Патент USA US2135786код для вставки
Nov- 8, 1938- N. F. BENNETT ‘2,135,786 OIL BURNER CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 18, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 1. Nov. 8, 1938. N. F. BENNETT I 2,135,786 OIL BURNER CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 18, 1955 - FY 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Cf‘ W, K/W 192%. Nov. s, 1938. N F. BENNETT 2,135,786 ' OIL BURNER CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 18, 1935 ‘ 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 b H. Y. 23’ In l/en for. ?ax/1M fYBEA/MSIT Patented Nov. 8, 1938 2,135,786 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,135,786 OIL BURNER CONSTRUCTION Norman Franklin Bennett, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada Application February 18, 1935, Serial No. 7,096 9 Claims. (Cl. 299—140) I The principal objects of this invention are to provide a device which will thoroughly atomize oil used for fuel purposes including very heavy oil and effect the mixture of same with air’ so 5 that the resultant mixture will ignite instantane ously with spark ignition under varying condi tions of atmosphere and temperature and will maintain a constant and uniform ?ame, thereby enabling the use of the device in intermittent 10 service such as is required for house-heating equipment. The-principal features of the invention consist in the novel construction and arrangement of mechanisms whereby the oil is fed to a rotatable 18 member from which it is discharged into a con stricted chamber into which air is directed under pressure by a converging annular wall, and the oil is broken into extremely fine particles and mixed with in?owing air by an agitator member 20 extending axially from the rotatable member into the constricted chamber. A further important feature of the invention consists in conducting the oil to the rotatable member through a channel surrounding the rotat 26 able member and applying heat thereto to pre_ heat the oil prior to its being discharged into the mixing chamber. Referring to the drawings: _ ' Figure 1 is a side elevation partly in section of 30 my oil burning apparatus. Figure 2 is a plan view also partially in section and with the top cover plate removed from the casing. Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional elevation of 35 the oil feeding unit showing the central shaft, the nozzle construction, the preheater and the oil pipe leading to the oil feeding unit from the pump. Figure 4 is a sectional view of the outer sta tionary nozzle showing the air pipe connecting 40 therewith. Figure 5 is an end elevation of the outer sta tionary nozzle. Figure 6 is a sectional view of the inner rotary nozzle illustrating the multi-faced agitating 45 blade. Figure 7 is an end elevation of the inner rotary nozzle. Figure 8 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the assembled nozzle. Figure 9 is an enlarged longitudinal part sec 50 tional elevational view of the nozzle structure taken at right angles to the plane of the section illustrated in Figure 8. Referring more particularly to the drawings, A indicates the device as a whole, which includes the oil feeding unit In which is‘ generally sur rounded by the casing ll supported from the framework of other parts of the apparatus. This includes the driving motor l2, the fan i3, air com 60 pressor H and oil pump I5. The arrangement of various elements could, of course, be modi?ed should this be desired but the disclosure made particularly in Figures 1 and 2 illustrates a very compact and efficient unit. One of the salient features of my invention 5 resides in the construction and arrangement of the oil feeding unit including the attached nozzle construction, the oil feeding unit being in the form of a tubular member which is preferably connected at one end of the pump casing l5 and 10 carries, on its opposite end a stationary nozzle l6. Within the oil feeding unit I0 is a shaft I‘! which is placed in driving connection with the shaft l8 the latter being driven by the motor, and operat ing the fan, compressor and pump, so'that shaft 15 I‘! is constantly rotated during the operation of the motor. The relation between the oil feeding unit 10 and the shaft i1 is such that between them, there is provided a space or clear passage way I 8 for supplying the oil to the nozzle, the construction preferably being such that the shaft is reduced in diameter intermediately of its length so as to provide the space IS, the larger ends of the shafts 2|! and 2| forming bearings. Through the outer end of the shaft I‘! extend ing up to and through the enlarged portion 2| is a bore 22 which'is intersected by the transverse passage or passages 23 that communicate with the’ space I! so that oil may be fed through this latter space, through the transverse passages 23 into the bore 22, from whence it is elected to be discharged from the nozzle IS. [The reduced portion of the shaft I1 is pre ferably formed with screw threading or the like 23' so that as the shaft constantly rotates during the operation of the apparatus, the oil, regardless of the fact that it may be very sluggish due to cold weather, will always be positively passed through the channel or space i9 surrounding this shaft and, while the pressure set up by the pump usually would be sufficient to provide for the ejection of the oil from the burner nozzle, it is apparent that when the oil is sluggish and will not so read'ly'respond to the pressure of the pump this rotating shaft formed with screw threading or the like will constitute a positive agitator and provide for a steady ejection of oil. The rotating shaft also serves a very important function in providing for the breaking up of the oil into a ?nely atomized spray, which is taken care of by various expedients. In this connection the end of the shaft is provided with a nipple 24 or other suitable means for receiving a rotary nozzle 25 which is rigidly secured on the end of the shaft in driving engagement therewith so that when the shaft rotates the nozzle does like~ wise. The nozzle 25 is formed with a chamber 26 which communicates with the bore 22 of the shaft, the other end of the nozzle being formed preferably with a pair of discharge openings 21 00 2,185,786 between which, and projecting from the end of the nozzle, is an agitating member in the form of a blade 2| presenting a plurality of longitudinal faces which engage the streams of ‘oil projected from the openings 21, thus breaking up the streams and throwing the oil outwardly against the wall of the nozzle It. This blade is disposed between the ori?ces 21 which are positioned above and below opposite faces of the agitator. As shown, the rotary nozzle 28 is spaced from 10 the stationary nozzle it, the blade or agitator 28 projecting from nozzle 28 into the space between said nozzles. The stationary nozzle ii is pro vided with a discharge opening 20 which is de signed to register with the discharge openings 21 in nozzle 28 and the blade or agitator 28 is pref erably tapered to a point or substantially so. as clearly illustrated in Figure 6 and Figures 8 and 9, being supplied to the nozzle and agitated, which is a factor in instantaneous ignition. For in stance, by ?owing the oil through the passageway l9 surrounding the shaft, a comparatively large volume of oil passes through the oil feeding unit, but by reason of the fact that the passageway I9 is restricted in depth as between the interior wall of the oil feeding unit and the exterior sur face of the shaft, a body of oil having a large surface area and limited-depth flows through the 10 oil feeding unit, and therefore, by completely surrounding the surface of the oil feeding unit with an electric preheater 25 directly overlying the oil channel, the oil passing through this channel can be instantaneously heated. In other 15 words a thin body of oil is directly heated without sacri?cing volume, the oil feeding unit shell being preferably of brass or like metal which heats so that it may project partially into the discharge rapidly. opening 20 of the agitator and thus provide for The preheater shown is provided with clamps or 20 the like 36 to which the circuit wires may be at tached and a movable clamp 21 is provided which may be moved along the preheater 'so that the amount of resistance wire through which the cur rent passes can be changed to vary the amount of heat desired. The preheater is operated on the general circuit employed for the driving mo tor, the circuit being of well known character including thermostat control and a relay and switch for general automatic control. In the 30 a violent agitation of the oil as it passes between the discharge openings 21 of the rotary nozzle 25 and discharge opening 29 of stationary nozzle Ii. The nomle I l is tapered and particularly its inner surface, as at 30, the inner or rotary nozzle 28 having a portion tapered as at II, or in other words its end is frustro-conical so that the‘ space between thé nozzles ?nally takes the form of a conical passageway converging at a point adja 30 cent to the discharge opening 20 of the nozzle and the agitator 28. As shown in Figure 4-and Figures 8 and 9, the stationary nozzle It is provided with present case the connections are such that the an opening 32 to receive the conduit 22 which is designed to supply compressed air to the space between the nozzles so that in combination with preheater is cut in to operate just prior to the operation of the motor and the motor is automat ically put into operation a few seconds later. The casing ll surrounding the oil feeding the violent agitation of the oil by the agitating blade 2|, a blast of compressed air converges on the blade and discharge opening 2! whereby the able support 39 through which the nozzle I6 may project. The spider or other device employed acts oil will be broken up into an extremely fine spray. The stationary nozzle I6 is provided with a slot ll intersecting the discharge opening 20 (see par ticularly Figures 4, 5, 8, and 9) so that the spray of atomized oil and air being discharged from the stationary nozzle may spread within the fire box. Prior to passing to the rotary nozzle 2!, the oil is partially broken up through the type of con struction employed. For instance, as the oil pass unit may be formed with a spider or other suit as a general support and may serve as a suitable mounting for the insulating bushings 40 of the 40 ignition electrodes ‘I. These latter are curved at their outer ends and spaced apart to provide a suitable spark gap and are positioned well in ad vance of the nozzle l6 and directly in the path of the atomized oil being discharged from the 45 nozzle so that under the conditions brought about by the apparatus, the spark ignition will bring es from the passageway I! in the oil feeding unit to the bore 22 of the shaft l‘l,it- enters the passage ways 22 which constantly rotate with the shaft and therefore the oil entering these passageways will be agitated and broken up and particularly so in view of the fact that the oil enters these pas about instantaneous combustion. The inner ends of the ignition electrodes are provided with suitable clamping connections such 50 sageways against the action of centrifugal force. tion takes place immediately that the motor starts and after combustion is established the ignition circuit is cut out. The general circuit employed for this is of well known character. The casing l I may be provided with a removable cover plate 43 and is provided with an opening 44 regulated by a suitable slide damper or the like 45, the opening 44 being designed for connection with the conduit 46 of the fan I! so that air for supporting proper combustion may be delivered through the gun casing into the fire box. 65 It will be noted that the motor, fan and com pressor are all driven from a single shaft, the compressor being simply secured to the fan cas ing by means of a suitable mounting ring or the like 41 so that a very compact unit is provided 70 with provision for the driving of the shaft II in a very simple manner. The compressor is of ordinary form and through the compressed air supply line 33 which extends between the com pressor and the nozzle l6, compressed air is con 75 55 Moreover, when the oil is free ?owing and under considerable pressure, it will be forced against the threading on shaft I‘! which will tend to cause a breaking up of the ?uid. In view of these facts, therefore, the oil, when it is discharged with the compressed air at the end of the nozzle, is broken up to such an extent that it will immedi ately ignite by means of a spark ignition. This is an extremely important point in view of the fact that great difficulties have been experienced in 65 providing for an instantaneous ignition of an oil spray by spark ignition and when it is con sidered that this can be effected regardless of the type of fuel oil used, the full importance of the development will be realized. Moreover, the 70 ignition device can be positioned directly in ad vance and in the path of the spray, as will be re ferred to hereinafter. An important feature in the construction of the oil feeding unit is the arrangement by which 75 the oil may be instantaneously preheated while as 42 to receive the circuit wires which are also connected in the general circuit for operating the motor and arranged in usual manner so that igni 2,136,788 stantly supplied to the nozzle construction dur ing operation of the apparatus. The shaft 18, that is, the driving shaft from the motor, fan and compressor, also operates the oil pump M which is mounted directly on the casing of the compressor, the shaft i8 being provided with a worm 48 which meshes with worm wheel 49 on the pump shaft 50. The pump may be an ordinary gear pump driven from the shaft 50' 10 and supplying oil through the valve 5| to the oil conduit 52, the valve being of any suitable type such as one in the nature of a sleeve having an. opening through which the oil may discharge, the sleeve being rotatable to control the size of, or to shut off the opening. A particular feature which is notable is the very short oil delivery line 52 which eliminates possibility of clogging, as is often the case where it is necessary to employ long oil supply lines. 20 The oil is supplied to the pump from an auxiliary oil tank 53 which receives its supply from the main tank. It is apparent therefore, that when the appa ratus is in operation oil will be supplied at a con stant desired pressure to the oil feeding unit, the oil being instantaneously preheated, then broken up ?nely through violent agitation resulting from the operation of the auxiliary agitating means, the multifaced agitating member 28 and the con 30 verging blast of air from all sides which is directed by the shape of the inner and outer nozzles. It is thus discharged in a fine atomized spray from the end of nozzle l6, whereupon ignition takes place and a very hot ?ame is produced. In practice this burner has proved efficient when using various grades and types of oil as fuel, as well as used motor oil and due to the arrangement and construction of the parts de scribed, it has performed e?iciently with instan 40 taneous ignition after a few seconds preliminary preheating, this favourable performance being due to the facility with which the oil may be heated, the manner in which even sluggish oil is positively fed, and the arrangement for con 45 stantly breaking up the oil into a very fine atom ized condition. The preferred construction has, of course, been shown, but this may be modi?ed to some extent while maintaining the principles employed. 60 What I claim as my invention is: 1. An oil burner comprising a stationary nozzle converging to a discharge opening, a rotary nozzle arranged coaxial with said stationary nozzle and discharging oil longitudinally in the 55 direction of the discharge of the stationary nozzle, a paddle-like agitating member extend ing longitudinally from the end of said rotary nozzle into the convergent discharge end of the stationary nozzle and rotating with said rotary 60 nozzle to engage and break up the oil being dis~ charged from said rotary nozzle, means for feed ing oil to said rotary nozzle, and means for di recting a blast of air through said stationary, nczzle around said rotary nozzle, > 2. An oil burner comprising a stationary nozzle 65 converging to a cylindrical ori?ce, a rotary nozzle having its longitudinal edges rotating in close proximity to the cylindrical wall, means for feed ing oil into said rotary nozzle, and means for din recting a blast of air through said stationary nozzle around said rotary nozzle. 3. An oil burner as claimed in claim 2 in which the agitating member is in the form of a flat blade arranged co-axially of said rotating nozzle and between the oil discharge openings, the flat faces of said blade in rotation beating the lagging 10 oil streams and throwing the oil against the sur rounding wall of the stationary nozzle to be mixed with the flow of air through said stationary nozzle. 4. An oil burner as claimed in claim 1 in which 15 the rotary nozzle is provided with ‘a hollow cham ber adjacent to the end and communicating with the discharge openings, said discharge openings being substantially parallel with the axis of said nozzle. 5. An oil burner comprising a stationary tubu lar member, a nozzle mounted on the end of said tubular member converging to a cylindri cal discharge opening, a shaft rotatably mounted axially within said tubular member and spaced from the inner wall thereof, said shaft having a central bore and passages connecting said bore with the annular space between the shaft and tube, a nozzle secured to the end of said shaft having a chamber therein, communicating with said bore and having openings through the outward end thereof adapted to project thin streams of oil into the cylindrical discharge open ing of the stationary nozzle, 8. blade extending from the end of said nozzle mounted on said shaft 35 and projecting into the discharge opening of the stationary nozzle to break up the oil flowing through said openings arranged either side of said blade, means for feeding oil through said tubular member and into and through said rotary 40 nozzle, and means for feeding a blast of air through said stationary nozzle around the dis charge end of the rotary nozzle. 6. An oil burner as claimed in claim 5 in which ‘the shaft is supported in a bearing closing the outer end of the tubular member which separates the annular oil passage within the tubular mem ber from the annular air chamber within the nozzle mounted on the end thereof. 7. An oil burner as claimed in claim 5 in which 50 the portion of the shaft spaced from the enclos ing tube is threaded externally to assist the de livery of an annular body of oil to the nozzle. 8. An oil burner as claimed in claim 5 in which the tubular member is threaded externally at its end and the stationary nozzle'is internally thread ed and adjustably mounted on the threaded end of the tube to permit an adjustment of the spac ing between the discharge end- of the rotary nozzle and the inner wall of thedischarge end of the stationary nozzle to regulate the flow of air. 9. An oil burner as claimed in claim 1 in which the converging, stationary nozzle is of frusto» conical form and the discharge opening is an axially arranged cylindrical passage, and the ro 65 tary nozzle is of frusto~conica1 form having its arranged co-axial with said stationary nozzle having openings in the end thereof discharging tapering exterior wall substantially parallel with streams of oil in a longitudinal direction into said the tapering interior wall of the stationary noz cylindrical orifice, an agitating member project 70 ing from the end of said rotary nozzle and ar ranged between the oil discharge openings and having a plurality of longitudinal faces adapted to engage and break up the streams of oil, said agitating member extending into the cylindrical 75 discharge ori?ce of the stationary nozzle and 30 zle, and having the discharge openings in the small end thereof arranged either side of the axis of the burner and projecting streams of oil either side of the agitating member and into the cylindrical discharge opening of the station ary nozzle. NORMAN FRANKLIN BENNETT.