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Патент USA US2136402

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Patented Nov. 15. 1938 '
JosephA; Tumbler, Baltimore, Md., assignor'to
J. A. Tumbler Laboratories, Baltimore, Md.
No Drawing- Application August 3, 41934,
Serial No. 738,297
'1 Claims.
(01. 134-24) _
the ?nish surface, there are other changes which
go deeper into the ?nish and which may be
.My invention relates to chemical composi~
tions, and more particularly, relates to novel
polishes for lacquered or enameled surfaces such remedied. One of these isthe continued poly
as are found on automobile bodies and the like, merization of oils used in ?nishes.
in brittleness and in loss of elasticity. :; In lac,-.
5 and also relates to a novel process forxmaking
quers, the evaporation of plasticizers, e. 8., di
the said compositions.
On exposure to the action of the weather, all _ butyl-phathalate, etc; also results in brittleness,
and loss of adhesion and ?exibility.
oleo-resinous, nitro-cellulose lacquer, and syn
A further-function of a good polish is to pene
thetic resin coatings or ?nishes deteriorate. This
10 deterioration is more particularly due to the
trate the substance of the dried out ?nish itself,‘
action of the ultra-violet portions of the sun-light restoring the properties of elasticity and resili
rays from sunshine, and to a lesser extent is
There are many liquid materials which might
also due to the action of rain, wind and its ac
be applied to a weathered ?nish to achieve the
companying dust.
The manifestation of this deterioration is ex
hibited as a decrease in'gloss or luster, by the
results just described. varnishes, solutions of
synthetic or natural resins, drying or other fatty
appearanceof “bloom” or eiilorescence, and by
oils, or even solutions of nitrocellulose function
in thisway. . The antiquated, acid-emulsion pol
smoking,‘ checking or chalking of the surface
layer of the ?nish. These surface conditions
are such, that they materially alter'the. appear
ance of a ?nish, causing colored coatings to ap
pear either faded or darkened, and decreasing
the ‘transparency of clear ?nishes.
Thusthe weathered ?nish is pictured as hav
N) CA ing a very erose surface and discontinuous struc
ture. Loosened surface pigment particles have
left pits and mounds. Cracks have been widened
and deepened, producing the appearance-of a‘
10,- '
"15 '
ish containing either varnish or linseed oil sta
bilized by'butter of antimony produces a ?lm 20
0f this-type. However, such; materials are in
variably sticky. _After applying them to a sur
face with a cloth, a smeary ?nish is produced
which it is practically impossible to rub dry and
which holds lint from the cloth and gathers dust 25
_ The more ef?cient of these materials are the
resin solutions 'and some blown oils. These more
30 ture of the embrittled and hardened ?nish be
ef?cientmaterials possess light refractive prop
erties very similar to those of the commonly used 30
?nishes. Upon their penetrating a crack, cleav
Cd. in'
materials solve the problem of restoring optical 35
more or less weathered mud ?at. The struc
low the surface is‘ cracked by temperature
changes and vibration so that it has interfaces age interface or by ?lling a pit, they appear to
of ‘cleavage intersect‘mg in all directions.‘ This unite the discontinuous substance of the finish,
makes the relatively optically homogenous or restoring the lustre and original color. Such
.transparent'material a much lighter color due to
the light re?ectedfrom cleavage interfaces be
- low the surface. This lightening of color is anal
ogous to- the whiteness of snow, composed of
transparent crystals.
All of the above manifestations result ‘- from
oxidation or reduction. The term “oxidation”
having by .common usage become, descriptive of
the-‘mentioned types of coatingl-failure, it will
be used in speaking of ?nish-failures in the fol
lowing text, but always differentiating, by the
use of quotation marks, from chemical oxidation,
homogeneity to the ?nish. They can also be se
lected to give ?lms which dry, either by evapora
tion of solvents or by air oxidation, to give hard,
protective ?lms. They cannot, however, be ap
plied simply and easily to give smooth surfaces. 40
Painting with a brush or daubing with a cloth
gives most unsatisfactory results as regards '
smoothness. Spraying of solutions is practiced
as a restorative and protective measure for ?n
ishes,'but only experienced and skilled opera 45.
tors can secure satisfactory results by this meth
which is‘ also referred to in the present
cation. ‘
emulsion of mineral oil'in which an abrasive is
suspended which loosens and assists in_the re 50
moval of ‘oxidized particles, leaving a film of
The primary f1mction~ of ‘a polish is to remove
as much as is possible of thej‘oxidized” or weath
Heretofore it has been proposed to‘ use an
ered ?nish which is loosely adherent to the sur
face, and thereafter to. impregnate and coat the mineral oil on the surface. The ?lm of mineral ‘
'surfacewith a material which will ?ll and bridge oil cannot become a part of the lacquered sur-'
over the pits, cracks-and crevices and produce a face, and. accordinglyis gradually lost by vole-v ‘ '
~, tilization and absorption‘ in a cloth wiping over
uniformly hard, dry and lustrous surface.
' > -It is also ,a desirable quality of a polish, to - the surface.
produce a surface which is of a protective'na
- ture. in that it-will serve to diminish the speed
with which “oxidation” progresses.
As described in my application Serial No. 392,»
493, ?led September 13, 1929, now Patent No.
dated August _
1934, ‘of which this
‘-' Besides, “oxid tion”, which proceeds mainly at f is a continuation in part, t is essential that a
2, 136,402
,good polish have a high refractive index, simi-'
There are other objects of our invention which
lar to that of the oils or resins and nitrocellulose ' together with the foregoing will appear in‘the
detailed description which is to follow.
Before proceeding with a detailed description
of my invention, a brief glossary of the various
terms used in this speci?cation adapted from the
paint technology will be given to aid in an under
found in the ?nish itself, in order to secure
satisfactory depth and lustre.
scratches and pits will not be hidden and other
surface irregularities will show up the surface
?lm as being superimposed. Similarly of light
refractivity of the polish and of the ?nish results
in optical ‘uniformity and invisibility of any di—
standing of the invention. 1
microscopic flake-like separations of the surface 10
10 vidlng line between the substance of one and the
other. A polish of highly refractive,'?lm-form
layers of a finish causing blues to appear reddish
‘or purple and blacks to appear purple or gray,
and producing cloudiness in clear ?nishes.
ing materials (castor oil) was described in the
above-identi?ed application of Joseph A. Tum
Bloom-refers to a surface condition caused by
Cracking-refers to radial crevices extending
I ‘have discovered that castor oil, especially
blown castor oil, which is a plasticizer for nitro
cellulose lacquers and other oil and resin-con
from the surface to the next succeeding lower
layer and in the horizontal plane chie?y extend
ing in more or less curved lines which do not in
taining compositions, also possesses high surface
Checking-is a condition similar to cracking
except that the cracks or crevices cross each other 20
tension compared with other oils. A film of
20 castor oil formed over the irregular surface tends
to smooth itself out, reducing the interstices and
other unevenesses. The smooth film thus ob
tained has gloss and lustre, comparable with that
to form a hatch-work of more or less uniformity
of pattern.
Chalking-—isv a condition caused by destruction
of the surface layer of the binding medium in
of new ?nishes.
Castor \oil is a ?uorescent substance and ac
cordingly absorbs ultra-violet rays, preventing
these destructive rays from reaching and injur
or nitrocellulose 25
oleo-resinous synthetic-
This results in some of the pigment
comprising the coloring matter becoming loose
ing the lacquered surface. At the same time, it
is readily polymerized, becoming harder upon ex
on the surface, leaving the surface in a condition
in which the coloring matter is easily brushed or
rubbed off. The undersurface of a coating which 30
30 posure, retaining its smooth transparent nature,
becoming more resistant to ultra-violet transmis _ has “chalked” is usually pitted.
In the following the percentages by weight of
Castor oil decreases the water permeability of various formulae'used in making the preferred
polish are given:
?lms comprised ,of nitrocellulose and its addi
35 tion‘to a polish for surfaces coated with nitro- ‘
cellulose lacquers materially aids in prolonging
> the life of such coatings because water is particu
larly destructive to lacquer ?nishes.
The essence of my invention in the above-mew‘
tioned application is the discovery of a method
of easily applying a thin, uniform ?lm of a blown
Formula using triethanolamine and gelatine as
emulsifying agent:
Water ___________________ ___ ___________ __
Mineral oil _________ _'_ _________________ __ 25.85 I
oil belonging to what is known as the ricinoleic - Blown castor oil _________________ __.____ 10.16
acid group or the castor oil group to a ?nish. Triethanolamine _______________________ __ 0.68
This consists of emulsifying with water, the castor
45 oil together with about three times its volume of
a light petroleum oil, with which the castor oil
is immiscible.
_As described in the Tumbler application, the
Red oil _______________________________ __
Mineral spirits__________r__- ____ __, ______ __
Oil citronella spirits ___________________ __
Gelatine ______________________________ __
ingredients containing the castor oil are thor
50 oughly mixed and then passed through a colloid
mill to disperse or break up the particles. This
dispersion is very important both from-the point
of view of the process of manufacture to prevent
clogging and for obtaining a better end product.
The extent to which these particles are ?nely
Orthodichlorbenzene ___________________ __v
Formula using caustic potash as emulsifying’
Water _________ __"_,_ _________________ __i__ 52.87
46% caustic potash_v ___________________ a-
0.40 r,
_____ __
Mineral spirits"; ________ __'_ __________ _._
divided determines the stability of the emulsion.
Accordingly, an object of my invention is to
provide a novel process for manufacturing a
orthodichlorbenzenenna ______________ __
Blown castor oil ______________________ _;_.
A further object of my invention is to ‘provide
a homogenizer‘for dispersing the particles of a
Mineral oil____.. _______________ __- _____ __ 25.67
011 citronella substitute; _______________ __
Another object of my invention is to provide a
novel polish for lacquered surfaces.
‘A further object of my invention is to provide
a homogenizer for dispersing the particles of a ,
polish containing castor oil.
Still another object of my invention is to pro
Still a further object of my invention is to pro- !
vide novel aparatus for and methods of producing
'tine, powdered gum or bic, and powdered gum
tragacanthl as emulsifying agents:
Red oil
70 vide novel apparatus for-and methods of produc- ing a table polishemulsion. '
Preferred formula using caustic potash, gela
Mineral spirits ______ __._ ______________ __
Oil citronella substitute _______________ __
Orthodichlorbenzene; ________ __' _______ __
.Blown castor oil ______________________ __
. Mineral 011--.. _____________ _.. ________ _._
astable polish emulsion containing castor 011 im- _ Gum arabir'
Gum tragacanth_______________ _“___-____
miscible in a mineral oil.
0.011 75
to preserve the correct proportions of the in-'
. gredients in the preparation.
Formula III and the following:
46% caustic potash ___________________ __
The castor oil ‘described in the above-men
tioned application is pale blown. Castor oil can
be variously treated by blowing to give prod
ucts of viscosities ranging from that of raw castor
‘oil about 130 secs., Saybolt at 100° F., or'less
to gummy solids, and these results can be dup11-,
cated by other treatments of castor oils than Range over which these. products may vary: ~ blowing to give the same physical and chemical
Red oil
50 -70
2. 0- 0. 5
Mineral spirits ___________ _; ______ __ 15 - 9.0
Orthodichlorbenzene ______________ __
5.0- 1.0
Oil citronella substitute ________ ______
2.5- 1. 0 '
Blown castor oil __________________ __ 15.0- 6.0
' Mineral oi1__‘ _________ _._- __________ __ v35. 0-20. 0
20 46% caustic potash__'____\.. ________ __
2.0- 0. 2
Gelatine _'_ _______________________ __
0. 5- 0. 1
Gum arabic ______________________ __
0.5- 0.1
Gum tragacanth __________________ __
0.5- 0. 1
Blown‘castor oil is the ?lm-forming material
- . referred to generally
It is highly ad
herent and'penetrating and its refractive index
is of the same order as that of lacquer or enamel
' ?nishes. ‘It also resembles the general group of
30 oils and other highly refractive liquids men
tioned above in that it‘ cannot be applied ‘alone
simply and easily for ‘it holds lint from the
cloth and is too completely removed by continued
rubbing with a'dry cloth'to give'much of a pro
tective ?lm. However, in the ‘above formulae it
is dispersed along with about three times its
volume of a light mineral oil, with which it is
1; Treatment by nitration.
2. Treatment with sulphur chloride.
3. Partial hydrogenation of raw or blown oil,
'partial or complete.
Completely hydrogenated
castor oil would not have sufficient penetrating
power for best results on automobile or other
enamel or lacquer ?nishes, whereas partial hy
drogenation will reduce the tackiness-whlch is
the main object of the polish. '
Condensation of organic acids with blown 30
castor oil.. The process of blowing produces in
termediate products some of which are acidic.
These intermediate products react to form stable
ture of castor oil and mineral oil are rubbed
over and into the surface. The castor oil is
organic acid.
highly adherent and sticks to the ?nish, ?lling
cracks and pits and because of ‘the selective wet
45 ting of the ?nish by the castor oil, it displaces
the mineral oil leaving the latter as a second
?lm over and on top of the castor oil ?lm. This
?lm of mineral oil acts as a lubricant to permit
massaging of the castor oil. into more intimate
50 contact with‘ the surface‘in rubbing without ac
tual contact of the sticky castor oil ?lm with
‘the polishing pad.‘ In this way ‘a continuous;
penetrating, restorative and protective ?lm is
easily produced and with very little effort.
The excess of mineral oil is absorbed by the
polishing cloth leaving a very smooth, highly
Instead of blowing castor oil, it may be chemi
cally treated or processed. The treatments are: 20
face, the water largely evaporates, and a mix
In use,- when the polish is applied to the sur
U! iii'
polish ?lms which give more or less‘lustre and
more or ‘less tackiness, respectivelyg.
condensation materials, but the intermediate
products are not all ‘produced in balanced, pro 35
portions to be reabsorbed by the ?nal reaction.
The ?nal absorption of acidic materials con
tinues for a few days after processing and blown
castor oil will absorb, slowly at ordinary tem
perature and more rapidly at elevated tempera; 40
not miscible-
Thus, although this pale blown oil,
_which has a viscosity of about 400 secs., Saybolt
at 100° F., and which is described as an oxidized
oil, gives the best results, it is not necessary
that the oil be of this particular type. Raw 15
or heavierblown castor oils may be used to give
these preparations, the water in which the
oils are dispersed performsthe role of a carrier.
It is .not necessary: that the oils _ be dispersed
,inwater to secure the desirable results described
in vthe. foregoing paragraph, but this dispersion
tures, a considerable additional ‘amount of an
Laboratory measurements have
beenmadeon the absorption of oleic acid (red
oil) which have given. indications that the re
action is dependent on ‘the prese'ncepf the double‘ 45
bond in the acid, for stearic acid does not react
in the same way. The resulting product is,
however, more soluble in mineral oil than‘ castor
oil. However, the reaction suggests possibilities
‘of producing more durable oils by substituting 50
linseed oil acid or other drying oil “acids for the
oleic acid.‘ This type of reaction has not been
determined but is likely a reeesteri?cation.
5. Condensation of rawcastor oilvwith‘phthalic
anhydride. This has been done in the labo 55
ratory by heating them together'for about six
hours at temperatures between '160" C. and 200°
C. The resulting material is thinner or thicker
according as less or more phthalic anhydride'
is'usedQ- 5% to 20% phthalic-anhydride based 00
on total mixture has been used.
The resulting
preparation is liquid, insoluble in mineral oils,_
_ serves in the twofold. purpose or providing dilu
' tion for ready use and to insure uniform mixing and partly insoluble in alcohol.‘ A de?nite re
65 of_ the‘ castor'oil and mineral oil so that consistent I ' action is indicated by a substantial decrease in
the total acidity of the mixture. This reaction
results may be obtained;
" A stable‘ ‘dispersion' of castor oil in mineral . is probably a condensation but may be partly
oil may be obtained b‘yimeans of a suitable pro
tective-colloid such 'as'a- small amount of gas
a re-esteri?cation.
6. Condensation of castor oil which phenols
proofed China-wood 011.. Moreover, dispersions and'cresols castor oil breaks .downyon heating. 70
QiJ'c‘a‘stor'oiI in‘ a semi-solid, as petrolatum have to form, among other things, heptaldehyde and
been'im'ade which give good results and are stable. ' 'undecylenic acid. "The reaction, does not .take ;
The inclusion of water permits a certain amount place appreciablyat ordinary temperatures, but of ‘cleaning action which
not obtained with _ takes place, very'slowly at 150° C., and becomes
straight oil mixtures, ‘but is not essential except - active’ above 200° C.- Phenols and cresols and
other compounds of the same type, react with
aldehydes to form resinous condensation prod
ucts. The addition of phenol in relatively small
amounts to castor oil permits the production‘
5 of resins at high temperatures which give body
to the oil after cooling. The resulting products
are liquid, insoluble in mineral oils and ‘give
?nishes. ‘These solvents may be used to cut the
viscosity of certain resins insoluble in mineral
oils, or of combinations of these resins and.__castor
oil, or of various blown castor oils so that the
resulting blend has properties optimum for prac
tical polishing.
A list of such solvents is as fol
A?lms of greater weather resistance‘thanblown
castor oil alone gives.
Pale blown castor oil may also be replaced by
oils of other origin than the castor bean. Croton
oil has properties closely resembling those of
castor oil, and a similar constitution. It is the
only other member of the “Castor oil group” or
15 “Rinoleic acid group” of oils. Besides croton oil,
linseed, rapeseed and other oils can be processed
by treatment with sulphur chloride or by hydro
‘genation to give oils which are insoluble in min
eral oils and which have great af?nityfor ?n
20 ishes. Such oils have not been tried experi
mentally. Another oil is called “Lacquer oil”.
It is insoluble in mineral ‘oils but soluble in min
eral spirits and may be substituted in the for
mula with fair results if the mineral spirits is
‘2..Furfural and furfuryl alcohol.
1. Methoxyethylphthalate, V ethoxyethylphthal
2. Triacetin, (also possibly diacetin).
3. Glyceryl tribenzoate.
It will be obvious that this list may beextended.
Moreover, certain solvents, though miscible
with mineral oil as well as castor oil, if included
in a mixture of the two oils are preferentially
absorbed by the castor oil phase.. The solvents
of this type, as far as my investigation has re
vealed, are the aliphatic alcohols of four carbon
atoms or more, i. e., butyl, amyl, hexyl, heptyl, 25
Although I mention the speci?c ,useof pale
blown castor oil in our preferredformulae, it
should be understood that other ‘material of high
refractive index, immiscible with the lubricant
30 and capable of being applied in a disperse state
to form glossy ?lms may be used. Such mate
rials would embrace castor oil condensed with
polybasic acids to form viscous, highly light re
fractive compounds.
1. Lactic esters, ethyl, butyl, amyl, etc.
Other oils derived from
35 seeds or fruits of plants in the ricinus group—
such as croton oil are examples of such materials.
Other products that may be used in lieu of
castor oil are synthetic materials such as resins
derived from the condensation of polybasic acids
40 and polyhydric alcohols with or without modi
?oation'with fatty acids; synthetic materials de
There are available solvents that might be
used to_ thin either blown castor oil or combina
tions of resins and castor oil, but which are un
suitable for use in the presence of water-due to 30
their great affinity for water.
There are also some resins that are soluble in
castor oil and. whose castor oil solutions can be
substituted forblown castor oil. Such solution
increases the body of the oil considerably so that
either raw-oil must be used or, if blown oil is
used, some of the above-mentioned solvents or
thinners must be included to reduce the viscosity
of the polishing film for practical purposes.
Such resins are:
1. Bakelite resins (Class I), xaszo, X12321, 4°
XR254. 0-25% in raw castor oil without thin
rived from the condensation of phenolic bodies‘ ners. Give good results; limited by high cost;
and aldehydes; drying and semi-drying oils poly [increases durability of ?lm.
merized by heat, or chemical means to form sub
2. Resins, occurring naturally or derived from
45 stantially non-tacky ?lms when applied. Such natural products such as shellac, pontianak and 45
materials would include vegetable oils treated sandarac, and a treated natural resin derived
with sulphur chloride to render them substan
.from pine wood by extraction and heat treat-.
tially insoluble in petroleum derivatives, or vege
ment to yield a product having the following
table oils hydrogenated to reduce tackiness after characteristics:
50 preliminary polymerization.
In general these alternatives for the pale Melting point___.'___degrees centigrade__ 115 . do
blown castor oil must satisfy the following‘re- . Acid N0
_ 1. A substance immiscible in water and min
55 eral oil; viscosity at least 150 secs. at 100° 0.; not
a over 1000 secs., preferably 400 to 500 secs.
2. High refractive index, comparable to that
of resins, oils and nitrocellulose.
3. Compatible with or soluble in materials
60 composing ?nishes.
4. Weather resistant, non-volatile, light resist
»ant (any change due to weathering being of a
constructive nature.)
,5. High surface tension>and ?lm-forming prop
05 erties—-t_o permit leveling.
‘ 6. Good wetting properties and penetration
to insure maximum absorption.
' There are a few liquid materials which are, like
castor oil, essentially insoluble (in mineral‘ oil.
70 These are-mostly solvents, either volatile or non
volatile, without any great ?lm-forming proper
Saponi?cation No __________________ __v___ 158
Unsaponi?able matter____ _'___per cent__
6.5 '
Petroleum naphtha (insoluble) ____do____
Toluol (insoluble) ______________ __do;____
Petroleum ether (insoluble) ____ ____do____
Hereinafter I am referring to this product by 60
its comon trade name as “Vinsol resin.”
is dissolved in raw oil without thinners. Its film
is more smeary than straight castor oil ?lms, but
might be commercially acceptable.
3. Certain glyceryl phthalate resins soluble in 6° I
castor oil.
“Glyptals" and “rezyls" are gener
ally not compatible with castor oil, although
certain ones are.
4. A phthalic anhydride—riclnoleic acid resin.
It should be understood that these resins can ‘
be used alone in suitable solution, in combina
, alone. However, these liquids have great pene-l tion one with another, or 'withraw‘or blown
castor oil. “Vinsol'f resin is “a hard, black resin.
' trationkand ailinityior ?nishes andrthe non
ties' and without sufficient viscosity when used
75 volatile ones are solvent plasticizers for such
that is derived from pine wood.- It is believed to 75 '
. area-1'02
consist chie?y of highly oxidized and highly poly
merized abietic acid and terpenes." ,
Although I mention the use of mineral oil
in my preferred formula, _I wish it understood
5 that any'lubricant which is immiscible with castor
oil or the like would ful?ll the needs and spirit
. of_ my. invention.
Such lubricant could be a
terials from the ?nish, and to disperse them in the
mineral oil, which is largely absorbed by the pol
i‘shing pad.
Although the speci?c use of ortho-dichlor-ben
zene is mentioned in the preferred formula, other 5
material of high solvent power for tar, wax or
grease, which is water insoluble, but. miscible
solution-of a non-sticky, water soluble material
with petroleum derivatives would ful?ll the spirit '
such as agar-agar or lecithin.
of the invention. Such materials would embrace
other halogenated hydrocarbons such as para 10
The mineral oil can also vary considerably but
gives best results within certain limits. Prefer
ably the oil of petroleum origin should have
physical characteristics as below:
15 Gravity: Over 32° Bé., preferably high.
Viscosity :- 62-70 secs., Saybolt, at 100° F.'
Color: Less than 2.0. _
dichlor-benzene, tetra and/or hexa-hydronaph
thalene, solvent naphtha, or pine oil, or mixtures
of any of these types of materials. Oil of citron
ella substitute is a perfume employed for over
coming the unpleasant odor of the castor oil.
' In one process for making my product, I pump
all the measured water and the triethanolamine
Cold test: Below 35° F.
Flash: Above‘ 300° F.
into the emulsi?er or preliminary mixer. In an
i other tank, the light red oil, ‘solvent, orthodichlor
20 U'nsaturates: Below 10%.
benzene, perfume, pale blown castor oil, neutral
vThe’gravity only serves to indicate the field of and spindle oil are mixed. After mixing these,‘
they are then pumped up into the emulsi?er and
origin and consequently its chemical. constitu
tion. The saturated chain compounds, para?ins,
have the least ‘solubility in castor oil and there
2 OI
fore serve best‘, as lubricants.
The higher the
gravity the more saturated the oil,- generally
' speaking. Unsaturated and cyclic compounds are
vundesirable because. of their effect to increase
3 O miscibility of castor oil and the mineraloil. For
this reason petroleum oil is preferred to shale
oil and Pennsylvania oils to Mid-Continent or
Mexican oils. However, quite satisfactory pre
parations have been made using Mid-Continent
oils of 28° or 29° Bé. gravity. The viscosity, like
3 or wise, may vary considerably. A satisfactory pol
ish may be made using 300 Miner's oil (a heavy
kerosene) ‘ and» also,by using oils of 100 secs.
‘ .(Saybolt at 100° F.)
The effect of the mineral spirits is to cut the
viscosity of the mineral oil temporarily allowing
more cleaning action until‘it evaporates, after
which the substantially non-volatile mineral oil
. ;
As appears in the formulae, a small amount of
emulsi?ed with the water while ?owing in.
In the product using caustic potash’ as emul
sifying agent, the method of manufacture is re
versed; that is,. all of the oils are ?rst mixed and
pumpel into the emulsi?er and then the water
containing the caustic, potash ispumped into the
mixer containing the oils while mixing. This is
a de?nite improvement for stability inasmuch as 30'
it itself serves in the mixing. The oil normally
is on the external phase until approximately 50%
of the water has been admitted. Then automati
cally the phase itself inverts, placing the oil as’
internal phase and water‘as external phase. Al
though this formula gives a much more stable
product it is imyroved upon from a stability
standpoint as we
as increasing the viscosity by
incorporating gums.
This is done by mixing powdered gum arabic 40
and powdered gum tragacanth inthe ratio of‘
three-fourths arable and one-fourth ,tragacanth,
into the oil mixture so that they would be well
dispersed and each particle separated. Because
of being insoluble in the oil, when the water_is 45
emulsi?er is employed to stabilize the dispersion
‘pumped into this oil mixture and comes in con
of the oils in water.
. 4
Gelatine and gums aid in the stabilization of
the emulsion under certain rigorous conditions
such as hot and freezing temperatures.- '
Ammonia combines readily with some of the
free acid bodies, aldehydes and lactones to form
soaps and other surface active compounds to
stabilize the emulsion; Such an emulsion is very
easily formed but the emulsi?er of the present
product has been found to give more stability.
tact with each particle of gum, instead of ag
glomerates of gums, the maximum dispersion of
the gums almost instantly, as well as the maxi
mum viscosity are achieved.
From the mixer, the emulsion is carried to‘the
where the emulsion is
carried .
through adjustable valves in a homogenizer by
pressure pumps developing pressures up to: four
thousand pounds per square inch for breaking up 55
the oil globules into minute particles. This pres
Triethanolamine is very similar to ammonia in its '
is governed by the opening ‘between the
reaction and is used to replace it to give greater
stability but is much more effective if fatty acids ‘ valve and the valve seat. The closure the valve
seated, the higher the pressure and theoreti
(oleic acid, et alia, of- red oil)_ are added to‘per-i is
cally the smaller the oil globule.
mit quicker reaction.
I have discovered that most satisfactory re
vPreferably, however, the soap of caustic potash sults both from the point of view of-creamingv
‘and red oil is employed as the emulsi?er because _ and from economy of operation are apparent at
ofo'better stability obtained.
Tlius, although the speci?c use of a type of
- soap, 1. >e.,'a compound of a basic material and
a fatty acid is mentioned as a stabilizer for the
emulsion, ‘it should be understoodthat it would
a pressure in a homogenizer in the order of two 7
thousand pounds per square inch, either in a
single or a series of successive stages.
From the homogenizer, the polish is carried
to the storage tank and thence to the ?lling
not be departing from_the spirit of our inven- ‘ machines as illustrated.
Heretofore, in using colloid mills, I have 70
70 tion to stabilize the dispersion with other colloid
ing materials such as sulphated fatty alcohols, found it next to impossible'to reduce the oil
dispersions of casein in alkali, vegetable gums or “globules below an average. particle size of 5' mu,~
whereas part of the'same batch of polish that
' The orthodichlorbenzfene is an e?icientsolvent
75 for tar and road oil and helps to clean such ma
had been processed through the colloid mill was - ‘
then processed through the homogenizer and I 'I
greater percentage of the OH globules was invisi
'3. A‘ polish comprising a homogenized emul
sion of the following composition:
ble and there were very few approaching 5 mu.
The function of breaking up the emulsion
molecules is accomplished by the homogenizing
Oil citronella substitute _______________ __
valve which is made of a high speed steel such
as “Steelite”. The under side of the valve tappet'
Orthodichlorbenzene_____; ____________ __
Blown castor oil ______________________ __
found that at 2000 pounds per square inch the -
has four radial ?nsdesigned to permit the valve
to turn slightly by absorption of energy from
10' the stream of liquid passing through it. This
ability to turn is given the valve in order to
prevent, to a large extent, scoring due to liquid
always passing through the valve in the same
place.’ Because of the fact that the emulsi?ed
15 polish is passed through this valve at such pres
' sure and with such velocity, not only is it
broken up in‘ passing through the valve, but
also in striking the outside walls at such high
velocity, it is‘ further dispersed.
The homogenizer'breaks up the particles into‘
~, a cream, increasing the stability of the emul
sion to such an extent that I have found that I
can maintain‘ a state of suspension of a bottle
ofv my polish ‘lying on the shelf undiluted for
25 many months.
From the-above, it will now be clear that‘my
novel polish ‘has many possible modi?cations
without departing from ‘the spirit of this inven
Moreover‘, although a specific ?ow sheet has‘
been shown for purposes of illustration, it will
be obvious that this may be modified within the
spirit of my invention, and I do not intend to
be limited except as set forth in- the appended
.1. A polish comprising a homogenized emul
sion of the-‘following composition:
__ 50.69
n11 '
___ 25.85
Blown castor oil_..-___.'. _______________ __ 10.16
Triethanolamine __________________ _-_..___
Red oil
Orthodichlorbenzene ________ __' ________ __
Mineral spirits _______________ __~ _______ __
7.72 -
Oil citronella substitute _______________ __
. Gelatine
2. A "polish comprising a homogenized emul
sion of the following composition:
46% causticpotash __________________ ___.
Mineral spirits
Orthodichlorbenzene ___________________ __
.‘iBlown castor oil ______________________ __
spirits _______________ ___. ______ __
oil ______________________ _~______ 24.26
Gum arahir'
Gum tragananfh
___ 0.034
_ 0.011
4. A polish comprising a homogenized emul
sion of the following composition:
' Mineral spirits ________________________ __
Red oil
Oil citronella substitute _______________ __
Orthodichlorbenzene ___________________ __
Blown castor
oil__< __________ __-_ _______ __
oil ___________________________ __ 24.26
Gum arahio
0.034 20
Gum tragacanth ______________________ __ 0.011
Water ________________________________ __
46% caustic-potash ___________________ __ 0.45
Gelatine ______________________________ __' 0.136
~ 5. A polish comprising a homogenized emul
sion of the following composition:
50 -170
‘ Red nil
2.0- 0.5
Mineral spirits ____________________ ___ 15 - 9.0
Orthodichlorbenzene _______________ .__
5.0- 1.0
Oil citronella substitute __________ _>___
Blown castor
2.5- 1.0
oil __________________ __ 15
'Mineral oil ________________________ __ 35
- 6.0
46% caustic potash ________________ __
2.0- 0.2
Gelatine __________________________ __
0.5- 0.1
Gum arabic
Gum tragacanth ______________ __'_____
0.5- 0.1
0.5- 0.1
Red oil___. ___________________________ __
citronella substitute________ ___.‘ ____ __
6. A rubbing polish composition in the form of
an oillin water emulsion comprising water as a
continuous phase and a petroleum distillate as‘ 40
a discontinuous phase, and dispersed in the
petroleum distillate blown, castor oil, the blown
castor oil being insoluble in the petroleum dis
tillate and insoluble _in.the water, said polish
emulsion being homogenized to render it stable,
the homogenized oil globules being of a size on
the order of 5 mu or less, the homogenization
being e?ected by a pressure on the order of
2,000 pounds per square inch.
7. A polish composition in the form of an oil 50
in, water emulsion comprising water as a con
tinuous phase and a petroleum distillate as a
discontinuous phase; and dispersed in the petro
leum distillate blown castor oil, the blown castor
oil being insolublein the petroleum distillate and
insoluble in the water, said polish emulsion be
ing homogenized to render it‘ stable, the homo
genized oil globules being of a size on the order
of \5 mu or less.
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