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Патент USA US2135699

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Nov. 8, 1938. ' '
Filed Jan. 13,- 1936' -
7 Sheets-Shéet 1
‘aw/f “MW
Nbv. 8, 1938.
Filed Jan. 15, 1936
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Filed Jan. 15, 1936
'7 Sheets-Sheet 5
Nov. 8, 1938.
Filed Jan. 13, 1936
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Filed Jan. 13, 1936
'7 Sheets-Sheet 6
Nov. 8, 1938.
Filed Jan. 13, 1936
7 Sheets-Sheet ‘7
‘Patented Nov. a, 1938 l v ,
' ‘2,135,599 I
Harris 8. Campbell, Willow Grove, Pa., assignor
to Antogiro Company of America, Willow -'
Grove, Pa” a corporation of Delaware ,
Application January 13, 1936, Serial No. 58,831
This invention relates to an improved vehicle- provision of all the necessary functions for air
- adapted for alternative use as an aircraft and as
a road or land vehicle.
and ‘road travel, and ready conversion ' between
the two, the invention also has in view a num
_One of the principal objects of the invention
5 is the provision of a vehicle ‘or aircraft which
is readily convertible for use in the air or for
ber of more or less speci?c objects as follows:
Inaccordance with’one feature of the inven-_ ' 5
tion, provision is made for the employment of a
use on theground, particularly for road travel._ power'talre-o?, clutch and
In‘ consequence of the means provided for this '
purpose, the usefulness of aircraft may be greatly
extended, for instance, by virtue of the fact that
my improved aircraft may be‘landed at a point
in the neighborhood of any desired destination,
adapted for the delivery of
for driving the machine on
for the delivery of torque‘ to the sustaining rotor
for the purpose of initiating rotation thereof prior
to take-oil. This latter function‘ is preferably
Though not limited'in this respect, _a carried out ‘in the manner described and claimed
this type is oi’ especial usefulness for, in the co-pending application‘ of Juan de la =15
private ownership and operatiomin accordance Cierva, Serial No, 738349, ?ied August 3, 1934,
and then converted for road travel from that
r point to any desired location'on the highways or
with which an owner may readily stow his‘ craft - in which application‘ means are disclosed for im~ _
in a garage adjacent to his home and then drive , parting rotation to the rotor above the normal .
the’machine 0n the highways 'to a point suitable-l ,R. P. M. while the blades are set at a relatively
for take-oil’, at which the machine may be ‘con-‘l low or zero incidence. In eifecting a take-oil’:
verted for air travel and then ?own to any de-' in this way, the ineidence of the blades is set up
preferably to a value higher than the usual auto- '
sired destination.
' With the above purposes in view, the invention rotational incidence of ?ight, with the result that
contemplates a machine having a sustaining ro the machine takes 01! substantially vertically, i. e.,
tor, preferably of the air actuated and-multi
bladed type, the blades of which are readily fold
i 26
able for storage so as ‘to occupy a minimum of
' or automatically as by an overrunning' clutch) I
and after the initial “hop’.’_ the propulsive air
. 30' Still further, provision is made for steering,
braking, an
landing wheels so as to
on the ground.
The machine, of "course, is also equipped with
full controls for'air travel.‘ ’ Preferably these con
trols comprise a movable mounting for the sus:
screw carries the machine away in translational-30
?ight. This‘type of take-oi! is of especial use
in connection with features of the present inven
tion for the reason that highways themselves
may provide adequate space for landings and
take-oils. Thus, the machine may he landed on
a highway close to‘ an
taining rotor of the type disclosed, for example,
ultimate destination and ‘
in the co-pending application of Juan de is
Ciel-‘vs, Serial Number 645,985, ?ied December 6, driven from vthere to the desired location.
1932. While this type of control need?not be 4 ‘11m invention is ofespecial‘importance in the
. "direct cont
" and‘ "direct take-oil" type of
considered in detail herein, it should be noted
that it is especially adaptable’ to the present pur , craft because such a craft may operate safely -i 40
poses for-the reason that control in pitch and'roll under more" adverse weather and terrain condi- I
yaw) is readily a?orded
control sur
airplanes, particularly the
ailerons and/or ?xed (‘wings for mounting the
ailerons. While I also contemplate folding of
the sustaining blades for storage and'for road
travel, the details of mechanism ‘providing for,
road travel would be desirable.- >
The invention contemplates the provision of
drive shafting for transmitting torque from the
iprime mover to'the rotor for take-oil purposes
and also from the prime mover to the wheels for
such folding'need‘not be discussed in detail here driving purposes. Still more specifically, the driv
for transmitting~ torque from
in since they are already known and are shown, ing in
'for example, in patent of ‘Harris SlCampbell, No. the power take-off unit above mentioned to the
1,989,544, issued January 29, 1935.
~ In.addition to the more or less-generaLob
' rotor and to the wheels. are each equipped with
a. clutch device whereby the drives may selectively
iects and advantages referred to above such as 4 be, engaged or disensased'.
Another-object of the invention is the provi
2,135,699Figure 9 is a front elevational view of_the struc
sion of controlling means for the clutches ‘just
ture shown in Figure 8.
At this point it should be noted that while I
have employed the term "aircraft” in referring to
the machine of this invention, it will be under:
stood that this term is not to be taken as exclud
referred to, which controlling means interrelates
the operation of the clutches in a manner to pro
vide for actuation thereof in the opposite senses.
Another feature of the invention is involved in
ing any of the land travel features embodied in
clutch means in addition to the others already
mentioned, which additional clutch means is
the machine.
The craft shown in Figure 1 includes a body iii
common to both drives (that is, the drive to the
rotor and the drive to the wheels), so that com
which, of course, is provided with an occupant's
compartment accessible, for example, through
10 plete disconnection of these drives may be effect
ed during air travel, at which time the full power
The sustaining rotor comprises a
of the prime mover, of course, should be delivered plurality of blades l2 which are attached to the
to the propulsive air-screw. The invention. fur- - common upright hub I! by flapping and drag
ther has in view adapting driving mechanism of pivots I24; and i211, the hub being mounted at the
top of a pylon or other support
As already
15 the character already mentioned, to different ar
rangements of landing wheels, as will be brought mentioned, for purposes of control in ?ight, the
hub of the rotor is preferably mounted for move
out more fully hereinafter.
ment, as by pivots, one of which appears at I30, in
According to the invention, structure is pro
vided for shock absorption upon landing and also accordance with the disclosure of the de la Clerva
for braking and steering the landing wheels, in application, Serial Number 645,985. Though not
essential, the machine is preferably equipped with
addition to driving them.
In order to increase the safety of travel of the a rudder I5 which may suitably project'rear
craft on the ground and also for other purposes wardly from the fuselage and from the vertical
more fully discussed hereinafter, the invention fin IS. The empennage further includes horizon
tal stabilizing surfaces l‘l preferably having up
25 makes provision for stowing the propulsive air
screw in a suitable compartment provided in the turned tips i8, the overall width of which, for the
body of the machine, in view of which, operation sake of road travel, approximates that of the
of the propulsion engine on the ground is not undercarriage later to be described.
The arrangement of Figures 1 and 3 incor
dangerous. Related to this feature is the provi
_sion of a fan (preferably also including a ?y porates a pair of forward landing wheels l9 sup
wheel) which may readily be mounted in place of ported by suitable struts 20 and 2|, and a single
the propulsive air-screw when the machine is to rear landing wheel 22 which, in accordance with
be driven on the ground. Thus, adequate cooling the disclosure of the co-pending application of
of the engine is provided for during road travel Agnew E. Larsen, Serial Number 39,671, filed
September 9, 1935, is located rearwardly of the
35 and (when the fly wheel feature is also adopted)
smoothness of the engine operation is increased center of gravity of the machine as a whole
so as to better adapt it to operation at lowspeeds though relatively close to the center of gravity.
Thus, the three wheels support the craft on the 40'
such as required at times on the ground.
How the foregoing objects and advantages are ground in tripod fashion. If ‘desired, a tail skid
secured, together with others which will occur to 23 may be employed in order to prevent damage
more apparent
to the empennage.
from the following description making reference
to the accompanying drawings, in whic
Figure 1 is a side view of a machine constructed
in accordance with this invention, a portion of
45 the body being broken away to disclose the stow
The prime mover or propulsion engine 2| is
located in the nose of the machine and during air 45
travel drives the propulsive air-screw 25. This
screw is made readily dismountable so that dur
ing road travel it may be removed and stowed
age compartment for‘ the air-screw;
within a compartment 28 provided in the under
lustrate the stowage compartment;
air-screw in‘ this compartment is clearly shown
side of the body of the machine, in which it may 50
shaft 21 carrying a
the body of the machine shown in Figure 1, part be supported as by a pin orThe
mounting of the
of the covering being broken away to further il ' readily removable nut 28.
Figure 2 is a bottom-plan view of a portion of
Figure‘3 is a side elevational view of a number
of features of the driving mechanisms incorpor
ated in the machine of Figures 1 and 2, a portion
of the body of the machine being shown in this
view in dot and dash outline;
Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view through
the power take-off, clutch and gearing unit in
corporated in the arrangement of Figures 1 to 3
in Figure 2. This view also illustrates a fan
device 29 in dot and dash outline. the fan being
adapted for connection with the engine 24 in
of the machine on the ground. This fan includes
a rim 30 and blades 3! and is preferably of rela
tively heavy construction so as to serve also as
Figure 5 is a view somewhat similar to Figure
3- but illustrating a modified form of construc
Figure 6 is an enlarged vertical sectional view
taken through one of the landing wheels of the
65 arrangement of Figure 5 and showing features of
the mounting and driving mechanism therefor;
smoothing» out the r
operation of the engine, particularly at low speeds
as‘ may occur from time to time during road
From the above, and comparison of Figures 1,
2 and 3, it will be observed that the stowage com
partment 26 may be employed alteratively to‘
receive the air-screw and the fan. -
Referring further to Figure 2, the compartment
similar to the showing of Figure 4 but illustrat
ing a modi?ed form of power take-off, clutch and
is equippedwith a closure 32 which may com 70
prise a portion of the fabric or other similar
covering for the fuselage, which closure is
gearing unit;
33, by means of which a large opening may be
Figure 'I is an enlarged vertical sectional view ’
a fly wheel and thus aid in
' Figure 8 is a top plan view of the undercarriage
'1 ‘,_and landing wheels, with portions of the controls
' and driving mechanism for the wheels'also in
75 eluded; and
equipped with separable fasteners or “Zippers"
exposed for convenient insertion and removal of
the air-screw.
' -' 9,195,699
Because of the location of the rear wheel 22
movement so as to permit engagement and dis
relatively close to the center of gravity of the
machine, and also because of the displacement
of the two forward wheels well-forwardly of the
engagement of the dog clutch "-12. This en
gagement and disengagement may be effected in
’ a manner similar to that described above in con-' -
center of gravity, the supporting struts for,the
motion with‘ the collar 58. An ‘actuating arm
19 pivoted on the housing extension 18 as at 11
serves to move, a yoke 18 carrying rollers 19
riding in‘ the peripheral groove 88 of the collar
18. The push and pull rod 8| serves to actuate the lever 19 and vthus the dog clutch 1I-12.'
front wheels, need not, in all‘ cases, incorporate
shock absorbers. However, the two front wheels
are preferably mounted ‘for movement about
generally upright pivots I9a to provide for steer-V
10 ing, and, as seen in Figure 3,- a steering control
is provided in the form of foot-pedals‘34 ‘which
are coupled as by means of push-rods 35 with
the knuckles I 9b.
Shaft 14 is joined by universal joint 82 with
shaft 83 whichv extends in a generally upright
direction toward the rotor hub at which point it
is coupled with the hub by a second universal 82
‘and reduction gearing I 3b by means of which the
engine may be operated at a speed approximat-'
ing optimum e?iciency during use of the rotor
Torque is delivered to the rear wheel 22 by .a
bevel pinion 84 meshing with a cooperating bevel ~20
gear 85 having a shaft 89 journaled by bearings
81-91 in'a housing extension 88. Shaft 89 and
collar 99 are provided with complementary ele
ments 98 and 9| of a dog clutch serving to
couple shaft 88 with shaft 92 which, similarly to .25
the upper shaft for the rotor drive, is provided
The mounting for the rear wheel 22 includes
15 a relatively large shock strut 39 which is secured
to some of the main elements of the fuselage
frame. The wheel 22 is further carried by means
.of the fork 81 which is pivoted as at 38 so that
the wheel may move upwardly and downwardly
20 and landing shocks or road bumps may be cush
ioned. I This wheel is preferably also provided
,with'a brake, the speci?c structure. of which need
not be considered herein, valthough it is' men
tioned that the brake operating lever39a may be
operated by the control element‘ 39 connected
with the footpedal48.
At the rear of- the engine 24 a power take-off
with bearings 93 and93a.
shaft 4| projects, this shaft preferably being
- Journaled as by a bearing 42 within a housing 43.
30 At its rear end, the shaft 4| carries a drum or
comprises a yoke 94 carrying rollers .95 riding in
the peripheral groove 99 of the collar 89 which
is actuable by lever 91 pivoted at 98 'onthe 110115?
ing extension 88. The lever 91 isioined by aF
link 99 with a. still further lever I88 which is
movable with the ‘arm 19 underthe in?uence
oi’- the control rod 8|.
Thus it will be seen that thetwo ‘dog clutches '
(one for therotor drive and the other for the
wheel drive) are both actuable by a single con
trol element and upon examination of the draw
equivalentdevice 44 cooperating with the clutch
plate 45 which is. interposed between a pair of
.additional plates 46 and 41. '
Suitable friction’
material 48 may be interposed between the clutch
plates. The two plates“ and 41 are relatively
movable toward and away from each other axially
of the shaft 49, on which the plate 49 is directly
The actuating means for the‘ dog clutch\98-9I
carried. ' Shaft 49 may conveniently be journaled
. as by rollers 58 and bearings-5I-5I. These lat
ter bearings (5I—5I) also cooperate with the
housing 43 and the arrangement thus provides
ings it will be found that these two clutches
are actuated in the opposite sense. That is,
movement of the control rod 8| in a forward di
rigid support for-the driving shaft 4| as well as
the driven shaft 49 in ‘a single housing structure.
rection disengages clutch 1I--12 and engages
clutch 98—9I, and movement of the control rod
in the other direction engages clutch 1|--12 and
. The clutch 45-46—41 is operated upon move
ment of the plates 49 and 41 toward each other
to clamp the intermediate plate 45 therebetween.
disengages ~clutch 98-9I.
This is effected by ‘means of one or more actu
The drive shaft 92 for the wheel 22 is coupled
ating elements 52 pivoted as at 53 to ears 54
carried by the plate 49.- One end of the 'arm 52
50 is adapted to bear on the outer face of clutch
to an additional shaft |8| by'means of a uni
versal I82, and shaft I8I is in turn coupled to
the pinion shaft I83 by a slip joint I84 and
second universal I89 located close to the pivot 50
with respect to shaft _49 butmay bedisplaced
is carried by shaft 183 meshes with the ring gear
‘I81 mounted on‘the hub of wheel '22. This ar
rangement provides a speed reduction and thus
permits operating of the engine at a speed ap 55
plate 41 and the other end is connected by means
of apin>55 with a link 59,which in turn is pinned
to ears 51 provided on the collar 58. This latter
member is mounted vwith freedomv for rotation
point 38 of the wheel fork. The pinion I89 which
axially of the snaft so as to cause movement of
the actuating arms 52. Longitudinal movement proximating optimum efficiency during road
of the collar 58 is effected by a control lever 59 " travel. By virtue. of the universal and slip joints
pivoted on the housing 43 asat 98 and carrying . provided in the shafting 92, I 8| , and I83, pro
forks 9|, provided with rollers 9Ia, adapted to _' vision is made for
thetransmission of torque
regardless of movement of the wheel 22 for shock 80
engage and ride'in the peripheral groove '92 of
the collar 58. The lever59 may be moved .by
Referring now to the arrangement shown in *
- Figures 5 to 9 inclusive, referencev is ?rst made to ‘
‘means of the control rod 93 ‘which in turn is._ -
coupled with the control lever 94 pivoted at 9'9.
Torque is delivered from shaft 49 to the rotor
Figure 5 in which a pair of forward landing
‘wheels I88 appear, these wheels being carried by 65
tofshai't. 49 and which meshes with ‘a cooperating shock struts I89-(see also Figure. 9) and by the
bevel .gear ~91-niounted on shaft 98 ‘ ‘carried by ~ ‘struts lIIi which are pivoted to the fuselage
bearings 99-99 in a housing'extension 18. The framing at III and universaliy vJoined tothe
shaft 98 is provided with elements of. a dog clutch . wheel I supports as indicated at H2 in Figures
' by means ofv a bevel plnion'96 which is‘ splined '
“1| adapted to engage with complementary formed
elements 12 at the lower end of a sleeve “which
For further details of this structure reference
is movable axially on a shaft 14 journaled by ' shouldbe' made to Figure 6 from which it‘ will be
bearings 15 and 15a. The collar 13 and shaft seen thatthe lower element “3 of ‘the shock
14 are joined with freedom for'relative axial
strut ‘I89 is secured to the ?tting II4, this ?tting
ing its~ axes positioned substantially in the-plane
of the pivot pins IIB about which the wheelis
movable for steering. The'torque shafttexten
sion' I3! is splined
Ill which‘ in turn
being provided with a pair of apertured lugs III
the pins IIB, which latter cooperate
is secured to the wheel hub II! and thus serves
to transmit the driving torque through
The wheel hub III is carried on the spindle
“1 by means of bearings IIl-I IS.
The wheel hub is also provided with a drum
10 like ?ange I20 with which the internal expand
ing brake III cooperates. This brake may be
actuated by a ?uid pressure and piston device
I22 controlled through the ‘flexible tube I23.
ing to the wheel.
arrangement of‘ Figures 5m 9 inclusive, pro
vision is made for driving, braking, and‘ steerins I10
with a single pair of wheels, the wheels further
being" mounted and ‘with relatively long travel
shock absorption which may be desired to accom
Movement of the wheel about the ‘atria, rovided
-r From the foregoing it will be seen that in the
modate' landing shocksi" ‘
'- In 4 operation of ‘either form‘ of mechanism Z16
by pins I It is effected by a horn or arm I l which
above described, and assuming that a take-oi! is
‘to be made, the manipulations referred to below
the housing I28 of a di?erential to be referred
v After? starting of the propulsion engine (and
15 is coupled by the push rod I25 with a lever I16
which lever is pivoted to an ear I21 carriedion
may be followed:
to hereinafter. The remainder of ‘the'steei'ing with the~~air.-screw mounted-ethereon) IFthe' con- (20
connections include closed circuit'c‘ontrol
riding on pulleys
I30 which are carried on the struts IIII. Addi
tional pulleys II I‘ cooperate in bringing ' the‘ con
trol cable I29 to the drum ‘III on which the
cable is wound. The steering wheel I” serves
to move the cable 129 in either direction as indi
cated by the arrow Ill'in'Figure 8 and thus to
trol lever 8i is-pulledrearwardly sons to engage
the- dog clutch 1I—12 and disengage'the clutch
80—-8I. The master clutch ‘Hi-41 is now
engaged by a rearward movement of the control
lever I4 and the engine R. P. M.’s;are brought up :25
in a manner to gradually increase'rotation-ot‘ the
rotor until the desiredv valueifo'r take-oif'or-ior
“Jump-oi!” is reached» The main clutoh‘is “pref
rock lever I28 and actuate the‘horns I“ through the medium of- the push rod I25.
In addition to the arrangements for steering
and braking these wheels already described, the
,erablyreleased by forward-movement'oi lever I4
invention further‘ contemplates provision for
tional movement of the craft on the‘ ground.
and a take-oil is then effected. The wheel brakes (30
may, of course, be applied during the-time torque
is delivered to the rotor so as to prevent transla
driving this pair of wheels. The drive is accom
1 plished by a mechanism similar to that de
v Upon landing, the blades I! 'of the rotor may
folded over the>;tail by'movement—:ss
seen in Figures 5"and '1, a housing 43a serves to ~'
about the‘ drag pivots; lib and by rearward tilt
ing of the rotor hub on its control‘pivotiibe dot
just to the rear of the engine 24. The arrange
ment of “master" clutch described above in con
air-screw llmay'be removed ‘and replaced. by the
scribed above in connection with‘ Figure 4. As
mount the gearing and clutch unit in a position
nection with Figure 4 is also employed in the
:40 modification of Figures 5 to 9 and this mecha
and dash'llnes I!’ in Fig; 1).‘ Thereafter, the
fan 20. The machine may then ‘be driven on-the .40
ground or a highway by a- forward displacement
of the control rod II sons to disengage the rotor
clutch ~~‘lI--'I2 ~- and engage the-whéei-q-eiutch
nisrn will therefore not be described "again.
Similarly the modi?cation of“ Figures 5 to 9 ill-4i. Contrpl of the'throttla'of'the steering
contemplates the transmission of torque to the and braking ~- devices; of course. provide for
rotor" for starting or “jump-o?m'purposes and maneuvering on the ground.
parts employed to accomplish this are again .. with regard'to the two forms of structure ii
similar to those shown in Figure 4. " The phrts lustrated and described. it is pointed out that the
for driving the wheels, however, are somewhat mechanism is adaptable to several di?erent forms
modified. As'seen in Figure '7 the housing ex ,of- landing gear. Indeeddor this purpom; only
tension "a projects downwardly at a'di?erent relatively simple changes need be made in the
" 50 angle thanv that of Figure 4.‘
This housing ex _ ‘design of the‘ power‘ take-of! and gearing unit.
tension, however, serves ‘to mount operatin‘g'parts
I claim:
similar to those fully discussed above although
In an aircraft, a sustaining rotor, an engine.
it will be noted that the bevel pinion “a. is in _an undercarriage, mechanism for transmitting 55
verte'd~ in position so as to bring it into proper power from the engine to the rotor to drive the
relation‘ to-the cooperating‘ bevel gear 85a at its samefmechanism for transmittins power iron
new. angle.
> - '
the engine to the‘ uridercarriage for propulsion
The actuating mechanism OI, ‘I8, I", 99, and ‘on
the ground, a compact transmissionvunit in
This also the same as described abovéfalthough cluding
a ‘casing for parts of both of said mecha
the positions of the pirts are slightly modi?ed; -'
nisms,‘ a horizontal shaft supported in the casing,
The drive shaft forithe wheels Illa is in this ‘a
slipping clutch‘i'or connecting the horizontal
with a relatively long travel
4 shaft with the engine, a‘ pair of bevel gears
slip joint I“,
housed in said casing for transmitting power
'approximate‘parallelism of the drive shaft and from said shaft to the rotor, a second pair of
the shock struts‘ I”. The lower end of this
65 drive shaft'enters the differential housing I28 ‘bevel gears housed in said casing for transmitting
power from said shaft. to said undercarriage, for
and-this"housing'is interbraced with the_wheel each drive mechanism a positive or non-slipping
supporting fittings III by means of non-rotative clutch
with one of the ‘bevel gears
tubes I“. The internal structure of the differen
therefor, and a control for said positive ‘clutches 70
‘tial need ‘not ‘be shown herein since it may take incorporating interlocking means providingi’or
~70 the known form of the planetary gear type, or
alternative connectionof said positive clutches
may comprise a couple of free wheel devices, one and further‘providing against connection of both
.ioneach shaft I31. As best seen in Figure 6, of them at the same time.
each tube serves to house a torque shalt III
which is provided with a universal joint I” hav
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