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Патент USA US2136131

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Patented Nov. 8, 1938'
2,136,131
‘UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,136,131
DISTEMPER VACCINE AND METHOD OF
.
PREPARING THE SAME
‘
:n
Robert G. Green, Minneapolis, Minn.
No Drawing. Application March 9, 1937,
Serial No. 129,955
6 Claims. (Cl. 167-78)
The vdistemper virus,’ discovered by .Carré, and
extensively investigated by Laidlaw and Dunkin,
resulting vaccine was found to produce a mor
tality of’only about 30% and those animals dying
generally is believed to be the sole cause of canine succumbed suddenly after about 14 days withouj
distemper in dogs, foxes, and other susceptible ‘showing the typical symptoms of distemper ex %
5 animals, and has been widely distributed and cepting for a few hours before death.‘
5
extensively used for the production of vaccines,
serums and materials for diagnosis.
An object of the present invention is the prepa
ration, from the virus of canine distemper, of
mortality rate due to the use of the vaccine de
creases until at about 30 generations the mor
tality rate is only about 3%. By employing a
a modi?ed virus or vaccine for use in the immu
larger number of generations and by employing 10
nization of foxes and dogs against distemper.
The principal desirable properties of such a vac
- cine are that it shall be safe to use and produce
a high degree of immunity in the animals treated.
I have discovered that by passing the ?lterable
virus of Carré, e. g. commercially available dis
temper virus, such as the so-called Laidlaw
Dunkin virus or a virus obtained in the usual
and well-known manner from an animal such
as a fox having natural distemper, serially
through ferrets, it may be so modi?ed or its na
ture changed that it safely may be administered
in the living state. The virus is so changed in
nature by each generation or passage through
a ferret that after a serial passage of a sum
ciently large number of generations it is found
- to have gradually lost its pathogenic properties
- As the number of generations is increased the
other expedients such as the use of the resulting
modi?ed virus in attenuated form produced, for
instance, by drying or other known or usual
method of attenuation, or by the use of the modi~
?ed virus or vaccine with serum, the mortality 15
rate may be reduced to a negligible ?gure.
In a typical instance the serial passage of the
virus through ferrets was accomplished by ?rst
injecting 1 cc.- of a 5% spleen emulsion from
a fox which had died of typical distemper into 20
a plurality of ferrets. These ferrets sickened and
were killed on the 12th day after the inocula
tion and their spleens used in the preparation of
a 5% emulsion, 1 cc. of which was injected into '
another group of ferrets.
This procedure .was 26
continued for the desired number of generations,
the vaccine produced at each 5 generations being
for foxes and dogs and instead of severe or fatal tested for its effect on foxes.
~
infections it produces only mild infections, clini- '
A combined vaccine and serum treatment pre
cally dissimilar to typical distemper and with a ferred for use on young animals, both foxes and 30
low mortality rate, and the animals which have dogs, on account of their lower natural resist
been inoculated with the modi?ed virus are ren
ance, consists in simultaneously injecting ,the
dered immune to typical distemper.
animal with a suitable dose, say 1 cc. of a 5%
The serial transmission through ferrets is ac
35 complished by inoculating a ferret with active spleen emulsion containing the modi?ed ilrus
and a suitable dose, say 10 cc. of standard vntl- 35
distemper virus and when the ferret sickens or serum. This simultaneous injection is followed
dies using infected tissue from it to infect an
at intervals of between one and two weeks with
other ferret and so on for a su?icient number one or more further injections of the modi?ed
of generations to produce .the desired degree of
40 modi?cation of the virus. By actual test it has
been found that after from 5 to 10 generations
the original virus has been slightly but de?nitely
modi?ed and its ability to produce typical dis
temper in foxes de?nitely reduced. After 20
45 generations the modi?ed virus or vaccine usually
produces no demonstrable symptoms of distem
per in foxes, tested in groups of as many as ten.
Regardless of the number of generations, within
reasonable limits infection of foxes with the re
50 sulting vaccine results in immunity to typical
distemper. ’
Speci?cally, commercial dog distemper virus
injected into foxes was found to produce a mor¢
tality of about 60%, whereas after about 10 gen
[5 erations of the virus serially through ferrets the
virus or vaccine alone until complete immunity
against typical distemper has been established. 40
The serum for use in the foregoing treatment
may be prepared by standard procedure, e. g.
by giving immune dogs or foxes several inJec
tions of virus at suitable intervals and using the
blood of the animal for the preparation of the 45
serum.
I
.,
It is observed that the preparation of the
distemper vaccine described above is analogous
to the known preparation of vaccine for small
pox in which virulent virus of human smallpox 50
is modi?ed and rendered innocuous by serial pas
sage through calves or rabbits. Not all viruses,
, however, are capable of beingmcdi?ed in this
manner and one cannot predict this ‘property
in a virus or predetermine what animal will serve 55
2
2,186,181
typical canine distemper for at least ten genera
for the modification. Moreover, it was not pre
dictable that the serum treatment described tions serially through ferrets.
3. _Method 0! modifying distemper virus for the
above would exert a protective e?ect by simul
taneous injection in an animal inoculated with production of a vaccine capable when injected
into foxes oi immunizing the same against typi
the modi?ed virus or vaccine.
The modi?ed virus produced in accordance cal distemper which comprises passing the virus
with the present invention may be used in the or typical canine distemper for at least thirty
known manner or in accordance with well, generations serially through ferrets.
4. A distemper vaccine comprising distemper
established practice for the production of vac
virus modi?ed by serial passage through ferrets 10
cines,
serums
and
materials
for
diagnosis
and
10
for a su?icient number of passages to materially
may be used in a variety or ways. The inven
tion embraces the modi?cation oi the virus by reduce the normal distemper death rate 01' foxes‘
any number of passages, two or more. through indected therewith, said vaccine being capable oi!
ferrets, and the resulting products.
I claim:
1. Method of modifying distemper virus for
the production of a vaccine capable when in
jected into foxes of immunizing the same against
typical distemper which comprises passing the
20 virus of typical canine distemper serially through
ierrets for a su?lcient number 0! passages to
materially reduce the normal distemper death
rate or foxes injected therewith.
2. Method of modifying distemper virus for the
production of a vaccine capable when injected
into foxes oi immunizing the same against typical
distemper which comprises passing the virus of
immunizing foxes against typical canine dis
temper.
.
5. A distemper vaccine comprising distemper
virus modi?ed by serial passage for at least about
ten generations through ferrets, said vaccine be
ing capable of immunizing foxes against typical
canine distemper.
-
_
I
20
6. A distemper vaccine comprising distemper
virus modi?ed by serial passage for at least about
thirty generations through ferrets, said vaccine
being capable of immunizing ioxes against typi
cal canine distemper.
25
aonna'r a. cam.
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