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Патент USA US2135719

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Nov. 8, 1938.
H. KREFFT ET AL
2,135,719
ELECTRIC LAMP
Filed April 15. 1938
Inventors:
Hermann KreF-Ft,
Willy Wilde‘,
Kurblvarhe,
'— iv‘ Attorn e y.
2,135,719
Patented Nov.‘ 8, 1938.
_ UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE
‘2,135,719
ELECTRIOLAMP
Hermann Kreift, Berlin-Friedrichshagen, Willy
‘ Wilde, Berlin-Zehlen dorf,
and Kurt Larché,
Berlin-Tempelhof, Germany, assignors to Gen
eral Electric Company, a corporation of New
York
Application April 15, 1938, Serial No. 202,310
In Germany April 20, 1937
3 Claims.
'
('01. 176-11)
The present invention relates to electric lamps
and more particularly the invention relates to
- such lamps of the type comprising a sealed en
velope having mounted therein a gaseous electric
5 discharge lamp device and a ballast resistance
connected in series with said discharge device.
In such devices the resistance is mounted in
the space between the lamp container and the
envelope and is in the form of a ?lament capable
10 of being heated to incandescence by current flow
therethrough during the operation of the dis-'
charge device to supplement and complement
the light emitted by said discharge lamp device.
This is particularly desirable when the gaseous
' electric discharge lamp device contains a quan
tity of mercury the vapor of which is excited
-to luminescence during the operation of the de
‘vice since the light emitted by the ?lament is
rich in red rays which complement the light emit
20 ted by the discharge device which is de?cient in
such rays. When the discharge device is of the
high pressure mercury vapor discharge type it
put of the series ?lament. While the series ?la
ment does not emit, in such a case, sufficient light
to balance the light emitted by the discharge de
vice the auxiliary ?lament connected across the
terminals of the lamp can be so designed that it
supplies the required supplementary light dur
ing the operation of the lamp and operates at
the most favorable temperature.
'
Av particularly advantageous feature of the
new electric lamp is its emission of light from 10
the auxiliary ?lament immediately on the appli
cation of potential to the lamp.
The heat emit- -
ted by the auxiliary ?lament rapidly raises the ' -
container of the discharge device to its operating
temperature to shorten the starting period of
said device.
‘
In the drawing accompanying and forming part
of this speci?cation an embodiment of the inven
tion is shown in a front elevational view.
Referring to the drawing the electric lamp de 20'
vice comprises a sealed envelope or‘bulb I2 having
‘a high pressure mercury vapor discharge device
mounted therein. The tubular container l of
has been found necessary heretofore, in order to the discharge device consists of quartz or other
obtain a spectrally balanced light, -to design the, vitreous
material capable of transmitting visible
25 lamp in such manner that more than 50% of
the line voltage is dissipated in the series ballast and ultra violet light and having a high softening
resistance since the light output of the discharge temperature. Said container I has two elec
1‘ and 8 sealed therein, one at each end
device is from two to four times that of the ?la-‘ trodes,
thereof, and an auxiliary starting electrode 9'
ment on the same current consumption. Such a
ounte'd adjacent the main electrode 8. .Said 30
30 ' resistance is, of course, larger than that required iel'e‘jétrodes 'l and 8 are thermionic, activated elec-_
for'the purpose of limiting current ?ow in the/
arc discharge sup
discharge device. A fundamental fault with trodes and are heated'to anthe
operation of the .
temperature during
lamps of this type is that the voltage available for porting
device
by
the
discharge
incident
thereat. The
the discharge device does not permit operation of
discharge device has ‘a starting gas therein, such 35
the device at its maximum e?iciency.
.7 The object of the present invention is to provide as neon, argon or the like, at a pressure of about
an electric lamp of the above type which oper
ates at a higher emciency and which emits light
having, a better spectral balance than that emit
ted by prior lamps. Still further objects and ad
vantages attaching to the device and to its use
and operation will be apparent to those skilled in
the art from the following particular description.
The invention attains its objects by mounting in
the envelope of the lamp an auxiliary ?lament
connected across the terminals of, the electric
lamp in parallel with the discharge device and the‘
?lament which serves as the series ballast resist
ance for said device. The various elements of
50 the electric lamp of the present invention can
be so designed with respect to each other that
each element can serve its function at maximum
e?iciency, for example, the discharge device can
be designed to operate at maximum e?iciency on a
55 given line voltage without regard to the light out
-1 to 10 mm. and a body of mercury in such
amount that it is wholly vaporized during the
operation of the device. Preferably the dimen
sions and the current load of the discharge device 40
are such so that the vapor is at a pressure‘ of
more than 1 atmosphere and, preferably, in the
order of 10 atmospheres during the operation of
the device. The container I has two perforated
septums l0 and II therein which serve to guide 45
the constricted arc discharge between said elec
trodes 1 and 8 during the operation of the
device.
Said container l is supported in said bulb 12
by metal bands 2 and 3 fastened to and insulated 50
from the current leads 4 and 5 of the helically
coiled ?lament 6. Preferably the bulb I2 con
sistsof a visible and ultra violet light trans
mitting glass and has an inert gas, such as nitro
gen, therein. Two current leads l5 and it are 55
2
2,186,719
1 fused into the press l4 of the ?ared stem I 8 of
tains about 25% of red rays, that is, about 10
the bulb I2. One end of the lead I8 is connected lumens, then of the 140 lumens emitted by the
to the currentlead 4 and the other end thereof lamp only 10 luniens,.or 7%, is red whereas day
is connected to the contact ll of the base i1, light contains 12 to 15% of red., Preferably the
28 of the bulb l2. One end of the lead I8 is con auxiliary ?lament 24 is so dimensioned that it
nected to the main electrode 8 by the band 2 consumes about half as much current as the
and the lead I8 and the other end thereof is circuit consisting of the series ?lament 8 and the
connected to the sleeve 20 of the base I7, 20. gaseous electric‘ discharge lamp device. The volt
The auxiliary, starting electrode 9 is connected to
10 the main electrode 1 through a high ohmic re
sistance 2|, and leads 22, 5 and 23.
'
When potential is applied to the lamp current
flows from the contact I'I, through leads l5 and 4
to the ?lament 8, which serves as the ballast
15 resistance for the gaseous electric discharge de
vice, and to lead 8. During starting current ?ows
from the lead 5 over lead 22 through resistance 2|
across the gap between auxiliary electrode 8 and
the main electrode 8 and thence over the con
20 ductors l8, 2,- i 8 and I8 to the sleeve 28. When
the auxiliary, starting discharge between the elec
age across the ?lament 24 is twice that across the
?lament 8 and the ?lament 24 emits 40 lumens of 10
light, about 101umens of such light being red rays.
The total light-output of the lamp is thus 180
lumens and contains 20 lumens of red rays which
constitute 11%, of the total lumen out-put. The
light emitted by the lamp is thus a close approxi 15
mation of daylight and the lamp is useful for
illumination purposes generally. It will be
understood, that the above ?gures are used for
example only, the actual lumen output‘ of the
lamp and its light emitting parts being much v20
higher than that given in the example.
trodes 8 and 9 has ionized the gas in the container
While we have shown and described and have
l the main dischargebetween electrodes ‘I and 8 pointed out in the annexed claims certain novel
starts and current ?ows from lead 8 over lead 23
25 across the gap between the main electrodes 1 and features of the invention, it will be understood
‘that various omissions, substitutions and changes 25
8 through the conductors l9, 2, I 8 and I8 to the in the forms and'details of the device illustrated
sleeve 20.
a
and in its use and operation may be made by
In order to avoid overloading of the series ?la
those skilled in the art without departing from
ment 8 during the starting of the gaseous electric ' the broad spirit and scope .of the invention, for
30 discharge lamp device a high ohmic resistance
connected in series‘ with said ?lament 8 and
which is short circuited by a bimetallic switch or a
resistance having a negative coe?icient of electri
cal resistance, such as a uranium dioxide resist
35 ance, when the discharge device is operating at
equilibrium is used, when desired. An arrange
ment of this type is disclosed in copending appli
cation Serial Number 136,447, ?led April 12, 1937.
When desired, part of the ?lament 8 is short cir
cuited by the switching or resistance means dis
closed above during the operation of the lamp as
disclosed in the Patent Number 2,020,737, issued
November 12, 1935.
.
An auxiliary incandescent ?lament 24 sup
45 ported by wires 28 is mounted in said bulb l2
above said ?lament 8 and concentric with, the
container l of the gaseous electric discharge lamp
device. Said ?lament 24 is connected to the con
tacts l1 and 20 of the base by leads 4 and I8 and
50 leads l8 and I 8 respectively.
The auxiliary ?la
ment 24 is thus connected in parallel with both
the series ?lament 8 and the gaseous electric dis
charge device and the full line voltage is applied
thereto.
example, the bulb l2 consists of matte glass to 30
diffuse the light and avoid glare, when desired.
What we claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. An electric lamp comprising ‘an hermetically
sealed envelope, a gaseous electric discharge lamp 35
device mounted in said envelope, a ?lament con
nected in series with said discharge device to serve
as a ballast resistance therefor and another ?la
ment connected in parallel with said discharge
device and said series ?lament, both of said ?la 40
ments being mounted in said envelope and exter
nal to said discharge device.
'
2, An electric lamp comprising an hermetically
sealed envelope,'a gaseous electric discharge lamp
device mounted in said envelope, a ?lament con 45
nected in series with said discharge device to
‘serve as a ballast resistance therefor and another
?lament connected in parallel with said discharge
device and said series ?lament, both of said ?la
ments being mounted in said envelope concentric 50
with and external to said discharge device.
3. An electric lamp comprising an hermetically
sealed envelope, a gaseous electric discharge lamp
device mounted in said envelope, a ?lament con
Preferably one half of the line voltage is dissi-I nected’ in series with said discharge device to
pated in the discharge device and the other half serve as a ballast resistance therefor and another 55
in the series resistance 8. The current consump
?lament connected in parallel with said dis
tion of the discharge device and the series ?la~ charge device and said series ?lament, both of
ment 8 is ‘the same but the light-output of the said ?laments being mounted in said envelope and
60 discharge device is about two and one-half times external to said discharge device and means in
60
that of the incandescent ?lament. If the dis
said envelope toshort-circuit part of said series
charge device has a light-output of 100 lumens, ?lament during the operation of said lamp device.
for example, then the ?lament 8 has a light
HERMANN KREFF'I‘.
output of 40 lumens. Since the light emitted by.
WILLY WILDE. _
65 the discharge device contains practically no red
KURT LARCHE.
rays and the light emitted by the ?lament 8 con
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