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Патент USA US2135786

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Nov- 8, 1938-
Filed Feb. 18, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
Nov. 8, 1938.
I 2,135,786
Filed Feb. 18, 1955
- FY
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Cf‘ W, K/W
Nov. s, 1938.
2,135,786 '
Filed Feb. 18, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
In l/en for.
Patented Nov. 8, 1938
Norman Franklin Bennett, Newmarket, Ontario,
Application February 18, 1935, Serial No. 7,096
9 Claims. (Cl. 299—140)
The principal objects of this invention are to
provide a device which will thoroughly atomize
oil used for fuel purposes including very heavy
oil and effect the mixture of same with air’ so
5 that the resultant mixture will ignite instantane
ously with spark ignition under varying condi
tions of atmosphere and temperature and will
maintain a constant and uniform ?ame, thereby
enabling the use of the device in intermittent
10 service such as is required for house-heating
The-principal features of the invention consist
in the novel construction and arrangement of
mechanisms whereby the oil is fed to a rotatable
18 member from which it is discharged into a con
stricted chamber into which air is directed under
pressure by a converging annular wall, and the
oil is broken into extremely fine particles and
mixed with in?owing air by an agitator member
20 extending axially from the rotatable member into
the constricted chamber.
A further important feature of the invention
consists in conducting the oil to the rotatable
member through a channel surrounding the rotat
26 able member and applying heat thereto to pre_
heat the oil prior to its being discharged into the
mixing chamber.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a side elevation partly in section of
30 my oil burning apparatus.
Figure 2 is a plan view also partially in section
and with the top cover plate removed from the
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional elevation of
35 the oil feeding unit showing the central shaft,
the nozzle construction, the preheater and the oil
pipe leading to the oil feeding unit from the pump.
Figure 4 is a sectional view of the outer sta
tionary nozzle showing the air pipe connecting
40 therewith.
Figure 5 is an end elevation of the outer sta
tionary nozzle.
Figure 6 is a sectional view of the inner rotary
nozzle illustrating the multi-faced agitating
45 blade.
Figure 7 is an end elevation of the inner rotary
Figure 8 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional
view of the assembled nozzle.
Figure 9 is an enlarged longitudinal part sec
tional elevational view of the nozzle structure
taken at right angles to the plane of the section
illustrated in Figure 8.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, A
indicates the device as a whole, which includes
the oil feeding unit In which is‘ generally sur
rounded by the casing ll supported from the
framework of other parts of the apparatus. This
includes the driving motor l2, the fan i3, air com
60 pressor H and oil pump I5. The arrangement of
various elements could, of course, be modi?ed
should this be desired but the disclosure made
particularly in Figures 1 and 2 illustrates a very
compact and efficient unit.
One of the salient features of my invention 5
resides in the construction and arrangement of
the oil feeding unit including the attached nozzle
construction, the oil feeding unit being in the
form of a tubular member which is preferably
connected at one end of the pump casing l5 and 10
carries, on its opposite end a stationary nozzle l6.
Within the oil feeding unit I0 is a shaft I‘! which
is placed in driving connection with the shaft l8
the latter being driven by the motor, and operat
ing the fan, compressor and pump, so'that shaft 15
I‘! is constantly rotated during the operation of
the motor. The relation between the oil feeding
unit 10 and the shaft i1 is such that between
them, there is provided a space or clear passage
way I 8 for supplying the oil to the nozzle, the
construction preferably being such that the shaft
is reduced in diameter intermediately of its length
so as to provide the space IS, the larger ends of
the shafts 2|! and 2| forming bearings.
Through the outer end of the shaft I‘! extend
ing up to and through the enlarged portion 2| is
a bore 22 which'is intersected by the transverse
passage or passages 23 that communicate with
the’ space I! so that oil may be fed through this
latter space, through the transverse passages 23
into the bore 22, from whence it is elected to be
discharged from the nozzle IS.
[The reduced portion of the shaft I1 is pre
ferably formed with screw threading or the like
23' so that as the shaft constantly rotates during
the operation of the apparatus, the oil, regardless
of the fact that it may be very sluggish due to
cold weather, will always be positively passed
through the channel or space i9 surrounding this
shaft and, while the pressure set up by the pump
usually would be sufficient to provide for the
ejection of the oil from the burner nozzle, it is
apparent that when the oil is sluggish and will
not so read'ly'respond to the pressure of the
pump this rotating shaft formed with screw
threading or the like will constitute a positive
agitator and provide for a steady ejection of oil.
The rotating shaft also serves a very important
function in providing for the breaking up of the
oil into a ?nely atomized spray, which is taken
care of by various expedients. In this connection
the end of the shaft is provided with a nipple 24
or other suitable means for receiving a rotary
nozzle 25 which is rigidly secured on the end of
the shaft in driving engagement therewith so
that when the shaft rotates the nozzle does like~
wise. The nozzle 25 is formed with a chamber
26 which communicates with the bore 22 of the
shaft, the other end of the nozzle being formed
preferably with a pair of discharge openings 21 00
between which, and projecting from the end of
the nozzle, is an agitating member in the form of
a blade 2| presenting a plurality of longitudinal
faces which engage the streams of ‘oil projected
from the openings 21, thus breaking up the
streams and throwing the oil outwardly against
the wall of the nozzle It. This blade is disposed
between the ori?ces 21 which are positioned above
and below opposite faces of the agitator.
As shown, the rotary nozzle 28 is spaced from
the stationary nozzle it, the blade or agitator 28
projecting from nozzle 28 into the space between
said nozzles. The stationary nozzle ii is pro
vided with a discharge opening 20 which is de
signed to register with the discharge openings 21
in nozzle 28 and the blade or agitator 28 is pref
erably tapered to a point or substantially so. as
clearly illustrated in Figure 6 and Figures 8 and 9,
being supplied to the nozzle and agitated, which
is a factor in instantaneous ignition.
For in
stance, by ?owing the oil through the passageway
l9 surrounding the shaft, a comparatively large
volume of oil passes through the oil feeding unit,
but by reason of the fact that the passageway
I9 is restricted in depth as between the interior
wall of the oil feeding unit and the exterior sur
face of the shaft, a body of oil having a large
surface area and limited-depth flows through the 10
oil feeding unit, and therefore, by completely
surrounding the surface of the oil feeding unit
with an electric preheater 25 directly overlying
the oil channel, the oil passing through this
channel can be instantaneously heated. In other 15
words a thin body of oil is directly heated without
sacri?cing volume, the oil feeding unit shell being
preferably of brass or like metal which heats
so that it may project partially into the discharge
opening 20 of the agitator and thus provide for
The preheater shown is provided with clamps or 20
the like 36 to which the circuit wires may be at
tached and a movable clamp 21 is provided which
may be moved along the preheater 'so that the
amount of resistance wire through which the cur
rent passes can be changed to vary the amount
of heat desired. The preheater is operated on
the general circuit employed for the driving mo
tor, the circuit being of well known character
including thermostat control and a relay and
switch for general automatic control. In the 30
a violent agitation of the oil as it passes between
the discharge openings 21 of the rotary nozzle 25
and discharge opening 29 of stationary nozzle Ii.
The nomle I l is tapered and particularly its
inner surface, as at 30, the inner or rotary nozzle
28 having a portion tapered as at II, or in other
words its end is frustro-conical so that the‘ space
between thé nozzles ?nally takes the form of a
conical passageway converging at a point adja
30 cent to the discharge opening 20 of the nozzle and
the agitator 28. As shown in Figure 4-and Figures
8 and 9, the stationary nozzle It is provided with
present case the connections are such that the
an opening 32 to receive the conduit 22 which is
designed to supply compressed air to the space
between the nozzles so that in combination with
preheater is cut in to operate just prior to the
operation of the motor and the motor is automat
ically put into operation a few seconds later.
The casing ll surrounding the oil feeding
the violent agitation of the oil by the agitating
blade 2|, a blast of compressed air converges on
the blade and discharge opening 2! whereby the
able support 39 through which the nozzle I6 may
project. The spider or other device employed acts
oil will be broken up into an extremely fine spray.
The stationary nozzle I6 is provided with a slot
ll intersecting the discharge opening 20 (see par
ticularly Figures 4, 5, 8, and 9) so that the spray
of atomized oil and air being discharged from the
stationary nozzle may spread within the fire box.
Prior to passing to the rotary nozzle 2!, the oil
is partially broken up through the type of con
struction employed. For instance, as the oil pass
unit may be formed with a spider or other suit
as a general support and may serve as a suitable
mounting for the insulating bushings 40 of the 40
ignition electrodes ‘I. These latter are curved at
their outer ends and spaced apart to provide a
suitable spark gap and are positioned well in ad
vance of the nozzle l6 and directly in the path
of the atomized oil being discharged from the 45
nozzle so that under the conditions brought about
by the apparatus, the spark ignition will bring
es from the passageway I! in the oil feeding unit
to the bore 22 of the shaft l‘l,it- enters the passage
ways 22 which constantly rotate with the shaft
and therefore the oil entering these passageways
will be agitated and broken up and particularly so
in view of the fact that the oil enters these pas
about instantaneous combustion.
The inner ends of the ignition electrodes are
provided with suitable clamping connections such 50
sageways against the action of centrifugal force.
tion takes place immediately that the motor starts
and after combustion is established the ignition
circuit is cut out. The general circuit employed
for this is of well known character.
The casing l I may be provided with a removable
cover plate 43 and is provided with an opening 44
regulated by a suitable slide damper or the like
45, the opening 44 being designed for connection
with the conduit 46 of the fan I! so that air for
supporting proper combustion may be delivered
through the gun casing into the fire box.
It will be noted that the motor, fan and com
pressor are all driven from a single shaft, the
compressor being simply secured to the fan cas
ing by means of a suitable mounting ring or the
like 41 so that a very compact unit is provided 70
with provision for the driving of the shaft II in
a very simple manner. The compressor is of
ordinary form and through the compressed air
supply line 33 which extends between the com
pressor and the nozzle l6, compressed air is con 75
55 Moreover, when the oil is free ?owing and under
considerable pressure, it will be forced against
the threading on shaft I‘! which will tend to cause
a breaking up of the ?uid. In view of these
facts, therefore, the oil, when it is discharged with
the compressed air at the end of the nozzle, is
broken up to such an extent that it will immedi
ately ignite by means of a spark ignition. This is
an extremely important point in view of the fact
that great difficulties have been experienced in
65 providing for an instantaneous ignition of an
oil spray by spark ignition and when it is con
sidered that this can be effected regardless of
the type of fuel oil used, the full importance of
the development will be realized. Moreover, the
70 ignition device can be positioned directly in ad
vance and in the path of the spray, as will be re
ferred to hereinafter.
An important feature in the construction of
the oil feeding unit is the arrangement by which
75 the oil may be instantaneously preheated while
as 42 to receive the circuit wires which are also
connected in the general circuit for operating the
motor and arranged in usual manner so that igni
stantly supplied to the nozzle construction dur
ing operation of the apparatus.
The shaft 18, that is, the driving shaft from the
motor, fan and compressor, also operates the oil
pump M which is mounted directly on the casing
of the compressor, the shaft i8 being provided
with a worm 48 which meshes with worm wheel
49 on the pump shaft 50. The pump may be an
ordinary gear pump driven from the shaft 50'
10 and supplying oil through the valve 5| to the oil
conduit 52, the valve being of any suitable type
such as one in the nature of a sleeve having an.
opening through which the oil may discharge,
the sleeve being rotatable to control the size of,
or to shut off the opening.
A particular feature which is notable is the
very short oil delivery line 52 which eliminates
possibility of clogging, as is often the case where
it is necessary to employ long oil supply lines.
20 The oil is supplied to the pump from an auxiliary
oil tank 53 which receives its supply from the
main tank.
It is apparent therefore, that when the appa
ratus is in operation oil will be supplied at a con
stant desired pressure to the oil feeding unit, the
oil being instantaneously preheated, then broken
up ?nely through violent agitation resulting from
the operation of the auxiliary agitating means,
the multifaced agitating member 28 and the con
30 verging blast of air from all sides which is directed
by the shape of the inner and outer nozzles. It
is thus discharged in a fine atomized spray from
the end of nozzle l6, whereupon ignition takes
place and a very hot ?ame is produced.
In practice this burner has proved efficient
when using various grades and types of oil as
fuel, as well as used motor oil and due to the
arrangement and construction of the parts de
scribed, it has performed e?iciently with instan
40 taneous ignition after a few seconds preliminary
preheating, this favourable performance being
due to the facility with which the oil may be
heated, the manner in which even sluggish oil is
positively fed, and the arrangement for con
45 stantly breaking up the oil into a very fine atom
ized condition. The preferred construction has,
of course, been shown, but this may be modi?ed
to some extent while maintaining the principles
What I claim as my invention is:
1. An oil burner comprising a stationary nozzle
converging to a discharge opening, a rotary
nozzle arranged coaxial with said stationary
nozzle and discharging oil longitudinally in the
55 direction of the discharge of the stationary
nozzle, a paddle-like agitating member extend
ing longitudinally from the end of said rotary
nozzle into the convergent discharge end of the
stationary nozzle and rotating with said rotary
60 nozzle to engage and break up the oil being dis~
charged from said rotary nozzle, means for feed
ing oil to said rotary nozzle, and means for di
recting a blast of air through said stationary,
nczzle around said rotary nozzle, >
2. An oil burner comprising a stationary nozzle
65 converging to a cylindrical ori?ce, a rotary nozzle
having its longitudinal edges rotating in close
proximity to the cylindrical wall, means for feed
ing oil into said rotary nozzle, and means for din
recting a blast of air through said stationary
nozzle around said rotary nozzle.
3. An oil burner as claimed in claim 2 in which
the agitating member is in the form of a flat
blade arranged co-axially of said rotating nozzle
and between the oil discharge openings, the flat
faces of said blade in rotation beating the lagging 10
oil streams and throwing the oil against the sur
rounding wall of the stationary nozzle to be mixed
with the flow of air through said stationary
4. An oil burner as claimed in claim 1 in which 15
the rotary nozzle is provided with ‘a hollow cham
ber adjacent to the end and communicating with
the discharge openings, said discharge openings
being substantially parallel with the axis of said
5. An oil burner comprising a stationary tubu
lar member, a nozzle mounted on the end of
said tubular member converging to a cylindri
cal discharge opening, a shaft rotatably mounted
axially within said tubular member and spaced
from the inner wall thereof, said shaft having a
central bore and passages connecting said bore
with the annular space between the shaft and
tube, a nozzle secured to the end of said shaft
having a chamber therein, communicating with
said bore and having openings through the
outward end thereof adapted to project thin
streams of oil into the cylindrical discharge open
ing of the stationary nozzle, 8. blade extending
from the end of said nozzle mounted on said shaft 35
and projecting into the discharge opening of the
stationary nozzle to break up the oil flowing
through said openings arranged either side of
said blade, means for feeding oil through said
tubular member and into and through said rotary 40
nozzle, and means for feeding a blast of air
through said stationary nozzle around the dis
charge end of the rotary nozzle.
6. An oil burner as claimed in claim 5 in which
‘the shaft is supported in a bearing closing the
outer end of the tubular member which separates
the annular oil passage within the tubular mem
ber from the annular air chamber within the
nozzle mounted on the end thereof.
7. An oil burner as claimed in claim 5 in which 50
the portion of the shaft spaced from the enclos
ing tube is threaded externally to assist the de
livery of an annular body of oil to the nozzle.
8. An oil burner as claimed in claim 5 in which
the tubular member is threaded externally at its
end and the stationary nozzle'is internally thread
ed and adjustably mounted on the threaded end
of the tube to permit an adjustment of the spac
ing between the discharge end- of the rotary
nozzle and the inner wall of thedischarge end
of the stationary nozzle to regulate the flow of air.
9. An oil burner as claimed in claim 1 in which
the converging, stationary nozzle is of frusto»
conical form and the discharge opening is an
axially arranged cylindrical passage, and the ro 65
tary nozzle is of frusto~conica1 form having its
arranged co-axial with said stationary nozzle
having openings in the end thereof discharging
tapering exterior wall substantially parallel with
streams of oil in a longitudinal direction into said
the tapering interior wall of the stationary noz
cylindrical orifice, an agitating member project
70 ing from the end of said rotary nozzle and ar
ranged between the oil discharge openings and
having a plurality of longitudinal faces adapted
to engage and break up the streams of oil, said
agitating member extending into the cylindrical
75 discharge ori?ce of the stationary nozzle and
zle, and having the discharge openings in the
small end thereof arranged either side of the
axis of the burner and projecting streams of oil
either side of the agitating member and into
the cylindrical discharge opening of the station
ary nozzle.
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