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Патент USA US2136316

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Nov. 8, 1938.
|_. A. PHILIPP
‘
2,135,316
'REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Original Filed April 20, 1935 . 2 Sbeefs-Sheet 2
‘III
J INVENTOR.
LlYh’QE/ICL' If PHIL/PP
ATTORNEY. '~
> Patented Nov. 8, I938
_ _ 2,136,316
I
- UNITED STATES/PATENT’ ‘OFF-ICE ‘
aEFmGamrmG APPARATUS
j Lawrence A. Philipp, Detroit, Mich., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Nash-Kelvinator Cor
poration, Detroit, Mich ., a corporation of Mary
land
Application April 20, 1933, Serial No. 666,944 '
Renewed January 24, 1935
11 Claims.’ ~
I
'
(01. 62-95)
This invention _' relates to refrigerating .appa-j Fig. 1, with a portion of the enclosure for the
ratus and more particularly to the method and
apparatus for controlling temperatures in such
cooling apparatus [broken away;
Fig. 3 is a viewv of a modi?ed form of ‘refriger
apparatus.
ating apparatus. embodying features of my in
.One of the objects of myinventionlis to pro
vide a fundamentally new [system and method
of refrigeration wherein a simple compact unit
is utilized for freezing ice cubes and the like
and for cooling ‘circulating air in 'a refrigerator
vention;
10 cabinet in animproved manner without the col
lection‘ of frost on its surfaces exposed to said
circulating air at least part of the time.
Another object of my invention is to provide a
refrigerating apparatus of the type which in
~ eludes primary and secondary refrigerating sys
terms for cooling a plurality of zones, and to pro
vide an improved arrangement for maintaining
a temperature differential between said systems.
Another objectwof my invention is to provide
a refrigerating apparatus of thev type which in
and
g
,
,
U!
Fig. 4 is a further'modi?ed form of refriger
ating apparatus embodying features of my in
vention.
Referring to the drawings, the numeral 20 des
ignates, in general, an insulated cabinet having 10
a food storage compartment 2|, the‘ inner walls
of which are formed by a metallic liner 22. Pref
erably, the lining member-'22 ,is provided'with a
coating of vitreous enamel, such as porcelain,
toprovide a neat appearance and surface which 15'
maybe easily-cleaned.
.
Within the con?nes of the liner 22 there is dis
posed a' refrigerant evaporating element 25 of a
primary refrigerating system 21. ,The element 25
is of the plate type, which‘may be of any suit- '
cludes,a primary -_and secondary refrigerating " able construction, and is horizontally disposed in
system“ for‘ cooling a plurality of v zones, and to
provide an, improved method for maintaining
a temperature differential between saidvsystems.
Another object of my invention consists in an
improved method of controlling temperatures in
the primary and secondary systems of the afore
said apparatus.
.
Another object of my invention is to utilize
the aforesaid secondary system for cooling cir
culating air in a food storage compartment of a
refrigerator without collecting frost thereon at
' least part of the time due to the depositof mois
ture from the circulating air, and to employ a
cooling elementof the primary system for freez
ing substances, and also to enclose the primary
cooling element against said circulating air, .to
thus avoid the necessity of rendering the pri
mary refrigerating system inoperative for peri
40 odically defrosting any part of the apparatus.
Another‘ object of my invention is to propor
tion the effective area of the heatdissipating
portion of the secondary-condenser with respect
to the heat absorbing area of the secondary evap
45 orator to )maintain a temperature differential
between the heat absorbing medium of the con
densing zone and the secondary evaporator.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
' ‘from the following description,‘ reference being
50 ‘bad to the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a vertical view in cross section of a
refrigerating apparatus embodying features of
my invention;
55
Fig. 2 is a view taken along the line . 2—2 of
the ‘cabinet slightly spaced from the top wall
thereof. The element 25 is arranged for support
ing ice making receptacles 25 on its upper sur
face immediately below the top wall of the cabi
net .20.
.
'
In addition tothe primary evaporating ele
ment 25, the-primary refrigerating'sy'stem 21 in‘
cludes a compressor 30, motor 32, condenser 34,
and a high side ?oat mechanism 36. The com
30
pressor withdraws gaseous refrigerant from the
element 25 through vapor. return conduit 38,
compresses the gaseous refrigerant and delivers
it to the condenser wherein it is lique?ed and
from which it is delivered to the high side ?oat '
mechanism. Liquid refrigerant is delivered to
the element .25 through a liquid supply conduit
40 under the control of ?oat mechanism 35..
A secondary refrigerating system is provided
for cooling the circulating air in the. compart 40.
ment 2| and alsorfor supporting receptacles for
freezing and storing frozen substances in close‘
proximity. to the primary evaporating element
25 where said substances will, be frozen or re
tained in frozen condition by the refrigerating
effect of the primary evaporating element 25.
The secondary, refrigerating system 42 ,com-._
prises, in'general, a refrigerant evaporating ele
ment 45, the interior of which forms an evapo
rating region, and a refrigerant-condensing ele 50
ment 46, the interior of which forms a condensing
region. The elements 45' and 46 are connected
together and are in open communication with
each other bymeans of conduits 41. The sec
ondary refrigerant evaporating element 45 is sub
2
2,186,316
stantially of the same size as the primary re
frigerant evaporating element 25 and is hori
in the aforesaid apparatus is to merely introduce
a slight ?lm of liquid refrigerant 54 into the re
zontally disposed within the cabinet directly be- I
frigerant evaporating element so that the amount
low the element 25. The secondary evaporating
element is arranged for supporting receptacles
thereof is insuf?cient to at any time cool the sur~
49 on its upper surface and for cooling the cir
low a temperature as the quantity of liquid con
faces of the secondary evaporating element to as
tained in the primary evaporating element cools
the surfaces of the primary element.
Preferably, the temperature differential which
said element. The secondary refrigerant con
10 densing element 46 is, preferably, rectangular' is maintained between the primary evaporating
element 25 and the secondary evaporating ele
in shape and is disposed in contact with the pri
mary evaporating element 25 for condensing ment 45 is such that the circulating air in the
evaporated refrigerant in the secondary system compartment 2| is cooled to the desired tempera
culating air in the compartment 2| by the cir
culating air contacting with the underside of
42.
15
~
In order to maintain a temperature differential
between the primary evaporating element 25 and
the secondary evaporating element 45, I have con
structed the secondary condensing element 46 so
7 that the effective area for dissipating heat ab
20 sorbed in the secondary system is considerably
tures without collecting frost on the surfaces of
the evaporating element 45 at least part of the
time during its operation. This may be accom
plished by operating the evaporating element 45
at temperatures which ‘would allow the collection
of a slight film of frost thereon during the on
phase of the refrigerating cycle of the primary 20
less than the heat absorbing area of the secondary
system 21, and allow the frost to be melted from
evaporating element 45. As shown in Fig. 2, the
secondary condensing element 46 is considerably
the element 45 during the off-phase of the refrig~
erating cycle of the system 21. If desired, how
ever, the secondary evaporating element may be
operated. at temperatures slightly above that 25
smaller in size than the evaporating element 45.
25 ‘.By thus providing a relatively small condensing
element 46, the surface thereof which contacts
with the primary evaporating element will be such
that only a portion of the evaporated refrigerant
in the secondary system 42 will be condensed, ‘and
30 a portion thereof is retained in vapor form in the
' condenser 46 where it applies a de?nite pressure
upon the liquid refrigerant in the secondary evap
orating element 45, to thus maintain a heat lag
between the secondary evaporating element and
.35 the primary evaporating element. Thus, by pro
portioning the eil‘e'ctive heat dissipating area of
the secondary condensing element and the heat
absorbing area of the secondary evaporating ele
which would cause the collection of frost and ice
thereon due to the deposit of moisture from the
circulating air in the compartment 2|.
In order to prevent the collection of frost and
ice on the primary evaporating element 25 and 30
the upper surface of the secondary evaporating
element 45, and to provide suitable freezing zones
for the substances contained in trays 26 and 49,'I
have provided a metallic enclosure 60 and a front
closure plate 62. The enclosure 60 is provided 35
with out-turned ?anges 64 which are secured to
the top wall of the cabinet 2| in any suitable
manner, and inturned flanges 66 which are se
ment, 9. de?nite temperature di?erential may be
cured to the top wall of the secondary evaporat
maintained between the primary and secondary
ing element 45 in any suitable manner. The en 40
closure 68 forms a suitable enclosure for the sides
and rear portion surrounding the primary evap
refrigerating systems.
_
Referring now to Fig. 3, there is shown a modi
- fled form of condensing element for the secondary‘
system 42. In this modi?ed form of the inven
45 tion, the secondary refrigerant condensing ele
ment 52 is provided for condensing evaporated re
frigerant in the secondary system. As will be
noted, the condensing element 52 is substantially
the same size as the primary evaporating element
26. In an arrangement of this type. I ‘also pro
portion the e?ective area of the heat dissipating
portion of the condensing element 52 with respect
orating element 25, the secondary condensing ele
ment and the top wall of the secondary evapor—
ating element 45. The front closure plate 62 co 45
operates with the closure 60 for so enclosing the
primary evaporating element, secondary con
densing element and the top wall of the secondary
evaporating element against the circulating air
within the compartment 2|. The front closure 62 50
_is provided with openings 10 and ‘II to permit
the insertion and removal of the receptacles 26
to the heat absorbing area of the secondary evap
and 49, respectively. The openings 10 and ‘H are
crating element. ‘In this arrangement, however,
closed by doors 13 and '14, respectively.
55 the effective area of the condenser 52 is limited
by substantially entirely ?lling the secondary
evaporating element and condensing element with
liquid refrigerant so that the upper interior sur'
face of the condensing element is partly in con
tact with some of the liquid refrigerant in the
secondary system, and some of the upper interior
surface of the condensing element is slightly
spaced from the liquid refrigerant in the sec
ondary system. Thus, the upper interior surface
of the condensing element 52 need not be all on
the same plane but is slightly undulating so that
portions thereof contact with the liquid refriger
ant in the secondary system, while other portions
thereof are slightly spaced from the liquid refrig
70 erant in the secondary system. This limits the
effective area of the condensing element 52.
As shown in Fig. 4, another arrangement for
maintaining a temperature differential between
the primary refrigerant evaporating element and
75 the secondary refrigerant evaporating element 53
In order to increase the heat transfer charac
teristics of the secondary evaporating element
45_, I have provided ‘a plurality of U-shaped heat
absorbing fins 15. The ?ns are preferably equally
spaced and arranged in parallel relation across
the underside of the element 45. Immediately 60
below the secondary evaporating element 45', I
have positioned a pair of bailies and drip con
ducting plates 18. The members 18 are arranged
for directing the ?ow of air in the compartment
2|, and also for receiving the drip water from 65
the secondary evaporating element 45 and con
ducting it to a drip receptacle 80 supported by
shelf 82.
i
From the foregoing, it will be noted that I
have provided an improved arrangement and 70
method for maintaining a temperature differen
tial between a primary and secondary refriger
ating system which is very simple to construct
and'is so arranged that it consists of no moving
parts whatsoever or any parts in the secondary 75
_
3
9,136,316 ' ‘
tirely ?lled with volatile liquid refrigerant, evap
system which would be'likely to become faulty
in operation to vary the temperature differential
orating the refrigerant in the evaporating zone,
passing the evaporated refrigerant to the con
maintained between‘it and the primary system. '
densing zone and condensing‘evaporated refrig
Preferably, the primary refrigerating system_ erant in the condensing zone.
In order to con-,
‘
2.7 Refrigerating apparatus comprising, in com
trol the operation of said primary refrigerating bination, a1 refrigerated shelf for freezing sub
stances,‘ a refrigerated shelf located directly be
‘system, I have provided an automatic thermo
statically controlled switch 85, to which is con
low the first shelf, ‘and means for operating the
meted a thermostatic ?uid containing bulb 81,v second shelf at least part of the time at tem 10
10 whichcontrols the operation of the switch 85 - peratures-above the freezing point of water, said
in the well known manner. The'iluld containing second shelf having an air cooling portion and
thermostatic bulb 81 is placed in contact with being provided with a surface for supporting
> 21 is intermittently operated.‘
a , secondary evaporating element 45, to thus
control the operation of the primary systemin
15
’
' frozen'substances
response to changes in temperatures‘ in the ele
ment 45. The switch 85 opens and closes the
motor circuit to the power mains 90 in response
to changes in temperatures in element 45.
Thus, it will be noted thatrpredetermined tem
peratures may be maintained within the evap
orating element 45, by controllingthe operation
of the primary refrigerating system in response
to changes in temperatures in the secondary
evaporating element 45. It will also be noted
that the relative temperatures existing in the
25 secondary evaporating element 45 and the pri
mary evaporating element 25 may be determined
in various manners. In the embodimentsof the
invention disclosed, .the heat lag between the
evaporating region and the condensing region is
30
increased by, reducing the amount of association
of the first named shelf.
_3. Refrigerating
_
apparatus
comprising. _ in
combination, a cooling element for freezing sub 20
stances, a second cooling element having a por
tion located directly below the ?rst element, and
means for operating the second element at least
part of ‘the time at temperatures above the freez
ing point of water, said second element having
an air cooling portion and being provided with 25
between‘molecules of evaporated refrigerant and
the condensing portion. This can be accom-v
plished by limiting the effective area of the sec
ondary condensing element relative to the eifec; {
35 tive area of the secondary. evaporator, in which,
case an increased pressure is present in the sec
ondary system which in effect reducesthe va
in the secondary evaporator, or, this
' porization
of'the amount of association between
40 ‘reduction
molecules of ' evaporated refrigerant and the con
,
immediately below the ?rst
named shelf to thereby maintain said substances 15
‘in a frozen condition by the refrigerating effect
"
a surface for supporting frozen substances im- '
mediately below the first named element to there
by maintain said substances in a frozen condi
tion by the refrigerating effect of the first named
30
element.
comprising,
in
4. Refrigerating apparatus
combination, a cabinet having a food storage
compartment, a cooling element disposed ‘in said
cabinet-for freezing substances, a second cooling
element disposed in said cabinet for cooling the 35
circulating air in said compartment, means for e
operating the ?rst named cooling element at
temperatures sufficiently low enough to ‘cause
rapid freezing vof 'saidsubstanceaand means for ,
operating said second named element; at tem 40
peratures above that which would permit oper
-
ation without collecting frost and ice thereon at
densing portion can be accomplished by utilizing, least part of the time, and said second named
only a small amount of refrigerant in the sec-‘ cooling element being so positioned with» respect
ondary system. By these arrangements, ice cubes . to the ?rst named cooling element that frozen
be rapidly frozen by the re-.
and the like may
45 frigerating effect of the'primary evaporating ele- _ substances may be supported thereon to be re
tained in a frozen condition by the refrigerating
ment, and the circulating air in the food stor
age compartment 2| may be cooled to its proper
e?ect of the ?rst named cooling element.
in the compartment 2| without the collection of
plate type evaporating elements disposed in said '
5. Refrigerating apparatus comprising, in com
temperature for the preservation of foods stored’ bination, a cabinet, a pair of vertically spaced 50
50' 1 frost and ice upon its exposed surfaces, or with
the collection of a slight film of frost thereon dur
ing the on-phase of the refrigerating .cycle of
the primary system which is melted during the
cabinet and being adapted to support ice making
receptacles one above the other, means enclosing
the upper element and the uppermost part of
the lower element from the circulating air in the 55
cabinet, and means for operating the lower ele
55 mary refrigerating system. It will also be noted
ment at a higher temperature than the upper
that by the arrangement of parts in the cabinet, ‘ element whereby the underside of the lower ele
the same element which cools the circulating air ment may cool the circulating air in said cabinet
' within the cabinet provides a support for recep
without collecting frost thereon at least part of 60.
tacles containing substances to be frozen or to the tim , andthe upper surface thereof may be
80 be retained. in a frozen condition by the refrig
used for supporting one of said ice making re
off-phase of the refrigerating cycle of thew-pri
erating effect of a heat absorbing element which
is provided for the rapid freezing of substances.
ceptacles for freezing the contents thereof by
the refrigerating effect of the upper element.
Although only a prefered‘forrn of the inven
6. Refrigerating apparatus comprising, in com
tion has been illustrated, and that form described , bination, a cabinet, a pair of vertically spaced
65
in detail, it will be apparent to those skilled in refrigerant evaporating elements disposed in said
theart that various modi?cations may be made cabinet and being adapted to support ice making
, therein without departing from the spirit of the receptacles one above the other, means enclosing
the scope of the appended the upper element 1 and the. uppermost part of
invention or from
the. circulating 'air‘ in ~
the lower element from
70 claims.
What I claim as my invention is:
the cabinet, means for operating the lower ele- 3
1. The process of refrigeration which consists ment’ at a higher temperature than the upper
in establishing refrigerant condensing andevap
element whereby the underside of the lower ele
orating zones in'ropen communication with each ment may cool the circulating air in said cabinet 75
other, maintaining .said zones substantially en
75
4.
2,186,816
without collecting frost thereon at least part of
the time, and the surface thereabove providing
a support for one of said ice making receptacles
for freezing the contents thereof by the refrig
crating effect of the upper element, and means
responsive to changes in temperatures of the
lower element for controlling the refrigerating
effect of the upper element.
'
-
in said chamber, said unit including an enclosure
having surfaces exposed for cooling circulating
air in said chambenand a refrigerated shelf
positioned in said enclosure to divide the interior
thereof into two chambers, and means associated WI
with said enclosure for controlling the temper
ature of said refrigerated shelf, said means being
responsive to the changes in temperature of a
'7. Refrigerating apparatus comprising, in com
surface ofsaid enclosure to maintain a refrig
10 bination, a cabinet having a food storage com
erating temperature in said main food chamber 10
partment, a primary refrigerating system includ
solely
by the heat absorbing eifect of said refrig
ing a refrigerant evaporating element disposed
in said cabinet outside of direct contact with the erated shelf without the collection of frost on
circulating air in said compartment, a secondary the exterior surfaces of said enclosure at least
refrigerating system including a refrigerant‘ part of the time while maintaining the refrig
erated shelf at a'sharp freezing temperature.
15
evaporating element disposed in the path of cir
10. Refrigerating apparatus including a cooling
culating air in the food compartment for cooling
unit adapted to be installed in an insulated food
said air, said secondary system also including a , storage
chamber comprising a metallic casing
condenser disposed in contact with the primary
forming a secondary chamber, shelf means with
element, said secondary system being substan
tially entirely ?lled with liquid refrigerant to in said secondary chamber dividing the same into
compartments of unequal height, means for re
thereby produce a heat lag between the primary frigerating
said shelf .means, said secondary
and secondary evaporating elements-so that the
secondary evaporating element operates at least chamber having access means for said compart
ments and closure means for said access means, 25 part of the time without collecting frost thereon,
andv means for controlling the operating of the and means influenced by- the temperature of said .
metallic casing for controlling the refrigerating‘
primary system in‘ response to changes in tem
effect of said shelf refrigerating means, said shelf
peratures in one of said systems.
_
refrigerating
means being arranged to refriger
8. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cab
30 inet having an insulated main food chamber, a ate at least the compartment above said shelf
v refrigerating system comprising a cooling‘unit to temperatures below freezing and to absorb
heat from said casing to refrigerate the food
in said chamber, said unit including an enclosure storage
chamber without the formation of frost
having surfaces exposed for cooling circulating on said casing.
air in said chamber, and a refrigerated shelf
11. Refrigerating apparatus including a cool
positioned in said enclosure to divide the interior
ing unit adapted to be installed in an insulated
thereof into a relatively small freezing chamber food
storage chamber comprising a metallic cas 35
and a relatively large storage chamber, and to
refrigerate said enclosure, the exposed surfaces
of said enclosure being so associated with said
40 refrigerated shelf as- to cool said main chamber
ing forming a secondary chamber, refrigerated '
shelf means within said casing for dividing said
secondary chamber into a plurality of compart
to a refrigerating temperature, solely by the heat ' ~ ments and for refrigerating the same, and means '
including a thermo-bulb contacting a surface of
said
casing for controlling the refrigerating effect
the formation of ,frost thereon at least part of
of
said
shelf means, said casing being arranged
the time while the refrigerated shelf is maintained
absorbing effect of said refrigerated shelf without
at a sharp freezing temperature.
9. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cab
inet having an insulated main food‘ chamber, a
refrigerating system comprising a cooling unit
to refrigerate said insulated food storage cham
ber, without the collection of frost on said casing
at least part of the time, solely by the refriger 45
ating effect of said shelf means.
LAWRENCE A. PHIIIPP.
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