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Патент USA US2136139

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Nov. 8, 1938.
H. KUHNI
>
‘
2,136,139
BUBBLE PLATE FOR commune GASES AND LIQUIDS _
‘
Fig.1.
Filed Jan. 22, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov. 8, 1938.
H. KUHNI
2,136,139
BUBBLE PLATE FOR CONTACTING GASES AND LIQUIDS
Filed Jan. 22, 1936
_2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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12,136,139
Patented Nov. s, 1938
UNITED .STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,136,189
BUBBLE PLATE FOR CONTACTING GASES
AND'LIQUIDS'
_
Hans Kiihni, Basel, Switzerland, assignor to Ll’Air '
Liquide Societe Anonyme pour l'Etude et l’Ex-'
ploitation des Procedw Georges Claude, Paris.
France
Application January 22, 1936,. Serial No.~60>,312‘
In Switzerland January 24, 1935
comma. (Cl. 261-114)
In the process of rectifying mixtures of liquids over?ow pipe c, situated in the centre 01 the plate
the bubble plates or trays are well known and
and are separated by a certain distance the one
from the other. The channels 171, b2 form between
plates are provided with upstanding tubes or them annular chimneys d1, d", d3 for the 'dis- '‘
tribution of the vapor issuing from below. An- 5
5 chimneys whose upper end is disposed within co
molar caps e1, e’. e3 are disposed over the chimneys
axial bubble caps which are cylindrical or frusto
conical. The vapor issuingfrom a plate next be ‘for reversing the ?ow of the ascending gases and
low ascends the chimneys of a plate and ?ows distribute them. These caps, which rest on the
downwards through the annular space between walls of the elements b1, b”, are maintained in
‘10 each chimney and'the corresponding cap and at position by means of bolts 72. attached to the bars 10
'last escapes through openings, that» are provided a so as to form a solid framing. Their side walls
used for contacting gases with liquids.
1 GI 1
These
at the lower part of the caps, in ‘order to be sub
jected to a contact as intimate as possible with
are so formed at their lower edge as to reserve
plate next above.
which are inclined owing to the trough-shaped 15
an opening e for the outlet and distribution of
the liquid which is conducted to the tray from the - the gas. The side walls of the chimneys d1, d2, 113,
Thepresent invention relates to bubble plates form of the channels b1, b”, are‘ so placed in rela
or partitions with chimneys and corresponding ' tion to the side .walls of the caps‘ that they form
caps and aims to avoid the risk of the gas exit
openings of-the caps becoming clogged and to
20 simultaneously obtain a high rectifying e?ect by
means of aspecial manner of discharging the gas
into the liquid of the plate. To this effect, the
side walls of the chimneys are‘ inclined down
wards to ‘the bottom of the plate and placed in‘
25 relation to the side walls of the corresponding
caps in such a manner that they form an upright
annular nozzle in which the gas passage between
them becomes progressively narrower towards the
horizontal gas exit opening, which is continuously
30 open or by places interrupted and has advantage
ously a width of at most 3 mm., so that the gas
with the latter an upright ring nozzle which
progressively becomes narrower in direction of
the gas exit opening, the latter being continuously 20
open or interrupted by places hoi'izontally round
about and having advantageously a width of at
most 3 mm.
,
Thanks to this particular construction of the
chimneys and caps the gas ?owing from below 25
through the chimneys d1, d“, d3 is delivered in the
form of an oblique, substantiallyuninterrupted
annular jet through the horizontal opening of
advantageously 3 mm. width with an increased
speed against the bottom of the annular channels 30
formed between two opposite chimneys and re
is projected against the bottom of the "plate in ceiving'theliquid; thereby an intimate contact I
form oi an inclined annular jet and with such a between gas and liquid ‘is obtained and any
speed through said‘outlet' or exit‘ opening of the deposits in the channels are simultaneously’ pre
35 ring nozzle that while sweeping the bottom ‘sur ‘ vented, for the speed of the vapor uniformly dis-- 35
face in a thin layer an intimate contact between tributed into the liquid and sweeping the liquid
gas and liquid is e?ected and simultaneously any from below along the whole bottom surface of the
solid deposit is avoided.
_
j
The chimneys may be annular and in this cas'e
40 an annular channel for receiving the liquid is
formed between two opposite chimneys.
The accompanying drawings illustrate two ex
amples of devices embodying the objectpi the
present invention and show, in vertical section
4.5v (Figs. 1 and 3) parts of cylindrical columns com
prising superimposed plates and in top view. (Figs.
2 and 4) a part of a plate of said columns, where
by in both cases a vapor is used as contacting
gas.
'
In the Figures 1 and 2 the column is provided ,
with a number of superimposed plates AHA”,
A3. . . ., which are mounted upon radial bars a.
Each) of the plates presents annular trough
plate in form of a thin layer causes such an
ascending movement that also the solid particles,
whose speci?c weight is higher than that of the 40 ‘
liquid are carried up from, a ‘channel to the '
other and ?nally into the over?ow pipe, while the g
vapor is brought into thorough and intimate
contact with the liquid. Therefore accumulation
of solid particles in'the channels and clogging of 45
the openings e are prevented. For the rest this
bubble plate system also comprises the realiza
tion of all the other aforesaid factors and condi
tions affecting the ef?ciency of the. system.
‘ Relating to the course to be followed by the ‘50,
liquid in the column it will be noted that this '
course starts from the over?ow pipe 0 of the up
per plate in the direction of the arrows shown in
shaped channels b1, b’, that are riveted to the full lines and the liquid is conducted by means of
55 bars‘ and are placed concentrically around an. distributing pipes 0 into the external annular 55
channel of the plate; from this channel the liquid ~ form and the covering caps m are ‘of a cylindrical
_?ow_s in a radial direction towards the centre of form, each chimney and its corresponding cap
the plate over the caps into the liquid receiving constituting a bubbler unit, which, in contradis
channels, the one after the other, and finally is
discharged into'the overflow pipe in order to cir
culate in a same manner on the plate next below.
tinction to the annular plate, is independent from
parts of other bubbler units.
-W_hatIclaimis:-
vAny solid particles are carried with the liquid
downwards on all plates and are discharged at the
bottom of the column. The course of the vapor
10 which has been always above explained is indi
cated by dotted arrows.
In addition, a satisfactory single-direction
cross current of the liquid in relation to the vapor
is obtained on all bubble plates or partitions by
15 the above described liquid supply arrangements.
The resulting continuous progress of the recti?
cation is of considerable importance as regards,
the efficiency of the plate or partition as'compared
.
_'.
.> 1. A bubble plate forcontacting gases and liq
uids in rectifying, washing and like columns,
which comprises chimneys having side walls
inclined downwardly to the horizontal bottom of 10
the plate and curved surfaces into which run
said side walls, said curved surfaces merging tan
gentially into the horizontal bottom of the plate,
covering caps the side walls of which form with
the side walls of the chimneys downwardly nar
rowing passages, vertical openings formed be
tween the lower edges of the side walls of said
caps and the curved surfaces of the chimneys;
with the irregular direction of the liquid involved . the horizontal distance between a chimney and
20
the corresponding cap in the horizontal planeof
the exit opening of said downwardly narrowing
passage and comprising the lower edge of the side
walls of‘said caps, being su?iciently small for
the gas issuing from said exit opening to form a
thin inclined stream which is guided by the curved 25
surface of the chimney after its issue from'the
vertical opening formed between the lower: edge
by previous constructions. Furthermore, with
this radial inward conduction of the liquid the
harmful effect of the drop in level of the liquid
upon the vapor distribution can be completely
compensated even with quite large plates or par
25 titions. The effect of ‘the drop in level of the
liquid on the plate or partition towards the over
?ow’ shows itself in an increase of the vapor
quantity per unit of area in this direction.
of the’ side walls of the caps and said curved sur
face and undersweeps the liquid along the hori
This harmful effect is compensated in the said
30 mode -of liquid'condu'ction with suitable choice
zontal bottom of the plate.
.of the diameter of the ‘over?ow in relation to .
the outer diameter of .the plate or partition, by the
continual reduction in the width of the liquid path
which this arrangement gives and the increasing
35 speci?c ?ow inaccordance with the rate of the re
duction. In this way a uniform passage of the
liquid through the vapor is obtained automatically
over the whole section of the plate or partition.
In‘order that‘the streamsofr vapor oppositely
directed do not provoke the upward ‘entrainment
of the liquid, the ring nozzles which are situated
the one opposite the other must be placed at a
su?icient distance the one from the other. The
distance is in relation, as it is to be understood,
45 with the width of the annular channels formed
between two opposite chimneys. It has been found
by experiment that this width must be at least
as large as the height of the channels.
_
‘ 30.
2. A bubble plate for contacting gases and liq
uids in rectifying, washing and like columns,
which comprises chimneys having side walls in
clined downwards to the horizontal bottom of the
plate and a curved surface into which run said
side walls, said curved surface merging tangen
tially into the horizontal bottom of the plate,
covering caps the side walls of which form with
the side walls of the chimneys a downwardly nar
rowing passage, said caps resting on the curved 40
surface of the chimneys by means of apart dis
tant projections‘, openings formed between said
projections for ‘the issue of the 'gas from the caps,
the horizontal distance between a chimney and
the corresponding cap in the horizontal plane of 45
the exit opening of said downwardly narrowing
passage and comprising the uppermost part of the
_ edge of the openings formed between the projec
The size of the width of the channels is of tions of the caps being suiilciently small for the
50 very particular importance in connection with ‘ gas issuing from said exit opening to'form a thin
the successive overfall of the liquid down to the inclined stream ‘which is guided by the curved
bottom of each channel. Experiments have surface of the chimney after its issue from the
proved that liquids which have a tendency to said openings formed between theprojections of
form with ‘gas an abundant froth or ioani do not the caps andlunldersweeps the liquid along the
horizontal bottom of the plate.
,
55 reach the bottom of the channels, as is de
sired and convenient, but pass along over the caps.‘
3. A bubble plate for contacting gases and liq
For increasing the speed of the rectification proc
uids in rectifying, washing and ‘like columns,
ess it is however of great importance that the which comprises chimneys having side walls in
froth or foam always again falls in liquid and that clined downwards to the horizontal bottom of the
this liquid is again contacted with fresh vapor.
plate and a curved surface into which run said
The froth i. e. the mixture of gas and liquid side walls, said curved surface merging tangen
must be separated into its elements during its tially into the horizontal bottom of the plate, cov
?owing over the caps, that is in the period during ering caps the side walls of which form with the
which it is not subjected to a heat exchange, the side walls of said chimneys a downwardly narrow
65 vapor must ?ow upwards in a. dry state and the ing passage, said caps resting on the chimneys by
liquid must fall down to the bottom of the next means’ of apart distant projections, openings
channel in consequence of its restored density. formed between said projections for the issue of
The width of the liquid receiving channels and of. the gas from the caps, the horizontal distance
the caps must therefore be_chosen large enough between a chimney and the corresponding cap in
according to the tendency of the liquid mixture to the horizontal plane of the exit opening of said
form froth.
_
-
55
60
65
70
downwardly narrowing passage and comprising
The column represented in Figs. 3 and 4 is ' the uppermost part of the edge of the openings
similar to the column represented in Figs. 1 and 2, formed between the projections of the caps being
in relation with its construction, but in this em
75
su?iciently small for the gas issuing from said
bodiment the chimneys 1t are of a frusto-conical - exit opening to form a thin inclined stream which 75
3 .
isguidedbythscurvedsurhceottheehimnw walls 01’ the annular-caps being‘jsuiliciently small
1.
for the gas issuing from said. exit openings-‘to
aiteritsi'ssue tromthe saidopenings iormedbe
tween the projections of the caps and undersweeps form thin inclined streams which are gulded'by
the liquid among the horizontal bottom of the the curved surtaces' oi the chimneys after their
issue iromfthe'vvertical opening formed between 5
plate.
.
v
‘4. A circular bubble plate for contacting gases the lower edge'oi thelside walls of the annular
and underswee‘p
and liquids ‘in rectifying. washing and like col caps and said curved
umns,‘ which comprises 'annular-trough-shaped the liquid along the'horizontal bottom‘oi- the‘
' elements having outwardly inclined side walls and 1 v
curved suriaces between the horizontal bottom of
the trough-shaped element and said side walls.
v said trough-shaped elements being disposed con
centrically and separated'the one from the other
to form annular chimneys having inclined side
walls and curvedsurtaces merging“ into the hori
trough-shaped elements. g
Y
6. Abubble-plate for contacting gases and liq!
uids in rectifying. washing and like ‘columns,
which comprises‘annular trough-shaped elements
having outwardlyviinclined side walls and curved‘
surfaces between the horizontal bottqn of the
trough-shaped elements and said side walls, said 15.
zontal bottom oi’ the trough-shaped elements, an: v trough-shaped elements‘ being disposed concen
nularcapsdisposed over the said chimneys. the . vtric'allyandseparated the one from the other to
said ‘annular caps resting on the chimneys by
means of apart distant projections, openings
form annular chimneys having inclined side walls
and curved'suriaces merging i‘nto the horizontal
bottom of the trough-shaped ‘elements, annular
formed between said projections for the issueoi
the gas trom‘the caps, bars extending radially 1 caps disposed over .the said ‘chimneys, the side
under the horlmntsl bottom of the
vent walls or the caps iorming, with the side walls oi!
es,
nular trough-shaped elements so‘ as ‘to bridge the r said chimneys downwardly narrowing
lower openings 01 the chimneys and ?xedto said
elements, bolts passing through ‘ the ‘said bars’,
said annular vcaps resting on the incurvedsur
races of the
by means 'ofapartdistant'
' said chimneys and the top’ wall 01 the correspond ‘projections,’ , openings romeo. between said ,pro-_ _
ing caps andmesns bearing on said bars and said‘v - 'iections‘ for the‘ issue oi’ the ‘gas from the caps,
top ‘walls .ior
the caps
the g the‘ horizontal distance between a chimney ‘- a'n'd‘i '
thecorresponding cap in-thehorisontallplane oi - ‘
5.1L bubble
for contacting.‘ gases and liq-' theexit openings of said downwardly narrowing
aids in rectifyins'. .washing and like columns. ‘passages and comprising the uppermost part oi!v
30."
which» comprises
,tmush-shaped elements ‘ the edge of the openings formed between the pro-- ,
having outwardly inclined side walls-and curved iections oi the caps being vsuiiiciently small for - ‘
surfaces between the horlsont‘al bottom voi the the. gas issuing (from saidexit openings to form
trough-shaped element and; said side ‘walls. said thin inclined streams‘ which are guided by the,
oi the‘chimney aiter'their
trough-shaped elements being disposed conoens - eurved
and separated the ‘one from the other to . _ tions
from of
thetheopenings
caps andundersweep
formed between
the liquid
the proiec-j
along :
form
chimneys havinglinclined. side walls
andcurved
intovthehonaontal'
of they trough—shaped elements, annular
- ea‘ps’idisposed overthe'ssid chimneys.'the side._
‘walls of thecaps-torming ‘with the side walls of
downwardly narrowing passages. a
formed between the lower hori
the horizontal bottom of the trough-shaped ele-I~
ments'.
extending radially under the horizon- .
tal- bottom of the successive annular trough
shaped elements so ‘as to bridge the ‘lower open-‘
ingsoi the chimneys and ?xed to said elements,
bolts, passing through the said bars, said chim
neys-and the top wall of the corresponding caps
sontal‘ edge of the side walls of the annular caps
and the ‘curved surfaces at the chimneys. the andmeansbearingonsaidbarsandthetop wall
horiaontaldistanee'between a chimney and the 50! said caps for tightening'thecaps, against the
surfaces of the
corresponding cap in the horizontal plane oi’ the
exit openings of said'downwardlynarro‘wing pesk
'
i
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