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Патент USA US2136151

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Nov. 8, 1938.
Filed March 26. 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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NOV. 8, 1938.
Al _1_ PARR|5|-|
Filed March 26, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
“Non nen,
Patented Nov. 8, 1938
Alan Jay Parrish, Paris, Ill., assignor of one
half to Margaret Parrish and one-half to Jane
Parrish, both of Paris, Ill.
Application March 26, 1936, Serial No. 71.015
’i Claims. (Cl. Z55-1)
This invention relates to improvements in
drain pipes and the like, and a method of and
means for installing such pipes under ground.
is therefore one of the objects of this invention
to provide pipe structures and cooperating means
whereby the pipes may be inserted under ground
More particularly, the invention relates to the i and also to points under existing structures with
a minimum expense.
5 provision of pipes and casings and means for
A further and important object of the inven
laying the same to provide for drainage of water
tion is the provision of pipe and cooperating man
from beneath existing pavement and other struc
tures, the provision of culverts, and generally, drel structures which make possible the use of
relatively thin sheet metal pipe and its instal
the underground placement of pipes without in
10 volving the great expense of trenching, laying lation under ground without resulting damage 10
to the pipe.
and afterward iilling in, or disturbing the exist
ing structures under which the pipes are ex
While not limited thereto in its use, the in
16 vention has particular application in the pro
vision of suitable drainage and culverts for ex
isting highways, pavement structures, and rail
road beds. Water accumulation beneath these
structures and others due to improper drainage
results in serious damage to the overlying struc
tures. In connection with roadbed and pave
ment structures, for example, vehicular traflic
passing thercover produces an impact or tamp
ing action which tends to cause any water in
the base to form water pockets and raise the
Water table. Under impact loads of passing traf
flce and under frost conditions such accumu
lations are causations of extensive damage which
would otherwise be minimized with proper drain
30 age. By the present invention it is possible,
without great expense, to tap and drain water
pockets and moisture zones under such struc
tures and to prevent recurrence of the fault.
In the prior practices of providing openings,
35 culverts, and drains under highways, railways,
and other structures, trenching and tunneling
It is also an object of the invention to pro
vide a pipe with a helical thread and a cooper
ating mandrel structure for supporting and forc
ing the pipe into the ground so that the re- 15
sultant load in this operation is transferred to
the driving mandrel structure.
It is a further object of the invention to pro
vide a drain pipe with hole-clearing means at
one end and comprising successive cooperating 20
It is also an object of the invention to provide
a method of installing pipes provided with a
thread formation on their exterior surface by
supporting and rotating the pipes by means of 25
a carrier in the process of installation, and there
after withdrawing the carrier without removing
the pipe.
Further objects and advantages will be ap
parent to those skilled in the art from the fol- 30
lowing detailed description oi' the invention and
reference to the drawings forming part of this
speciiication, wherein like reference numerals
have been used to indicate corresponding parts
throughout the various figures.
In the drawings:-Fig. 1 illustratesI in cross section, an existing
have been the most common methods employed
although some use has been made of the so
pavement structure and one application of the
called jacking method. All of such practices,
invention providing drainage pipes therefor.
40 however, are relatively expensive and more or
less impair the compacted condition oi' the soil.
The present invention contemplates the pro
vision of proper drainage and aeration by a novel ,
pipe structure which can be made of sheet metal
46 or` other relatively light stock, and supporting
and driving means cooperating therewith, where
by the pipe can be installed at desired points
under ground frictionally tight in the surround
ing soil and without damage to the pipe, whether
50 it be of the plain or perforated type of structure.
In application of the invention, it is possible to
utilize sheet metal or other thin wall pipe struc
tures and provide such structures with support
by a close ñtting carrier in an assembly capable
of being forced into position in the ground. It
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional View of 40
the pipe and carrier assembly similar to that
illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an end view of the leading end of the
pipe in Fig. 2, illustrating clearing cutters ap
plied thereto.
Fig. 4 is a perspective view illustrating a pipe
end section and locking means.
Fig. 5 is a view in elevation of a pipe section
perforated for drain purposes.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a mandrel section.
‘ Fig. 'I is a perspective view of a modified form
of mandrel and a cooperating detachable cutter
Fig. 8 is a cross sectional view showing mandrel
and pipe thread cooperation.
Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional view of a road base
showing application of the invention for installa
tion of pipe after pre-drilling.
Referring to the drawings. and Figs. 1 to 6
thereof , in particular, there is shown a pipe and
mandrel assembly I arranged for insertion as a
unit into the ground with a rotative driving pres
sure applied to one end of the assembly. The
assembly comprises a pipe 2 and a mandrel 3.
10 The pipe is constructed of sheet metal or other
relatively thin stock structure which may be sec
tionallzed or in the form of a single unit. This
pipe is provided throughout its length with a heli
cal corrugation l forming a raised thread por
15 tion on the outside of the pipe and a correspond
ing groove on the inside of the pipe. It is con
templated that the pipe may be either perforated
or of the plain variety, depending upon the man
ner of use. Transversely disposed across one end
20 of the pipe and ail‘lxed thereto there is provided
a clearing cutter bar 5. the function of which is
to clear the core dirt when the pipe is forced
into the ground with a rotative motion. The
pipe, at the other end, is provided with a slightly
25 enlarged swaged portion 5 having a short corru
gation 'I therein disposed substantially diametri
cally opposite the end of the helical thread.
These short corrugations which are preferably of
a pitch different from that of the helical thread,
30 are provided at each end of pipe sections when a
sectionalized unit is employed to provide for lock
ing engagement with cooperating sections.
When a sectionalized pipe is employed, the ñrst
or leading section thereof will be provided with
35 the transverse clearing cutter blades. In some
applications of the invention, .a single pipe unit
will sufilce for the desired purpose but many
times it becomes necessary to install drain pipes
and the like from points in excavations which de
40 fine a limited available space, and under these
conditions, it has been found necessary to utilize
a pipe composed of cooperating sections, the sec
tions being connected as the pipe is progressed
into the ground.
The mandrel 3 comprises a hollow metal body
having a drive connection 8 and an enlarged
flange or collar 9 at one end and a raised helical
thread extending from the flange or collar 9
throughout the entire length of the mandrel.
helical thread may be formed as part of the
mandrel stock or may be a separate member af
ñxed thereto by welding or other methods. The
mandrel may be in the form of a single unit of
any desired length or it may be sectionalized for
use in restricted working spaces. When section
alized, a driving section constructed as previously
described is employed in cooperation with splined
sections shown in Fig. 6. The forward end of
the driving section will in this case be provided
60 >with splines I6 for cooperation with splines I1 on
the section I5. 'This inter?tting connection be
tween adjacent mandrel sections is provided by
spaced slots extending lengthwise of the sections
from the ends thereof and arranged that when
65 mandrel sections are assembled, the outer helical
thread will register with the thread on adjacent
sections and so form a
throughout the length of the assembly.
In cross sectional area the mandrel thread is
70 sumciently smaller than the i?‘ner helical groove
of the pipe to` provide for easy removal of the
mandrel from the pipe. 'The arrangement, how
ever, when a pipe is threaded on the mandrel,
is such that a rotative driving force applied to
75 the mandrel is transmitted vto the pipe through
out its entire length by engagement of the man
drel thread with the front wall of the- pipe thread
and by engagement of the enlarged collar or
shoulder with one end ofthe pipe. 'I‘he mandrel
affords a complete support for the inner wall of
the pipe and precludes damage and collapse of
the pipe when the unit assembly is forced into
the ground. The complete support of the pipe
by the mandrel against deformation enables the
use of sheet metal or other relatively thin-walled 10
pipe of the plain and perforated types for drain,
culvert and other purposes.
Any suitable driving power feed means, and
driving connections may be utilized for rotating
the mandrelwand pipe assembly into desired posi
tion in the ground. There is shown for purposes
of illustration in Figs. l and 2, a manually oper
able ratchet I8 and power drive I9 with connec
tions 20 for applying a rotative driving force at
the end of the mandrel.
Fig. '7 shows a modified mandrel structure with
the tubular ‘body 3 internally threaded .at its end
to receive a detachable cutter head 2I provided
with forwardly projecting cutters 22 and a reduced
screw thread portion 23 for threaded engage
ment with the end of the mandrel body. The
cutters are so arranged that when this type of
cutting mandrel is engaged with a pipe or pipe
sections having a clearing cutter, the mandrel
cutters will be slightly in advance of the forward 30
edge of the cutters on the pipe and be so posi
tioned as not to interfere with the pipe and
mandrel engagement or disengagement. Advance
cutters on the mandrel or on mandrel sections
may also form integral extensions 2l on the man
drel as shown in Fig. 2.
Use of the invention is contemplated for in
stalling pipes under ground without pre-drilling
where conditions of the soil permit and for in
stalling pipes after a pre-drilling or during opera
tion. Fig. l illustrates the application of the
invention in inserting a perforated drain pipe
under an existing pavement structure without
pre-drilling and Fig. 9 illustrates the applica
tion of the invention in installing pipe where
a. pre-drilling or boring operation has been ñrst
conducted. In either case, the pipe is completely
supported throughout its length by the driving
mandrel and the outer surface of the pipe in
cluding the thread has ñrm frictional engage
ment with the surrounding soil without mate
rial disturbance of its compacted condition.
In operation, in the process of installing lateral
drains, culverts and the like, it is only necessary
to provide a suitable excavation to accommodate
necessary driving tools and for manipulation of
the entering sections of the mandrel and pipe. A
Pipe 0r pipe section having the clearing cutter at
one end is inserted on the mandrel by interen
Saging the mandrel and pipe threads.
In this
position. the end of the pipe abuts the collar or
flange on the mandrel. This unit may be con
nected to any suitable rotative driving power and,
by rotating the assembly under pressure, the pipe
may be installed in any desired position beneath
the ground, after which the mandrel may be
backed oil' and removed, leaving the pipe undis
turbed in the installed position. Where necessary
space is not available for operation with rela
tively long mandrel and pipe sections, the pipe 70
sections are progressively installed and in this
process the mandrel is backed out of the pipe
and a mandrel extension is connected thereto
together with an accompanying additional section
of pipe. In the insertion of the sectionalized pipe,
the helical outer thread registers with the thread
on adjacent sections and interengages therewith
at the joints, as is also the case with the short
locking corrugations.
'I'he surrounding pipe
aiïords an overlapping lock for the splined man
drel sections allowing them to be removed with
out separation. The use of the sectionalized pipe
and mandrel is only necessary where there is
insuihcient space available from which to oper
10 ate in the location of the pipes. It will be appar
ent that where there are no interfering struc
tures or banks to contend with, single unit pipe
structures and mandrels may be employed.
The clearing cutter on the leading pipe end
serves to clear a pre-drilled or pre-bored hole,
depositing the dirt collected within the mandrel,
and where the unit is utilized to make its own
hole in the ground, the leading cutter on the
mandrel serves to cut a core which the clearing
cutters on the pipe deposit within the mandrel.
If desired, suitable means may be employed to
continuously remove dirt from the hollow man
drel. Such means are well known in the art
and form no part of the invention.
By the method and structural organization
hereinbefore described, it is possible to obtain'
aeration of subsoil and drainage under existing
structures without interfering with the struc
tures and this may be accomplished with a mini
mum amount of expense. Furthermore, it will
be appreciated that the mandrel structure may
be used to clear out pipes which have been pre
viously installed and which may have become
ñlled with silt or other matters. In this use, it
is only necessary to insert the mandrel and ad
vance it through the pipe to remove any mate
rial which may have accumulated inside the pipe.
While the invention has been described in con
nection with a preferred embodiment, it is to be
understood that the words which have been used
are words oi' description rather than of limitation
and that changes within the purview of the ap
pended claims may be made without departing
from the true scope and spirit of the invention
in all its aspects.
I claim:
1. The method of rotatively installing in the
ground sheet metal drain pipes having substan
tially uniform diameter and an exterior helical
thread to provide horizontal drains which com
prises, supporting the inner surface of the pipe
against distortion and advancing the pipe into the
desired position ‘frictionally tight in the ground
in a progressive rotative movement by applying
within and at one end of the pipe a progressive
rotative driving force, the rotative advancement
and positioning of the pipe providing a. threaded
engagement of the pipe with the ground.
2. The method of rotatively installing in the
ground thin sheet metal pipes having substan
tially uniform diameter and an exterior helical
thread to provide horizontal drains which com
prises advancing the pipe by applying a progres
sive rotative dxiving force at one end and
throughout the entire length of the pipe on the
inside thereof, and supporting the pipe on the
inside intermediate- points of application of said
driving force, the rotative positioning of thr-pipe providing threaded engagement of the pipe
with surrounding ground.
3. In combination, a drain pipe having per
íorations throughout its length and a steep pitch
helical corrugation extending the entire length
of the pipe defining a relatively narrow raised
screw thread on an otherwise smooth outer sur
face of the pipe, a helical driving surface on the
inside of the pipe throughout its length, a sup
porting carrier for said pipe closely engaging the
inside of the pipe and having an external screw
thread engaging the helical driving surface in
side the pipe, and means for forcing the pipe and 15
carrier assembly into the ground with a rotative
4. In combination, a hollow metal pipe carry
ing mandrel having a helical thread extending
throughout its entire length on the outside there 20
of, means for cutting at one end of the mandrel,
and rotative driving means at the other end of
the mandrel, a pipe having a helical groove ex
tending throughout its length on the inside for
driving cooperation with the thread on the out 25
side of the mandrel, and a clearing cutter trans
versely disposed at one end of the pipe, said
mandrel and pipe assembly being adapted for
insertion in the ground as a unit under the force
of said rotative driving means with the mandrel 30
applying a driving force throughout the entire
length of the pipe.
5l In a sectionalized mandrel comprising a plu
rality of hollow metal members having interen
gaging splined ends and a raised helical exterior 35
thread, the threads of separate sections meeting
to form a continuous thread throughout the
entire length of the mandrel structure, and driv
ing means at one end of the mandrel for rotat
ing the same.
6. In combination, a sectionalized hollow metal
mandrel having an enlarged iiange portion at
one end thereof and an outer helical thread ex
tending throughout the length of the mandrel to
the opposite end, driving means connected with 45
the mandrel adjacent the enlarged portion, a
sectionalized metal pipe having a helical groove
in the inner wall extending throughout the length
of the pipe for cooperation with the helical
thread on- the mandrel, and a clearing'cutter on 50
one end of said pipe, the helical groove in the
pipe and the helical thread on the mandrel being
so arranged that the mandrel is adapted to apply
a driving force throughout the entire length of
the pipe on the inner side thereof.
7. A sheet metal drain pipe section having
substantially smooth surface throughout its major
portion and having a high pitch helical groove
in the inner wall and a raised helical outside
bead extending throughout the length of the
pipe, said bead providing a thread by which the
pipe can be screwed into the grûlmd. and a
transversely disposed clearing cutter at one end
of the pipe section to move dirt into the pipe as
the pipe is progressed in the EI'OuIld.
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