.
E. o. BLODGETT
2,135,490
RELAY
Filed July 28, 1934
5 $heets—Sheet l
FIG-.1.
15
1a
14
a
44
H
10
17 as a? 2434
. 1,5
55
35
11
35
12
g
25
-\
\
I
4546 55 43 37 10
25
.v
B V1
‘
E
M
m NV
ATTORNEY
Nov. 8, 1938.
I E, Q, BVLODGETT
RELAY
2,135,490
'
Filed July 28, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
m
""'__|||IT
55
» [mill]
// 17
as
34
52
1
36
11
:
g;
I
19
-
12
4°
_
I
22
2:
E
20
—
>19‘
-
18
2
2
‘
52
,
272526
22
1
:2
.
2a 9 275/121;
"45\50 Q7 10 2a26
04.5 546 4a.
25 27
INVENTOR
5.0. M!
“MM
ATTORNEY
,
’
Patented Nov. 8, 1938
2,135,4t-i
i : UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,135,490
RELAY
‘ Edwin 0. Blodgett, Rochester, N. 'Y., assignor to
General Railway Signal Company, Rochester,
N. Y.
Application July 28, 1934, Serial No. 737,440
24 Claims.
This invention relates to relays, and more par
ticularly to a tractive type relay which is self
compensating to allow its armature to be re
leased from its attracted position in response to
an‘abrupt decrease in energization of the relay
with the same certainty regardless of the degree
‘of energization which had gradually obtained
previously »
In a normally energized track circuit, it is es
sential to attract the armature of the track re
lay associated therewith and to hold the arma
ture in its attracted position during normal
ly unoccupied conditions from current passing
through the rails of the insulating section of
trackin series, but when the section becomes
occupied, the train must shunt sui‘?cient cur
rent through the wheels and axles to effect
the release of the relay armature. Obviously,
then, the leakage of the current from one rail
to the other throughout the track section af
fects the armature of the track relay in the
(Cl. 246-41)
leased position, and it is also proposed to incor
porate a simple and reliable means for manu
ally adjusting the magnitude of the armature
retaining force'which is to thus be maintained
constant regardless of subsequent gradual varia
tions in energization, and to provide such an
adjustment which will not a?ect the magnitude
of the force by which the armature is attracted
from its released position.
Other objects, purposes and characteristic fea
tures of the present invention will be obvious
as the description thereof progresses, during
which, references will be made to the accom
panying drawings, in'which—
Fig. 1 diagrammatically shows a preferred form 15
of the present invention applied to a normally
energized railway track circuit.
Fig. 2 is a front elevational sectional view of a
relay incorporating a preferred embodiment of
the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a side elevational sectional View of the
same manner as the shunt effected by a train,
relay shown in Fig 2.
and consequently it is found that when the track
circuit current is adjusted to a .value permit
ting proper ‘operation at any one time, a change
in weather condition may in one instance su?i
Fig. 4 is a partial bottom View of the relay
shown in Fig. 2 with the armature and certain
ciently, increase the current leakage between
rails to‘ duplicate the effect of a train shunt and
drop the usual type of track relay, or in an
other parts removed.
7
Fig. 5 is a plan view of a detail of the relay
shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 6 is a partial front elevational sectional
view showing a modi?cation which may be made
other instance the leakage current may sufficient
ly decrease to increase the relay energization to
such an abnormally high value that the relay
in the relay shown in Fig. 2.
particularly adapted to produce reliable opera
In the drawings/the present invention has
been shown‘as applied to a relay constructed
Fig. '7 is a side elevational view of a relay in
corporating a modi?ed form of the present in
armature will not release in response to a train vention with certain parts of the relay sectioned
shunt.
and other parts removed.
In view of the above and other considerations, * Fig. 8 is a front elevational view of the relay
it is proposed in accordance with the present in
shown in Fig. 7, also having certain parts sec
vention to provide a self-compensating relay tioned.
tionunder various special conditions, such as
40 encountered in a track circuit, to which the
conventional type of tractive relay is not par
ticularly adapted. Speci?cally, it is proposed to
provide a relay of the tractive armature type
which is self~compensating to maintain a con
“ stant tractive force acting on its armature when
in its attracted position regardless of changes
which
occur gradually in the energization
ofv the relay to thereby allow the armature to
drop away’ in response to an abrupt reduction in
energization with equal certainty regardless of
the degree of e-nergization which had previously
obtained gradually. It is further proposed to
provide a locking means actuated by a release
of the armature to prevent the above compensat
ing action as longas the armature is in its re
along the lines of the type found suitable for 40
railway signalling systems and particularly for
railway track circuits, but it will be obvious that
the present invention can equally well be ap
plied to various other well known relay types. 4
The general construction of the relay shown in
detail includes two vertical cores 1 and 8 hav
ing enlarged lower ends forming pole faces 9
and Ill, respectively, whereby they are held to
a top plate II by screws l2, the top plate it
being of insulating or at least non-magnetic ma
terial. The cores 1 and 8 carry windings I3
and M, respectively, which are normally con
nected in series and arranged to produce cumu
lative ?ux within the cores 1 and 8, which cores 55
2
2,135,490
are joined at their upper ends by a yoke l5 of
magnetic material held thereto by bolts I6.
A tractive type magnetic armature I1 is piv
otally supported below the lower surface of the
pole pieces 9 and It so as to be attracted thereto
and complete the magnetic circuit by energiza
tion of the coils I3 and M, the armature ll be
ing biased away from the pole pieces 9 and ill
by gravity. The armature supporting means Boom
10 prises a non-magnetic yoke l8 (see Fig. 4) sus
pended from the top plate II by bolts l9 each
attached to the top plate II by nuts 20 bear
ing on spacing bushings 2|, the yoke l8 being
carried between upper and lower nuts 22 .to
threaded only at its upper end, the lower end
forming a bearing for the shaft 33 andis pro
vided with an annular upper ?ange retained in
a recess in the top of the plate H by a cover
plate 35 secured above the plate H by screws 36
as shown in Fig. 5.
The shaft 33 is rotated to various positions in
accordance with the magnetomotive force ob
taining between the pole pieces 59 and I'll by an
armature 31 suitably attached thereto and hav—' 10
ing enlarged circular ends, these circular ends
coacting with curved inner vertical surfaces of
the pole pieces 9 and ID as shown in ‘Fig. 4, the
armature .37 being shown in all the present ?g
15 thereby be vertically adjustable along the end
ures .as assuming -a position in response to a 15
portions of the bolts 19. ‘Two armature arms 23
are suitably attached to the armature H and
maximum value of magnetomotive force which
would normally obtain in the relay. The arma
ture-31 thus being separated by a small air gap
from the vertical surface of the pole pieces 9 and
it tends to rotate to a position aligning with the 20
adjustably hold outwardly extending trunnion
pins 25 by screws 26, which trunnion ,pins have
reduced ends rotatably ?tting into holes in. down
wardly extending lugs ‘21 carried by the yoke
I8. The armature :l"! is thus adjustably sup
ported to permit pivotal movement relative to
the pole faces 9 and ID with a minimum of ‘fric
25
tion.
-
Suitable contacts are, of course, ‘attached to
the armature I‘! in a manner to engage either
upper or lower ‘fixed ‘contacts in. accordance
.of the pole pieces 9 and 10., all .of which is .in
accordance with well known principles of mag
with the operation of the armature, ‘but to sim
netic attraction.
30 plify the present disclosure such contact means
have been omitted from all views, except Fig. 3
which shows in a very diagrammatic ‘manner a
movable contact ?nger 28 attached to the arma
ture I’! by insulating spacing screws 7,29, and this
35 movable ?nger 28 engages either front or back
fixed contacts indicated merely by ‘the arrows in.
Fig. 3.
vIn a tractive type relay, such as just described,
it is well known that the force retaining the ar
mature in its attracted position against the pole
pieces is substantially proportional to the ?ux
in the magnetic circuit, and consequently “in cer
tain relay applications, such as, a track circuit
wherein it is desirable to maintain 'a constant
45 armature retaining force when the track section
is unoccupied, it is desirable to maintain the flux
in the magnetic circuit constant regardless of
changes in intererail leakage current. A con
stant ?ux Value can, of course, be maintained by
an auxiliary means maintaining a constant value
50 of energization of the relay coils or the mag
netomotive force of the relay but the present
device does not act on the energizing circuit but
55
60
65
70
75
flux ?owing therethrough from one pole Ipiece .
to the other, .and of course, the armature 3] also
tends to ‘rotate to a position ‘wherein the :reluc
tance to the flow of such flux .ltherethrough is a
minimum or, that is, to place more of the sur 25
face of its pole faces in register with the surface
"
’ Referring to Fig. vll which is a ‘view looking at
30
the lower end of the present relay with the ‘ar
mature I’! removed, the rotatable armature 31 is
shown as rotated to its extreme ‘position .in a
rcounter-clockwi'se direction against ‘the biasing
force of a spiral coil spring :38, which spring is 35
attached at its inner end to the top plate ‘I I by a
‘stud 39, and at its other end to :a sector 40 ‘by a
pin will. The sector '40 "is also attached to the
shaft 33 at a point above the armature .31 and
extends rearwardly for a purpose to be later de~ 40
scribed.
‘
If the spring '38 is arranged to exert a force
‘tending to rotate the shaft 133 in a clockwise di
rection which force increases evenly in direct
proportion to the counter-clockwise rotation of
the .shaft 33, the various values of magnetomo
tive force between the pole pieces 9 .and vIll will
effect a force counteracting the opposing force
vof ‘the spring 38 only at certain de?nite rotated
positions of the shaft 33. For example, when
the armature 31 is in the position shown, each '
decrement in the magnetomotive force produces
a ‘proportional degree of clockwise rotation of the
rather, it acts on the magnetic circuit in a man
shaft 33. Inasmuch as the upper end of the
ner to maintain a constant flux value in the mag- - shaft 33 is provided with right-hand threads,
netic circuit by varying the reluctance thereof the shaft will now be moved upwardly within
in inverse proportion to changes in the mag
the stationary threaded bushing '34 due to this
netomotive force which occur gradually, and yet clockwise rotation, thereby allowing the arma~
allow the ?ux to decrease sufficiently in response ture H to move closer 'to'the pole pieces 9 and 13
to abrupt changes in the magnetomotive force
This upward movement of the armature I‘! as
to release the armature.
‘permitted by the upward movement of ‘the shaft 60
Inasmuch as one factor determining the reluc
33 obviously decreases the air gap between the
tance of the magnetic circuit is the air gap sep
armature H and the pole pieces 9 and I0, thereby
arating the armature from the pole faces, the decreasing the reluctance of the magnetic circuit
present device is arranged to enforce a separa
in direct proportion to the'degree of reduction
tion of the armature H from the pole faces 9 and in energization of'the coils l3 and M as detected 65
it which is in inverse proportion to the magneto
by the rotation of the armature 31. In this man
motive force obtaining between these pole pieces ner, the flux in the armature l? and consequently
9 and Ill. The preferred apparatus for effecting the tractive force acting thereon is maintained
such operation is shown in Figs. 2 to 5 inclu
at a constant ‘value regardless of the decrease 70
sively, and comprises a vertical shaft 33 positioned in the magnetomotive force or the energization
midway between the cores 1 and 8 with its lower of the relay coils I3 and I4.
I
end rounded and engaging the upper surface of
The converse action of the armature 31 is of
the armature I‘! and its upper end threaded into course obvious, or that is, the shaft 33 will be
a bushing 34. The bushing 34 is shown as rotated counterclockwise in response to a grad 75
2,135,490
ual increase in magnetomotive force to thereby
screw the shaft 33 downwardly within the bush
ing 34. This downward motion of the shaft in
creases the reluctance of the magnetic circuit by
forcing the armature I'I farther from the pole
pieces 9 and I0 thereby preventing an increase of
flux.
" The pitch of the threads on the upper end of
the shaft 33 will, of course, depend on the char
10 ‘acteristics of the magnetic circuit and on the
' proportion of various other parts of the relay,
but it is to be understood that these threads must
be arranged to vary the air gap between the ar
mature I ‘I and the pole pieces 9 and I0 in such
15 a proportion to a change in magnetomotive force
that the flux in the armature I‘I remains at a
constant value.
~
'
a It was previously mentioned that the armature
'3'! is to respond only to changes which occur
20 gradually in the magnetomotive force or the
energization of coils I3 and I4, and the air gap
should'not be varied in response to an abrupt de
crease in relay energization. This is because the
purpose of regulating the air gap is to allow the
25 armature to at all times drop away with equal
certainty when the energization is quickly re
duced, and if the air gap were varied in response
to this quick reduction before the ~armature
dropped away, the bene?t of the previous air gap
30 regulation would be lost.
Consequently, the armature 31 is provided with
two flux retarding washers or slugs 43 of a non
magnetic current-conducting material, such as
copper, brass or aluminum, and these slugs 43
35 completely surround'the armature 31 at posi
tions‘ between the shaft 33 and the respective
enlarged ends or pole faces. An effective amount
of current is then induced in these Washers 43
when the ?ux in the armature 37 tends to change
40 quickly, which current acts to retard such change
in?ux in a manner which is well recognized in
the relay art. These slugs 43 will then act to re
tard a rapid decrease in flux in the armature 3'!
in response to a rapidly reduced relay energiza
tion, thereby preventing an effective rotation of
the armature 37 until the armature IT has been
released by the reduction of the ?ux permitted
by the inaction of they armature 37. However,
‘gradual changes in the relay energization or the
magnetomotive force will produce such a gradual
flux change through the armature 3'! that the
flux retarding slugs 43 are practically ineffective,
and the rotation of the armature 31. will follow
very closely such gradual changes in magnetomo
tive force.
It is to be understood, however, that although
the armature Il drops away before the armature
31 can respond to a, rapidly reduced ‘value of
magnetomotive force, the armature 31 will sub60 sequently respond to this reduced value by ro
tating to a position moving the shaft 33 down
wardly. However, when the armature I1 is
again attracted by a quickly increased value of
magnetomotive force, the armature 3'! will not
05 immediately rotate back to again raise the shaft
33, and during the operation of the armature 3'!
an air ‘gap will be momentarily provided which
isn'ot proportional to the newly increased mag
netomotive force.
'
In some applications such operation of the
armature 3'! while the‘ armature I1 is released,
may be objectionable, and consequently the pres
ent relay is provided with an upwardly extend
ing spring arm 44 suitably attached to a rear
wardly extending bracket 45 ?xed to the arma
3
ture I1 by screws 46 as shown in Fig. 3. The
upper end of the spring arm 44 is positioned
slightly to the rear of and out of engagement
with the edges of the previously mentioned sector
40 when the armature I1 is attracted, but when
the armature I‘! is released, the spring arm 44
is operated forwardly to engage the edge of the
sector 40 and thereby prevent further movement
of the shaft 33 while the armature I1 is in its
released position.
10
Inasmuch as it has been considered that the
rotation of the shaft 33 will not be more than
about one-fourth of a revolution, the sector 43
may have a quarter circular outer edge concen
tric with the shaft 33 as shown in Fig. 4, and the 15
right-hand edge may form a stop for the biased
direction of rotation by engaging the down
wardly extending head of the spring holding stud
39. The outer edge of the sector 40 may be
roughened or serrated to provide a better fric~ 20
tional contact with the spring arm 44.
The present device, of course, necessitates that
the normal or average energization of the coils
I3 and I4 be adjusted to a value which reliably 25
attracts the armature I ‘I from its deenergized
position, and low enough to permit reasonably
gradual variations either above or below this
normal value to fall within the range of opera
tion of the armature 31 in order to maintain a 30
constant ?ux in the armature El’.
This constant
armature ?ux must also be of a value which per
mits‘ the most reliable armature release in re
sponse to the degree of abrupt reduction in the
energization of coils I 3 and I4 which is effected 35
in the particular circuit application.
However, it is found in certain applications,
such as railway track circuits, that even though
the normal or average energization of the relay
coils is a correct value, the abrupt reductions in 40
energization may be of considerably different
magnitudes in different track circuits, due per
haps to the different weights of trains shunting
the track circuits, and the like. It then becomes
desirable that this constant flux value in the 45
armature I ‘I be adjusted to a value providing prop
er armature release in response to the degree
of the abrupt energy reduction resulting from
the particulartrain shunts, providing such ad
justment does not affect the degree of energiza 50
tion required to pick up the armature.
A rather simple means has consequently been
provided for manually adjusting the normal or
average air gap between the pole pieces 9 and
I0 and the armature I ‘I when attracted, to there 55
by select a normal ?ux value in the armature I‘?
which provides the maximum reliability of re~
sponse to the particular abrupt reduction of re
lay energization effected in each application. '
This means is shown in Fig. 5 as comprising a 60
pointer arm 48 extending forwardly from the
?ange of the bushing 34 and having a pointer
at its front end cooperating with arcuate gradu
ations suitably marked on the top plate I I. The
arm 48 may be rotated in either direction from 65
its illustrated position thus rotating the bushing
34 relatively to the shaft 33 to either move the
shaft 33 upwardly or downwardly to accordingly
vary the air gap between the armature I1 and
the pole pieces 9 and I0, and consequently vary
the normal value of flux in the’ armature IT.
The adjusted position of the arm 48 may be re
tained by a screw 49 threaded into the top plate
II and extending through a circular slot in the
outer end of the arm 48.
75
2,135,490
In Fig. 6‘ of the drawings, the same relay as
shown in Fig. 2 is illustrated as having windings
59 on the rotating armature 31 in addition to the
enters the track section to shunt the rails T, the
energization of the relay coils l3 and I4 is quickly
decreased, and inasmuch as the compensating ar
non-magnetic current-conducting washers 43,
mature 31 is retarded by‘ the washers 43 (not ,
which washers in this case, are made shorter to
provide space for the coils 59. The two Iwindings
shown in Fig. l) the flux decreases in the arma
ture wVI‘! beyond a point where the retaining force
5B are shown as connected in series by a ‘wire 5|
is overcome by the gravitational biasing force and
and in multiple with the main windings I3 and
thearmature I ‘I immediately drops away. The
dropping of the armature I1 then engages the
arm 44 with the sector 49 and prevents move
ment of the compensating armature 31 as long as
I4 by wires 52, and these windings 50 are arranged
10 to produce cumulative ?ux in the armature 31,
which ?ux is to flow in the same direction as the
' ?ux produced in the armature 31 by energization
of coils l3 and M. This arrangement in Fig. 6
substantially constitutes a shunt motor mecha
nism for rotating the shaft 33, wherein the wind
ings l3 and M supply the ?eld excitation coacting
with the armature flux supplied by windings 59,
and it is contemplated that additional torque
tending to rotate the shaft 33 throughout its 90
20 degree rotation against the biasing spring 38 may
thereby be provided. The washers 43 are intended
to retard the ‘response of the armature 31 to
rapid changes in energization of the relay in the
same manner as in Fig. 2.
The operation of ‘the previously described form
of the present relay may be more clearly set forth
by referring to Fig. l, in which a very diagram
matic representation of the preferred form of the
present invention is shown connected across one
end of two track rails T, the other rail ends being
connected to a battery B in series with a manually
adjustable resistor R to thereby normallyenergize
the windings of the present relay by current from
.the battery B flowing through the track rails T
35 in series. The parts of the present relay‘ which
are diagramatically shown in Fig. l have been
given the same reference characters as assigned to
the represented parts of the speci?c construction
already described, and obviously this track cir
40 cuit current flows through windings l3 and I4 to
attract and hold the armature IT in its upper
position, which current is adjusted by the varia
ble resistor R to provide .a predetermined desired
value of magnetomotive force which is su?icient
to easily attract the armature I‘! under normal or
average leakage current through the ballast sepa
rating the rails T when not shunted by a train.
The manually adjusting arm 48 (not shown in
Fig. 1) is now also adjusted to allowa ?ux value
‘the armature I‘! in response to this adjusted
.50 in
value of magnetomotive force, which produces a
tractive force reliably retaining the armature I‘!
in its attracted position, but which permits the
reduction in magnetomotive force effected by the
55 train shunt obtaining on the particular track sec
tion to reduce this ?ux value considerably below
the value at which the relay armature l ‘I is found
to drop away. In other words, the means for
manually adjusting the air gap normally sepa
rating the armature I‘! from the pole pieces 9 and
l 0 provides a simple and convenient means for ad
justing the release value of the relay armature
without affecting the pick-up value.
When the inter-rail leakage current changes in
65 the track circuit of Fig. 1, due, for example, to
weather changes, the changes in relay energiza
tion resulting therefrom occur gradually and the
armature 37 rotates in a corresponding direction
accordingly, thereby increasing or decreasing the
reluctance of the magnetic circuit in inverse pro
7.0 portion
to the change in magnetomotive force pro
duced by the change in energization to maintain a
constant flux, and obviously a constant tractive
force acting on the armature I‘! in the manner
previously described.
However, when the train
the track rails T are shunted.
.10
It may be men
tioned that this means for preventing the opera
tion of the compensating armature 31 while the
armature I‘! is released may be omitted from the 15
present devices and yet retain the most desirable
operating characteristics, but in order to prevent
unnecessary operation of armature 31 as pre
viously outlined, its incorporation is considered
advantageous.
7
An air gap compensating means is thus pro
vided which operates to maintain a constant force
120
retaining the armature IT in its attracted posi
tion regardless of various gradual changes in the
energization of the relay. This arrangement then ; -
insures that the relay armature releases in re
sponse to a rapid reduction of energization with
the same certainty regardless of the degree of
energization of the relay coils which had prevailed
before the rapid energy reduction.
30
In the .modi?ed form of the present invention
shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, substantially the same
main magnetic structure has been shown in order 7
to simplify the disclosure, but the mechanical con
struction of the compensating means is entirely
different although the principle of operation is
substantially the same. The speci?c construction
in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 comprises a horizontal mag
netic shaft 55 rotatably supported in front of the
pole pieces 9 and ID by two brackets 56 ?xed to 40
the top plate I I by bolts 5'! and nuts 58, which
brackets 56 carry threaded pins 59 having re
duced ends entering holes in each end of the
shaft'55, as shown in Fig. 8. The pins 59 being
threaded into the brackets 56 may be adjusted
longitudinally to permit free rotation of the shaft
55 but substantially no longitudinal movement,
and lock nuts 60 threaded on the pins 59 may be
employed to hold the pins 59 in, such adjusted
positions.
The ends of the magnetic shaft 55 carry mag
60
netic vanes 62 and B3 clamped on reduced di
ameter ends thereof by nuts 64, and these vanes
are spaced to magnetically coact with the outer
vertical edges of the pole pieces 9 and I0 re 55
spectively through small separating air gaps.
The armature i‘! in this embodiment is, consid
erably shorter than the spacing of the vanes 62
and 63, both for the purpose of clearing these
vanes and to minimize the magnetic effect be 60
tween the vanes and the armature. A cam mem
ber 65 is suitably attached to the center of the
shaft 55 which cam 55 engages an enlarged head
of a screw 66 threaded into a forwardly extending
arm 61 suitably attached to the armature l1, the 65
screw 66 being locked in position by a nut 68.
A coil spring 69 is provided around the shaft
55 with a center loop engaging the lower edge of
a forwardly extending arm 10 on the cam mem
ber 65, and the extreme outer ends of the spring 70
69 extend over the top of the shaft 55 toward
the pole pieces 9 and ID with upwardly bent ends
entering holes (not shown) in the top plate 'I I.
The shaft 55 is thus biased in a counter-clock
wise direction of .rotation. which direction of ro
5
2,136,490
tation is limited by a screw ‘H threaded through
the, top plate H and locked by a nut 12 so that
its lower end may engage the cam arm 10 when
operated to its extreme upper position.
be clearly seen from Fig. 7, or that is, these vanes
are magnetically attracted upwardly against the
intermediate position of the shaft 55.
act with the respective pole pieces 9 and I0 may
force of the spring 69 to register more of their
10 vertical surfaces with the outer surfaces of their
respective pole pieces as the energization of coils
l3 and M is increased, thereby rotating the shaft
55 in a clockwise direction in accordance with
the degree of energization of the relay. The cam
15 65 is arranged as shown in Fig. '7 so that this
clockwise rotation engages portions on its periph
ery with the head of the screw 66 which are of
continuously increasing radii, thus forcing the
armature I1 away from the pole pieces 9 and ID.
The pro?le of the cam 65 is then arranged to at
all times enforce an air gap between the arma
ture I‘! and the pole pieces 9 and In which is in
inverse proportion to the magnetomotive force
prevailing between the pole pieces.
In order to retard the operation of the vanes
in response to an abrupt change in magnetomo
tive force, two sleeves 13 are provided on the
shaft 55 between the cam member 65 and the two
vanes 62 and 63, which sleeves are of a non-mag
- T netic current-conducting material.
These sleeves
13 then act as a ?ux retarding choke means
which opposes a rapid change in the value of
flux ?owing from one vane to the other through
the shaft 55,»but are comparatively ineffective to
retard gradual ?ux changes.
The construction of the relay to which the
modi?ed compensating means shown in Fig. '7
and Fig. 8 has been applied has been considered
to be the same as previously described, in con
nection with the other embodiments, but some
modi?cations are obviously necessary such as the
U-shaped armature-supporting bracket l8 (not
shown in Fig. 8) , which in this case must be made
wider in order to clear the vanes 62 and 63, and
also the inner vertical edges of the pole pieces 9
and Ill are preferably plain in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8
instead of concave as shown in Fig. 4.
Suitable contactsare of course to be operated
by the armature l1 and such contacts are usual
ly sufficiently ?exed when engaging the asso
ciated upper ?xed contacts so that the varia
tionsl‘in position of the armature l1 as caused
‘ by the compensating means will not affect the
, resistance of the electrical circuit therethrough.
The edge of the cam 65 which contacts with the
head of the screw 66 has been rounded as shown
tore-duce the frictional resistance to the rotation
thereof to a minimum.
6,0
The operation of the modi?ed form of the
present invention illustrated in Fig. '7 and Fig. 8
when applied to the railway track circuit of Fig.
1 is substantially the same as the other forms,
or that is, when the track circuit current is ad
a
7,0.~
through the shaft 55, and to the other pole pieces
through the other vane, which ?ux produces an
upward attraction of the vanes 62 and 63 which
is equally opposed by the spring 69 only at an
The manner in which the vanes 62 and 63 co
3.0
ing made because the normal degree of ener
gization of coils l3 and I4 produces a flux ?owing
from one pole piece, through the associated vane,
The shaft 55 will now be rotated in either di
rection by an upward or downward movement of
the vanes‘ 62 and 63 in accordance with the
gradual changes in the energization of coils l3
and M which may be caused by natural changes
in the inter-rail leakage'current. The rotation
of shaft 55 then varies the reluctance of the 16
magnetic circuit by the cam 65 in such a propor
tion tov the changes in the energization of coils
i3 and M that the flux in the armature I1 is
maintained at the value selected by the screw 66.
However when a train enters the track section, 20
the energization of coils l3 and I4 is quickly de
creased, but due to the flux retarding sleeves 13,
the flux in the shaft 55 does not immediately
decrease proportionally, and consequently the
reluctance of the magnetic circuit is not effec 25
tively changed by a rotation of the cam 65 before
the armature l1 drops away. A means for pre
venting a movement of the air gap regulating
means while the armature I1 is dropped away has
not been shown in this modified form, but it is 30
obvious that an arm operated by the armature
IT, as shown in Fig. 3, could operate in a similar
manner to engage an extension of the vanes 62
and 63, forexample, and thus prevent rotation
of the shaft 55 while the armature I1 is in its 35
released position.
In all the forms of the present disclosure, it
has‘ been considered that the variations in the
amount of flux passing through the compensat
ing magnetic structures according to their ro
tated positions do not materially affect the
amount of flux passing through the armature
ll, except due to the effected change in air gap,
but it is obvious that the flux path through the
armature 31 or the shaft 55 is in multiple with
the path through the armature l7, and in some
cases, it may be found that a change in position
of the compensating means materially affects the
armature l'l apart from the air gap variation.
However, it is contemplated that in this case,
the only result would be an over-compensation
which could be recti?ed by a change in tension
of the springs 38 or 69.
A simple and compact relay has thus been pro
vided which is particularly adaptable to nor
mally energized circuits in which it is desirable
to detect,‘ with great certainty, an abrupt re
duction in the energization thereof. Many of
such'norrnally energized circuits are materially
affected by changes in natural conditions, such as
gradual variations in the electromotive force of
the source of energy, and changes in the inter
rail leakage current in track circuits caused by
equal certainty regardless of the natural condi
tions which had prevailed previous to such abrupt
tracted position may then be adjusted by the
reduction.
screw 66, under conditions providing‘ a normal or
eration is accomplished is particularly reliable
and advantageous because the reliability of the
energizing circuit is in no way impaired by the
average inter-rail leakage current, to produce a
50
55
60
varying weather conditions, and the present relay
justed by the variable resistor R to a value, which
by flowing through the windings l3 and I4 pro
duce a ?ux which reliably attractsthe armature
I‘! from its released position, the air gap between
the pole pieces and the armature when in its at
, flux value which affords a. reliable armature re
40
provides a means for detecting an abrupt reduc 65
tion in the energization of such a circuit with
The manner in which the above op
lease in response to a train shunt. The shaft
55 is of courseassuming an intermediate posi
use of automatically variable resistors or the like,
but rather a simple and positive means has been
tion when the adjustment of the screw 66 is be
employed to regulate the reluctance of the relay’s
7.5
2,135,490
6
magnetic circuit, thus preventing continued op
eration from altering the electrical characteris
tics of ‘the energizing circuit in any manner.
The above rather speci?c description of the
embodiments of the present invention is given
solely by the way of example, and is'not intended,
in ‘any manner whatsoever, in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that ‘various modi
?cations, adaptationsand alterations may be ap
10 plied‘to meet the requirements of practice, with
out in any manner departing from the spirit or
scope of the present ‘invention, except as limited
by the appended claims.
‘
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
‘l. A relay having in combination, a 'U-shaped
magnetic structure, windings on the magnetic
structure, amain armature attracted to a posi
tion magnetically joining the ends of the U
shaped magnetic structure When current above
20
operation of said means vbeing delayed in re
sponse to changes in current in theelectromagnet
which occur abruptly.
5. In a relay, an electromagnet having spaced
extending pole pieces, a contact-operatingarma Cl
ture positioned to magnetically-connect the pole
pieces and ‘to vary the reluctance of the magnetic
circuit of the electromagnet in accordance With
its proximity to the pole pieces, a rotatable ar
mature positioned between the pole pieces and 10
rotatable against a biasing spring to various po
sitions in accordance with the magnetomotive
force existing between/the'pole pieces, and means
enforcing a separation of the contact operating
armature from the pole piecesin accordance with
the position of the rotatable armature whereby
the magnetic flux in the contact operating arma
ture is maintained a‘ constant value regardless
of changes in the magnetomotive force of the,
electromagnet.
'
'
a predetermined value ‘?ows in the windings, a
V 6. In a relay having electromagnetic structure
threaded shaft interposed between the armature
including windings about spaced magnetic cores,
and the magnetic structure whereby the proxim
the cores being magnetically joined at their upper
ity of ‘the armature to the ends of the magnetic
25 structure may be determined in accordance with
the rotated position of the threaded shaft, a
magnetic member carried by the threaded shaft
and coacting with the ends of the U-shaped
magnetic structure whereby to rotate the shaft,
ends and having enlarged pole pieces at their;
lower ends attached beneath a non-magnetic top 25
plate; an armature operable toward and away
from‘thellower surface of the pole pieces, a verti
cal shaft between the pole pieces and having a
lower end engaging the armature with an upper ,
end threaded into a holding member manually 30
rotatable within the top plate, amagnetic mem
ber attached to the shaft and coacting'with'the
2; In a relay of the class wherein an armature vertical edges of the pole pieces in a manner to
is moved toward an electromagnet in response magnetically effect rotation of the shaft in'one
to a degree of energization of the electromagnet
direction, a spiral spring acting‘v in opposition to 35
which is ,above ajpredetermined value and said the magnetic rotation of the shaft, a horizontal
armature is moved away from the electromagnet sectcr‘attached to theshaft, and an arm operated
by a biasing means when the degree of energiza
by the armature toward the edge of the sector
tion of the electromagnet falls "below said pre-. when the armature is operated away from the
‘
V
determined value, the combination of, regulating pole pieces.
means variably limiting the distance of move
7. In a relay having electromagnetic structure
ment of the armature toward the electromagnet including windings about spaced magnetic cores, '
inaccordance with the degree-of energization of the cores being magnetically joined attheir upper
ends and having enlarged pole pieces at their
the electromagnet, and means retarding the re
sponse of .the regulating means to abrupt changes lower ends attached beneath anon-magnetic top 45
in the degree of energization of the electro
plate; an armature operable toward and away
magnet.
from the lower surface of. the ‘pole pieces, a verti
‘3. In a relay of the class wherein an arma
cal shaft between the pole pieces and having a
ture is held'toward an electromagnet in response lower end engaging the armature with an upper
to a degree of energizationof the electromagnet end threaded into a holding member manually 50'
which is above a predetermined value and said rotatable within the top plate, a-magneticmem
armature is moved away from the electromagnet ber attached to the shaft and, coacting with the
by a biasing means when the degree of ener
vertical edges of .thepole ‘pieces, a winding on'the
gization of the electromagnet falls below .said magnetic member arranged when energized to
predetermined ‘value, the combination of regu
magnetically effect rotation .of the shaft in one
lating means variably ‘limiting the movement of direction, aspiral spring acting in opposition to,
the armature toward ‘the electromagnet in, ac
the ‘magnetic rotation of the shaft, a horizontal
cordance with ‘the degree of energization of the sector attached tolthe shaft, and van arm operated
electromagnet, means retarding ‘the response of by ‘the armature toward the edge vof. the sector
the regulating means ‘to abrupt changes in the when the armature is operated ‘away from "the 60
degree of energization of the electromagnet, and pole pieces.
‘
"
locking means ‘preventing operation of the regu
8. ‘In a relay having an electrom'agneti-cstruc- '
lating means while vthe armature .is operated time including windings about spaced magnetic
away from the e'lectromagnet by ‘the biasing cores, the cores ‘being magnetically joined at
their upper ends and having enlarged pole pieces 65
Ll. Ina relay, an electromagnet having two at their lower ends ‘attached beneath ‘a non
extending pole pieces, an armature operable ‘to
magnetic topplate; an armature operable'toward
ward thepole pieces when current above a pre
and away ‘from the' lower surface of "the pole
determinedvalue ‘?ows in the .electromagnet and pieces, a magnetic'shaift rotatably carried ‘by the
operable away from the pole pieces bylgravita
top plate, rotatory biasing means acting on the 70
tional force when said current falls below said shaft, magnetic vanes ‘?xed to the ends of ‘the
predetermined value, and means .coacting with shaft and coacting with the outer vertical sur
the pole pieces ‘for variably separating the arma
faces of the pole pieces whereby the shaft‘isro
ture from the ,pole‘ pieces ‘in accordance with the tated .in opposition- to the rotatory ‘biasing means
amount of current‘ in the electromagnets, the in accordance with the magnetomotive force ob-'
and an arm .on the armature operable to pre
vent rotation of theshaft while the armature
is .1111 its unattracted position.
'
40
55
60
65
70
75
as’
means.
i
.
2,135,490
taining between the pole pieces, a cam operating
to ‘enforce a separation of the armature from
the pole pieces in accordance with the rotated
position of the shaft, and a non-magnetic cur
rent-conducting sleeve on the shaft whereby to
retard the rotation of the shaft in response to an
abrupt change in the magnetomotive force be-v
tween the pole pieces.
9. In a relay wherein an electromagnet is nor
10 mally energized to attract an armature toward
pole pieces of the electromagnet, the combination
of a magnetic shaft rotatably held in a de?nite
relation to the pole pieces, magnetic vanes on the
ends of the shaft coacting with the pole pieces
15 in a manner to rotate the shaft, biasing means
opposing such rotation of the shaft whereby the
shaft is rotated to various positions depending on
the strength of the magnetomotive force between
the pole pieces, means retarding the rotation of‘
20 the shaft in response to an abrupt change in the
strength of said magnetomotive force, and cam
means on the shaft operating on the armature
to thereby regulate the separation of the arma
' ture from the pole pieces in inverse proportion to
25 gradual changes in the strength of said magneto
motive force.
'
1
ed position when the track circuit‘ is unshunted, a
compensating armature in the relay movable to
various positions in accordance with the degree
of energization of. the relay, means operated by
the compensating armature to move the con
tact-operating armature in a manner to maintain
a constant flux‘ in the contact-operating arma
ture regardless of gradual changes in the normal
energization of the relay, and means retarding the
response of the compensating armature to an 10
abrupt decrease in energization of the relay,
whereby to permit the contact-operating arma
ture to drop away in response to a shunt on the
track circuit before the compensating armature
eifectively moves in response to such shunt.
15
14. In a track circuit, a track relay, a ?rst ar
mature in the track relay attracted or released
in accordance with the unshunted or shunted
condition of the track circuit, and a second ar
mature in the track relay regulating the at 20
tracted position of the ?rst armature in accord
ance with gradual changes in the degree of en
ergization of the track relay when unshunted,
whereby to permit the release of the ?rst arma
ture in response to a shunt on the track circuit 25
with equal certainty regardless of the prevailing
V 10. In a relay wherein an electromagnet is nor
ballast condition in the track circuit. ~
mally energized to attract an armature toward
15. In a track relay, a ?rst armature attracted
or released in accordance with abrupt changes in
the degree of energization of the relay, and a 30
second armature regulating the attracted posi
tion of the ?rst armature to maintain a constant
?ux density in the ?rst armature regardless of
pole pieces of the electromagnet, the combination
30 of a magnetic shaft rotatably held in a de?nite
relation to the pole pieces, magnetic vanes on the
ends of the shaft coacting with the pole pieces in
a manner to rotate the shaft, biasing means 0p
posing such rotation of the shaft whereby» the
shaft is rotated to various positions depending on
the strength of the magnetomotive force between
the pole pieces, means retarding the rotation of
gradual changes in the degree of energization
of the relay.
35
16. In a track relay, an electro-magnet hav
ing extending pole pieces, an armature operable
the shaft in response to an‘ abrupt change in the
toward said pole pieces when current above a
strength of. said magnetomotive force, cam means
predetermined value flows in the electro-magnet
and operable away from the pole pieces by grav 40
40 on the shaftoperating on the armature to there
by‘ regulate the separation of the armature from
the pole pieces in inverse proportion to gradual
changes in‘ the strength of said magnetomotive
force, and means for manually adjusting the
45 separation of the armature from the pole pieces
which permits subsequent regulation thereof by
the cam means.
I
‘11. In a relay, two vertical magnetic cores
joined at one end and having enlarged pole pieces
50 at the other ends, a non-magnetic member-hold
ing the cores, windings on the cores, an arma
ture operable toward or away from the pole pieces
in accordance with the degree of energization
of the windings, a manually rotatable member
55 in the core holding member, a shaft threaded
into the manually rotatable member and engag
ing the armature when operated toward the pole
pieces, and means for automatically rotating the
shaft in accordance with gradual changes in the
60 degree of. energization of the windings.
12. A relay having in combination, an electro
magnet having an incomplete magnetic core, a
contact operating armature operable to a position
completing the core of the electromagnet, and
65 magnetic means automatically providing a length
of air gap between the armature and the core
of the electromagnet which is in inverse propor
tion to the degree of energization of the electro
magnet, wherebyto maintain a constant value
70 of magnetic ?ux in the armature regardless of
gradual changes in the degree of energization of
the electromagnet.
13. In a normally energized track circuit, a
relay energized by the track circuit current to
75 hold a contact-operating armature in an attract
itational force when said current falls to‘ a pre
determined lower value, slow acting adjusting
means for variably separating the armature from
the pole pieces when in its attracted position in
accordance with gradual changes in the potential 45
across said electro-magnet, and means for look
ing said adjusting means upon dropping of said
armature.
I 1'7. In a relay, a magnetic core structure ter
minating in two pole pieces, a winding mounted 50
on the core, an armature biased to a position
away from the pole pieces and movable toward
said pole pieces in response to magnetic flux
created by current supplied to the winding, a
magnetic shunt path including a magnetizable 55
member movable to different positions relative
to said pole pieces for regulating the ?ux which
passes through the armature in response to
variations in the magnitude of the current sup
plied to the winding, and means controlled in 60
part by said armature for governing the posi
tion of said member.
18. In a relay, a magnetic core structure ter
minating in two pole pieces, a winding mounted
on said core, an armature mounted for move
65
ment relative to said pole pieces in response to
magnetic ?ux created by current supplied to said
winding, an auxiliary magnetizable member
mounted for movement relative to said pole pieces
in response to such magnetic ?ux for regulating 70
the ?ux through the armature in response to
variations in the current strength supplied to the
winding, a biasing device for governing the posi
tion of said member when in?uenced by the ?ux,
and means controlled by said armature operative 75
8'
area-r90:
when the armature is‘ released in. response. to.
de'energizing the winding to‘ retain. said auxiliary
member at the position. to which it was moved
?ux created by current. ?owing in said winding,
by the magnetic. flux;
magnetic
an auxiliary
pathmovable
in shuntarmature
with said main
disposed
armature‘
in
and responding to variations in the. current in
said winding, spring means for biasing said aux
iliary armature with a force varying with its
position toward a position for maximum reluc
tance of said. shunt path, said auxiliary arma 110-.
ture' assuming, different positions in its. magnetic
shunt path dependent upon the strength of the
.
19. In combination, a section of railway track‘,
a source of. current connected across: the rails of:
said‘ section, an electromagnet receiving’ current
from. said rails and‘ having an armature ad
justed for operation when the‘ magnetic ?ux‘ act
ing thereon is‘ that‘ created by a predetermined
value of current, amovable magnetizable mem
ber operable to: different positions‘ relative to’
the core structure of the electromagnet for regu
lating the flux which passes through said arma
ture to reduce in the. armature the. ?ux created
by currents greater than said predetermined
value, and means controlled in part by the posi~
tion. of said armature for governing. the position
of said member.
201'
for movement away from said pole pieces and
attracted: toward said pole pieces: by magnetic?
current in said winding, and means actuated
by’ movement of said main armature to its rc
tracted position for retaining said auxiliary ar 195?
mature in its then existing position.
23., A relay of the direct current tractive type
for use’ on railroads comprising, a core structure
the magnetic flux through the armature when
current above a predetermined value is sup-plied
to the Winding, and a short-circuited winding
mounted on the shunt path for delaying the
dying away and the building up of flux through
said shunt path.
21. In combination, a section of railway track,
and a winding for attracting a biased movable
armature. to open. and close contacts, a magnetic 26;
movable member disposed in a magnetic ?ux
path in shunt with said armature, spring means
for biasing said member to a position for the
maximum reluctance of said shunt path, said
member being moved inv opposition to said spring
means by variations in the current flowing insaid
winding; to different positions dependent upon
the: magnitude- of such.‘ current, means asso
ciated with» said movable member for delaying a
change in its position in response to a change 301~
in the current in. said winding, and means. re
sponding to the movement of said armature toits
retracted. position for retaining said member in
the position existing at the time said armature
a source of current connected across the rails
assumes its retracted position.
‘20. In a relay; a: magnetic, core structure ter
minating in two- pole pieces, a winding mounted
on said core; an armature mounted for move
ment. relative to said pole pieces in response to:
magnetid ?ux created by current supplied to
2a vsaid winding, a magnetic shunt path including
a magnetizable member mounted for magnetic
relationship with said pole pieces for regulating
,
24-. In av relay of the type described, a magnetic
of said section, a track relay receiving current
from said rails and adjusted for release of its
core structure‘ terminating in two spaced pole
' armature at a predetermined value of current,
pieces, a winding on said core structure, a main
a movable magnetizab-le member mounted» for
movable armature attracted toward said pole
pieces by- the magnetic flux in said core structure 44-)
movement relative to the pole pieces of the relay
by flux ?owing in multiple with said armature,
produced by current flowing in said winding,
and means to» associate movement of the member
with movement oi’- the armature’ whereby a-v
means including a.- biased movable auxiliary ar
mature disposed in a magnetic flux path in shunt
gradual change in the ballast resistance of the.
section automatically changes the setting of the
passing through said main armature depending,
member but a sudden decrease in the energizing
current to release the: armature causes the mem
ber to be retained in its former setting.
22. A relay of the» direct current. tractive type
for use with track circuits on railroads com,-»
prising, a magnetic core structure forming two.
spaced polle- pieces, a winding on said core struc
ture, a main contact operating armature biased
with said main armature for varyingthe ?ux
upon the magnitude of current in said winding,
a short-circuited winding associated with said
shunt path for retarding a change of flux there
in, and means» actuated by movement of said
main'armature to its retracted position for hold-. 5(11
ing said auxiliary armature inv its then. existing
position.
~
>
EDWIN O. BLODGETT.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 664 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа