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Патент USA US2136411

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Nov. 15, 1938.
Original Filed Jan. 51, 1955
s Sheets-Sheet 1
-1, ’
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'A- -
Nov. 15, 1938.
Original Filed Jan. 31, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
-I.vil !
Nov. 15, 1938.
Original Filed Jan. 51, 1955
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Nov. 15, 1938
Leon Cammen, New York, N. Y., assignor to
Carolyn O. Cammen, New York, N. Y.
Application‘Januai-y 31, 1935, Serial No. 4,241
Renewed January 22, 1938
9 Claims.
This invention refers to telegraph printers of
the “start-stop” type and for the sake of illus
tration describes one operating on the so-called
?ve impulse code, comprising a start period, ?ve
coding periods and a stop period which need not
be all of the same length though the duration
of the entire cycle from the instant of start of
one character to the instant of stop thereof must
be substantially constant. The apparatus how
10 ever easily lends itself to adaptation to other
codes, such as the 6-impulse code common in
machines having both upper and lower case
In the illustrations,
Fig. 1 shows ?ve permutation bars, a permit
bar and a selector pin in section.
Fig. 2 shows a permutation bar and its oper
(Cl. 178—34)
mined distance equal to one tooth space.
bar H may be moved into its original position
by shifting member 24 by means to be shown
hereafter, permitting the re-engagement of
trigger detent 22, it being assumed of course 5
that in the meantime magnet Zlhas become de
energized. Each of the ?ve bars is supplied with
its own magnet, trigger and spring which is how
ever merely a convenient design and not a mat
ter of absolute necessity. No novelty is claimed ‘10
for the apparatus thus far described.
The type wheel shaft 103 (Fig. 3) carries a
number of abutments 102, one for each char
acter and functional operation, so positioned that
when the pin I1 is permitted to fall into the 15
selected slot, it gets into the way of an abutment.
ing and stopping its rotation, and the positioning
In its original position, shown in Fig. 1, pin I1
occupies the position 546 of Fig.3, which permits
abutment ‘I02 to pass by unimpeded. When,
however, the pin has been projected into the slot 20
of the shaft by the co-action of the selector pin
in the permutation bars, it comes. to occupy
and abutment on the shaft.
position 645 in which an impingement by the
abutment takes place, as shown in Fig. ,3. The
ating mechanism.
Fig. 3 shows the printing shaft, means of start
Fig. 4 shows the yielding motor drive.
Fig. 5 shows the electric circuit of the sender
and receiver.
Fig. 6 shows a two-element selector pin.
Fig. '7 shows a timing diagram of a cycle ac
cording to E. S. Ritter.
Fig. 8 shows a medication of the timing circuit
of Fig. 5.
Like many other apparatus of this kind, the
present invention employs ?ve permutation‘ bars,
differentially slotted as shown on p. 219 of H. H.
Harrison’s Printing Telegraph Systems and
Mechanisms (Longmans, Green 8; Co., London,
abutments are distributed along the shaft so as
to form substantially a one-turn helix.
type wheel shaft is ‘yieldingly driven by
30, e. g. through a spring clutch 3|, the
running all the time and the shaft only
permitted to do so, by the mechanism.
Thus the type wheel shaft cannot turn as long 30
as abutment 102 is in the co-acting relationship
with pin 645 shown in Fig. 3. Provision is also
made to keep the shaft stationary by means of
gear or ratchet 128 rigidly attached to the type
wheel shaft and stop 129 capable of engaging?”
1923) a maximum of 32 slots being provided, in therewith.
cooperation with thirty-two coding pins l'l, each '
As evident from Fig. 1, pin I‘! cannot move
equipped with a spring or other energy storing until all the ?ve slots have been lined up in the I
device I 8, acting against a limit-motion l9, and proper sequence, which is done by either keeping
4.0 tending to forcethe pins ,I'I into the slots. This
the bars II to IS in the positions where they are,“
can happen to one pin in each cycle only when held by the trigger detent or permitting them,
all ?ve of the slots in the ?ve bars are in line, or some of them, to slide to the right under the
and universal bar 56 has receded suf?'ciently action of spring 23 after the trigger detent has
to permit the pin to drop in. Printing telegraph been withdrawn. If the sending station trans
engineers know that for every position of the mits a marking impulse during the period when “45
?ve bars with respect to one other, only one pin one of the magnets 2| is in the receiving position, ‘
is capable of dropping into a set of slots arranged 22 is attracted and bar ll caused ‘to move to the
in line to receive it.
right. If the impulse is a spacing one, which
Originally, bar I I, Fig. 2, is held in the posi
means that no current is ?owing during that time
50 tion shown by the trigger detent 22 against the
period, the trigger is, not disturbed. and bar ll 50
“tension of spring 23. If, however, magnet 21
(which, as will be later shown, may be supplied
with current over the line from the sending sta
tion) is energized, it attracts 22 and thus permits
55 bar H to move to the right through a predeter
not moved. The slots in the bars are so arranged
that the selector pins can engage with some of
the slots when the bars have been moved and,
with some other slots when they have not been
moved. The slots are therefore aligned in their (55
operative positions some time in the ?fth coding
period, this being followed, ?rst, by the motion
of the permit bar It, the purpose of which is to
keep pin l1 away from the bars lI-I5 while they
are or may be moving to the right, to prevent
interference with this motion. Permit bar i6
provided, so timed by means of a cam as to move
is moved by a can, as will be set forth in more
of the trigger detents 22.
It will be noted that the type wheel shaft re
mains stationary from about the beginning of
the ?rst coding period to the latter part of the
?fth coding period, and during this time the
detail hereafter.
As soon as permit bar I 6 has moved, all the
pins try under the action of their springs ill to
get into the slots in the permutation bars, but
only one pin can do so and thus project into the
path of the abutments on the type wheel shaft.
Next, the samelcam or a coacting cam moves the
stop 129 out of engagement with ratchet ‘I28,
and it is only then that the type wheel shaft ‘I03
can start rotating, this rotation continuing until
the shaft is brought to a standstill by the abut
ment hitting the pin 645. This rotation may in
the pin I‘! (645 of Fig. 3) out of engagement with
the abutment 102 which also brings it out of en
gagement with the slots of the permutation bars.
Immediately thereupon face cam 24 is moved re
turning all the permutation bars into the control
printing can be done in a leisurely manner.
A modi?cation of the above construction is
shown in Fig. 6. Here pin ll does not come out
and engage with the abutment on the shaft. In
stead it moves from position H6 into position l‘l
when it penetrates into. the slots of the permuta
tion bars, and in doing so it moves an auxiliary
volve a little more than 10 deg. of travel, or a
pin from position 38 to position 38, and in its
latter position the auxiliary pin is capable of en
complete revolution, depending on the sequence
of the characters, but the latter alone need be
considered for purposes of design of the appa
ratus forming the subject of this invention.
wheel shaft. When this happens, pin ll, under
the action of the knock-off plate l6, returns, as
previously described, into its original condition
When abutment ‘I02 impinges on pin 645, a blow
is produced, and it is obviously important to make
the e?ect of this blow as small as possible. The
impact is a function of the kinetic energy of the
rotating member, 1. e., shaft, type wheel and
30 abutments, and varies as the square of the speed;
this makes it necessary to reduce the speed of ro
tation as much as possible and the best way to do
it is by increasing the time during which the shaft
can travel.
To accomplish this, stop ‘I29 is released as
quickly as possible after the engagement of pin
645 with abutment 102, whereupon the shaft 103
carrying the type wheel is free to start spinning.
The use of a friction drive, as e. g. through a
40 spring clutch, has the advantage that very little
time is lost in applying the motor power to the
type wheel shaft, and that the motor is running
all the time at its fullrated speed which in turn
means that no time is lost in accelerating to the
45 full speed the motor itself.
As the permutation bars I l-l5 ,do not have to
start moving until some time in the ?rst coding
period, the type wheel shaft does not have to be
stopped until then,'or for the sake of safety until
the end of the start period, it being assumed that
sending proceeds at such a rate as to leave only
the bare unavoidable time, or. no time at all, be
tween the end of the stop period of one cycle of
transmission and the beginning of the start pe—
55 riod of the next cycle. At that time two acts are
performed. In the ?rst place, by means of a cam
operated by motor power in a manner to be
shown, the stop is re-engaged with ratchet ‘1'23
which is easy to do as the type wheel shaft is held
60 stationary by the abutment bearing against the
pin. This is an important feature as it affects
favorably the life of the ratchet and stop as com
pared with What it is in apparatus which has no
such provision and has to stop the shaft by a
65 ratchet and pawl while it is moving at full speed.
The next thing is to free pin 645 of Fig. 3 (ll
of Fig. 1) from the engagement with the permu
tation bars and abutment 102. It is held in the
slot by the action of spring 18 which need not be
70 very strong as all it has to do is to move the pin
‘into the slot. Its removal is complicated by the
fact that the pin is also held by its contact with
the abutment, the entire force of the motor as
transmitted by the spring clutch being used to
hold it there. A knock-01f plate I6 is therefore
gaging with the proper abutment on the type
of freedom from any connection with the permu
tation bars, H45, permitting the latter to move
freely to the right (Fig. 1), and in due time pin
38 is returned into its own inoperative position
by knock-off plate 3'1. The employment of the
construction shown in Fig. 6 means that 32 ad- “
ditional pieces of mechanism have to be in
stalled, as well as an additional cam and knock
oif plate aggregate. On the other hand, it facili
tates greatly the operation of the device. As
stated above, with the apparatus shown in Figs.
1-3, it is necessary to set the shaft into rotation
in the latter part of the ?fth coding period, and
to withdraw the pin from the slots not later than
early in the ?rst coding impulse, to make it pos
sible to operate the ?rst permutation bar H,
which otherwise might have been immobilized by
the'pin lying in its slot in that bar. The time for
the operation is therefore very short. On the
other hand, with the apparatus shown in Fig. 6,
once the auxiliary bar has been moved from posi 45
tion 36 to 38 and is equipped with some form of
detent to keep it in the latter position, the bar
I‘! may be returned from position i‘! where it is
in engagement in a slot in the permutation bars
to positionv I'E? where it is unengaged, Without 50
affecting the position of auxiliary bar 38. The
selection of locations of the permutation bars
may therefore proceed without interference, and
therefore more time may be devoted to rotating
the type wheel shaft. The following brief calcu- 5 -
lation will show the importance of this feature.
Let it be assumed that the printer has been de
signed to operate at '7 characters per second and
that the spinning starts at the end of the fifth
coding period and stops at the end of the stop
period. Substantially, 40 milliseconds will be
then available for the rotation of the type wheel
shaft. With the arrangement shown in Fig. 6,
the rotation may be continued until the latter
part of the third period, printing and returning
pin 38 to its original position on the fourth coding
period, and giving for the turning of the type
wheel shaft nearly ?ve periods or close to 100
milliseconds. _A 250 per cent increase in time 70
available means a similar decrease in the speed
of rotation, and, asthe impact of the abutment
against the pin varies as the square of the speed,
this means nearly a six times reduction in impact,
a very valuable advantage in the way of reduction 75
of noise and vibration, and "increase in life and
reliability of the apparatus.
‘The operation of the apparatus requires the
employment of several cams. One such cam
has to control the motion of the permit plate or
bar I6 operated at some time early in the'?fth
coding period. Another cam controls the motion
of the face member I24 taking place at the end
of the stop period or very early in the ?rst coding
period with the arrangement shown in Figs. 1
and 2. It is assumed in all timing that the entire
period is required for the performance of the
operation appertaining thereto. _In the case of
the apparatus shown in Fig. ‘6, a cam is required
15 to operate knock-off plate S'Ireturning pin 38 into
its ‘inoperative position 36. The stop "I29 is oper
ated by the same cam as knock-off plate ‘31, the
joint operation of the stop and pin 38 being as
follows: To start with, knock off plate 3'! is in
20 a position where it is in contact'with part 39 of
pin 38 at which time pin Il’ occupies position H8.
The latter rises to position I‘l under the action of
its spring I8, Fig. 1, when the proper slots in the
permutation bars become lined up, and in doing
25 so, I‘! pushes 36 into position 38.
While this is
going on, knock-off plate 31 recedes to itsposition
shown in Fig. 6 and in the lattermost part of its
motion releases the stop ‘I29 from its engagement
Withratchet 128, thus permitting the type wheel
30 shaft to start turning.
The following is quoted verbatim ‘from the
paper, Teleprinters, by E. S. Bitter, No. 150, in
stitution of Post O?ice Electrical Engineers, read
March v28, 1933, p. 20: “A point to notice in con
the other hand, be su?iciently active, in time as
well as power, to operate an armature and stop av
revolving shaft F, thus providing the necessary
interval between F and Ed which latter is the
beginning of the earliest next start signal. As
the time is de?nitely ?xed for the cycle by ‘the
time difference between the ‘two consecutive start
signals, which in turn is set by the speed of the
machine, the only way to ensure the availability
of a sufficient time for the performance of the
stop operation is to carry through in less time
the coding operations where a greater margin of
safety is inherent.
All the telegraph printers now in use have.
solved the problem set forth above by the ex 15
pedient of providing two shafts, transmitting and
receiving, and running the latter faster than the
former‘. E. S. Ritter, in the passage quoted above,
refers to this arrangement as “one of the essen- ,
tial features of a teleprinter.” It means, how .20
ever, the installation not only of two shafts, but
of two drives, including two expensive single
revolution clutch units and a more complicated
system of frames and bearings. The present in
ventor has solved this'problem by the simpler‘ex
pedient of using two seven-point’ commutators
and two auxiliary commutators, Fig. 5. For the
sake of illustration it has been assumed that the
transmitting “shaft”'is running at the rate of 6.5 .
signal elements and the receiving “shaft” at 7_ 30
signal elements. The electrical circuit for the
present invention is shown in Fig. 5 from which
it is seen that the depression of key IIIcauses
the downward motion of a keybar equipped with
O3 Vii nection with reception is that even- when the
a code comb in the manner usual to this kind of
transmitting teleprinter is running ‘fast and the
receiving teleprinter slow, the receiving shaft
telegraph printer, the comb being so» arranged
must be at a standstill when the following ‘start’
signal comes in. If this is not so, there will be a
40 loss of. margin on the signals. It follows there
.fore that the receiving shaft mustcomplete its
revolution in a shorter time than the transmit
vting shaft. In the Creed ‘7A and 3A teleprinters
the transmitting shaft makes one revolution for
45 7.5 signal elements and the receiving shaft one
revolution for 7 elements. In the case of the
Morkrum and Siemens machines the transmit
ting shaft makes one revolution for rI~unit sig
nals. The Morkrum instrument makes .one revo
50 lution in the time of about 6.5 signal units, and
the Siemens in about the time of 6 units but
with adelayed start of about half a unit,~so that
in both cases the effective time of one revolution
is 6.5 units. Where the receiving mechanism is
brought to rest in 6.5 units there is a possibility
vof the instrument failing to stop if the ?fth code
element is late and also ‘spacing’ polarity, but in
this case the margin would be so small that prob
ably the fourth and ?fth code elements wouldfail
to select correctly. The receiving shaft running
faster than the transmitting shwftz‘s one of the
essential features of a teleprinter.” The italic is
made by the present applicant.
This is illustrated in Fig. '7 taken fromthe
65 paper just quoted, p. 19. The signal polarity
(current to no-current and vice versa, positive
to negative and vice versa) change must take
place in the hatched portions for correct selec
tion. As telegraph engineers know, there are
, a many reasons why distortion and prolongation
of the signaling impulses take place. Theeffects
of these disturbing phenomena are comparatively
slight in the ?rst, second and third coding pe~
riods asonlya magnet moving a stationary body
has to be energized. The stop signal must, on
that it closes the electrical contacts determined -‘
by the code for the given character, plus a “uni
versal” contact X operated for every character
(this latter provision is also well known in the
art). Let it be assumed that the letter Z is be
ing transmitted and its code calls for a marking
impulse during the ?rst and ?fth coding periods,
and spacing during the rest. The depression of
key II I causes the establishment of the following
circuit, part of which is actual and part poten
tial. The current starts from sending source of
current I I 3 hereinafter referred to as battery and
goes through contacts II4—I and “4-5 which
close when the keys III—I and I II-—5 are de
‘pressed. It goes then through magnets II 6—I
and “6-5 which operatethe permutation bars
of the receiver connected with the sender where
such a combination apparatus has been provided.
Where only a sender is provided, this step is of
course absent. The current then goes to commu
tator SC having (for a ?ve-unit code) seven seg
ments, the respective contacts for Z involving seg
ments II‘I--I and Ill-5. Thence the current
proceeds .to the receiving station by wire 40 where 60
it enters commutator RC’ having likewise seven
segments and running in a predetermined time
relationship with the SC commutator.
the current goes through the proper magnets‘ of .
the receiving apparatus and returns by ground 65
or return loop indicated asv II9R,—_I I9S, battery
It should be noted here that where we have only
a sender at one end and only a ‘receiver at the
other, there is no object in making the shaft of 70
the latter run. faster than that of the former.
Usually, however, each apparatus can act in
either capacity, and in the present invention the
two commutators, SC and RC, are mounted on
the same shaft and therefore run in perfect me- '
chanical synchronism. The segments l—5, and
if desired, “start”, on the receiving commutator
are slightly shorter, or rather embrace smaller
angles, than on the transmitting commutator,
the difference being determined by the desired
difference in speed between the two “shafts” or
by the desired accumulation of margin for the
“stop” period. This is indicated in the table in
Fig. 8.
If the transmitting shaft runs slower than the
receiving shaft, or, if for two shafts running at
the same speed the coding segments on the seven
point sun?ower commutator of the transmit
ting shaft are longer than those of the receiving
15 shaft, or, if an equivalent structure is employed
wherein both commutators in each apparatus are
mounted on the same shaft and the respective
shafts run at the same speed, the difference in
timing of the early period such as starting and
20 ?rst-coding are very small, but this difference is
of a cumulative character and becomes quite ma
terial in the latter impulses. Thus, as shown by
table of Fig. 8, this difference is 1.5 milliseconds
or about 3.9 degrees for the start impulse but be
25 comes 7.5 milliseconds at the end of the fourth
coding impulse. It would appear, therefore, that
at the time when the fourth coding impulse has
been concluded on the faster running receiver the
transmitter has still 7.5 milliseconds to use in
30 sending the fourth coding impulse. If no further
precaution were taken, it might easily happen that
the segment corresponding to the ?fth coding
impulse on the receiver would be in communica
tion with the segment corresponding to the fourth
coding impulse on the sender. In the present in
controlling the permutation bars of the receiver
in the latter coding periods. The bumps such as
I31 and l35—2 naturally have a certain minimum
width, no cam having an instantaneous rise.
Under normal conditions of operation this bump
occupies about 10 degrees of the complete revolu
tion, substantially half of which distance may be
assigned to one period and the other half to the
next adjacent period. This is suf?cient for the
early coding periods. It has been shown, how
ever, that in the latter coding periods, as, e. g.,
at the end of the fourth, the phase difference
between the proper segment of the receiving with
the proper segment of the sending commutator
may amount to as much as 7.5 out of 20 milli
seconds which may be suf?cient to cause trouble.
To account for this, the width of the lump in the
latter coding impulses may be increased to such
an extent as to prevent the flow of current from
the sender to the receiver, during the period when
an excessive phase difference prevails, so that,
e. g., the width of the bump may be made such as
to occupy 16-18 degrees at the passage from the
fourth to the ?fth segment of the receiver as
compared with, say, 10 degrees in the early cod
ing impulses. It would be of course possible to
make all the bumps of the maximum width, but
this would unnecessarily cut into the margin of
safety for the signals in the early impulses.
It is impossible to give a general formula for
the proportioning of the bumps as this depends
on the code selected and the difference of speed
between the transmitting and receiving shafts, or,
the equivalent to this difference as expressed by
the difference of length between the coding seg— ~ '
vention this might mean that the magnet actuat
ments of the receiver commutator RC and corre
ing the trigger 22 on the fifth permutation bar
sponding segments of the sending commutator SC.
It will be noted from Fig. 5 that the sending
commutator SC is also equipped with an auxiliary
commutator ZZIS. It is not necessary, however, 40
might be operated by the impulse coming through
the fourth segment on the sender, and it might
40 easily happen that while the code calls for a
spacing period on the ?fth permutation bar, this
premature superposition might produce the effect
of a marking impulse during the ?fth period with
the attendant mis-transmission of a character.
This has been obviated in the present invention
by the use of the auxiliary commutator 22 IR, lo
cated preferably in the line connecting the un
segmented part of the sending commutator SC
of the sending station with the unsegmented part
'of the receiving commutator of the receiving sta
tion. This commutator consists of wheel G35
equipped with the proper number of projections,
movable arm 136 preferably provided with bump
l3‘! and contact I38 coacting where necessary
with the stationary contact E39. No current is
?owing through disc I35 which therefore if de
sired, can be made of a non-conducting material
or mounted on a non-conducting hub. This com~
mutator is mounted on the same shaft as all the
60 other commutators driven through the single
revoluticn clutch or associated therewith t rough
some kind of a transmission. The contacts I38
and I39 carry the current of the circuit and are
usually pressing against each other except as sep
arated by the action of the bumps on the disc E35.
The width of these bumps or cams determines the
duration of the break of current between the con
Commutator I35 is mounted on the same shaft
as receiving commutator RC and performs two
functions, one of which will be discussed later
in connection with the sending auxiliary commu
tator 22 IS. This commutator 22 U3, however, has
a very important function in that it prevents the
75 possibility of premature operation of the magnets
to vary the width of the bumps on this commuta
tor as it performs a function which does not need
that particular re?nement. Its purpose is as
follows: When the brush of the sending commuta~
tor passes from one segment to another, particu 45
larly from a marking impulse to a spacing one,
there is apt to be a spark between the arm of the
commutator and the respective segment which
if not taken care of will rapidly produce pitting
and dirtying of the commutator segments. As the
arm acts as a wiper over the face of the segments,
it is rather difficult, mechanically, to take proper
care of this spark. In commutator ZElS, how
ever, the spark, if any, occurs between contact
points 226 and 221, the contact between them -
being controlled by the bumps (general construc
tion of commutator 22! S is similar to that of
221R). I-Iere, proper contacts can be easily in
stalled and provision may be made so as to pre
vent any products of sparking from reaching the 60
other parts of the machinery. To make commu
tator 22 IS operative it is necessary that the cur
rent should break through this commutator before
it breaks across the space between the segments
of commutator SC and that the circuit should be 65
re-established at His later than it is re-estab
lished at SC. In this way both the make and the
break sparking will take place at HIS and not
at SC.
The above invention can be made operative
only by ensuring a certain sequence of operations
between its parts which has never been realized
before. The cycle may be considered as starting
with the energization or lack of energization of
the magnets controlling the motion of the permu
tation bars, thus bringing about an alignment of
the bars which provides a path for one pin to
slide into a slot composed of ?ve slot elements
each located within one of the permutation bars.
This is followed by a motion of the permit bar
which isv controlled by a cam located on the shaft
driven by the single-revolution clutch or a shaft
associated therewith and when this happens, the
pin can actually slide into the slot which takes
10 place preferably at some time in ther?fth cod
ing period, say about half Way from the begin-'
ning of the period. The permit bar then con
tinues to move and in doing so, causes the stop
129 to get out of engagement with the ratchet
15 128, and this starts the typewheel spinning.
should take place‘ in the fifth coding period,
as soon as possible after the projection of the
pin into the slot and hence into the path of the
abutments on the typewheel shaft. The permit
bar then reverses its motion which is simultane
ously slowed down, and in due time, which isv to
be as close to the end of the next start period
as possible, returns the brake into engagement
with the ratchet and then, not later than in the
?rst part of the ?rst coding period, knocks the
pin out of the contact with the abutment and
hence out of the slot in the permutation bars.
The printing may then take place at any time
between the ?rst and the ?fth coding periods
for the next character, the typewheel in the
meantime being held stationary by the stop.
The timing is somewhat different where the
construction shown in Fig‘. 6, with its auxiliary
pins, is adopted. The preselector pin which
35 means the one engaging with the slots in the
22'! and over the common to the line leading to
the addressee’s apparatus indicated by ground
“9S, and by wire!!! back to battery _l_l3. Mag
net ,Il?-l is energized and causes the motion
of the proper permutation bar which in. turn, in
the manner set forth elsewhere in this applica-:
tion causes the printing of a character or the
actuation of a function.
To make the apparatus function as a receiver,
a switch is moved which causes the opening of
6&2 and closing of GM, as well as closing of ‘the
switches 4B2—l to 402—'5, the switches ||4—l
to il.ll—5 naturally remaining open as the key.
board- is not eperated when the apparatus is used
as a receiver. The currrent then ‘?ows from the
distant station acting as a transmitter from the
right-hand side of battery H3 over the ‘closed
switch Sill and commutator ZZIR. to the unseg_
merited ring of sun?ower BC, by brush to seg
ment ill-A to magnet Hit-l, switch 402,-! to
ground and wire 40'. ‘When only two devices are
connected with each other, as in the leased wire -
service, battery H3 maybe attached to either
of the two devices or placed at some intermediary
point between them. In such‘service as the
British Telex, the battery or other source of cur
rent is usually locatedat the central. station.
The location of battery H3. does not affect the
circuit otherwise;
A modi?cation of the circuit shown in Fig. 5
is presented inllllfig. 8. This involves the use of
a double-throw eight-pole switch of a peculiar
character. Here, as in Fig. 5, X—-|, l|6‘—l, etc.
are the magnets operating the permutation bars.
One side of these magnets is connected to the
permutation bars, still goes into the slot in the
?fth period. By doing so it moves the auxiliary
or selector pin into the path of the proper abut
poles of the switch, second row from top, while
switch, ?rst row from the top. The segments of
the receiver sun?ower, RC, are connected to corre 40
sponding terminals of the switch on the other side
of the pole line (third from the top). The com-.
As soon as this has been done, the pre
selector pin may be returned into its original
position without waiting for the engagement 'be
tween the selector pin and the abutment on the
shaft. The permit bar 16 may be moved into
the position shown in Fig. 6 and a new cycle
r of permutation bar selection may be initiated.
Pin 38 does not then have to engage with the
abutment 102 until some time at the very end
of the fourth coding period and may even- be
held until the beginning of the ?fth coding period.
50 The stop need not be set, unless otherwise de
sired, until some time in the fourth coding im
pulse which still leaves enough time for vprinting.
The general circuit is shown in Fig.5 for an
apparatus having a receiver and sender com
bined. As usual in apparatus of this kind, the
device prints the message sent. when acting as a
sender as well as when acting as .a receiver.
position of switch Gill-602 determines the na
ture of the operation of the device. ‘When the
60 apparatus is acting as a sender, a key of a key
board, not shown, is depressed which causes the
closing of a. combination of switches selected
from among the ?ve, (l|4-—l to HA5) which is
usually done by a coding comb attached to the
65 key lever. This part of the device is‘ well known
in the art. For the sakepfillustration let it be
assumed that the depression of the key caused
the closing of switch |l4-—l. It also causes the
opening of switch “4X which starts the appa
70 ratus going. When this happens the following
circuit is‘ established, with the switch 60| open
and 602 closed: Battery H3 through 602 to the
unsegmented ring of sun?ower SC; over brush
to segment I of SC, through magnet ll6--l to
75 switch I M-I, closed, to commutator 226, out by
the segments of the sender sun?ower, SC, are
connected to corresponding terminals of the
mon line from the sender switch SS goes to com
mutator 22 IS and thence to battery I I3 while the
individual lines from switch SS, such as ll4--yl
(same'arrangement as in Fig. 5) are joined to
the other-sides of the respective magnets by being
hooked jointly into the proper terminals in the
last row, from the top, of switch. When the ma
chine is in the sending position, the switch is 50
thrown towards the top of the sheet of the draw
ing connecting the ?rst and second rows,‘count
ing from the top, and the following circuit, e. g.
for H6—'_l, is established: Sender switch _| l4—-I
to terminal 2I4—-| where ‘the line from lM-l 55
joins onto the line leading to magnet llG-l;
through that magnet and to 2I6—,l, i. e. ‘to pole
of the ‘double-throw switch; thence, via switch
pole, to terminal 3|.5_—I connected to segment
,I of sun?ower SC, by arm of the sun?ower to 60
the unsegmented ring and outof it to PS in
the top row of terminals and-via the correspond
ing pole to battery H3; out of it to commutator
,22IS, and by the common wire back to sending
switch lM-—l.
The following circuit is established when the
apparatus is vacting ‘as a receiver, it being as
sumed‘that ‘battery “,3: is now located at the
sender station. The switch is now thrown with
the handle to the bottom of the drawing, con 70
necting by the poles the second and third rows
and the current is ?owing from the bottom‘ of
battery H3 to pole P, thence to PR, commutator
22IR, unsegmented ring of sun?ower RC, seg
ment IHR, by pole to magnet ll6—l; and
through the magnet I H5—l to terminal 2l4--l.
It will be noted that a bar CB, made of a con
ducting material, is provided, and joins to
gether all the terminals in the last row when
the switch is in its receiver position, whilst 2 I 4-4
is joined to RS. The switch pole joins it to
19-2 which permits the current to ?ow to the
other side of battery H3, and energizes magnet
H6—l in turn actuating the proper permutation
I claim:
1. In a telegraph printer, a receiver com
prising as many permutation bars as there are
coding elements in the code used; a permit bar
15 and means to actuate it subsequently to the
periods available for the actuation of the permu
tation bars; selector elements and means to en
gage them with the selecting elements of the
permutation bars; a shaft carrying the same
of the selector to engage with the permutation
bars in the latter part of the ?fth coding, and
disengages said selector element before the
end of the next following fourth coding period.
5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein
the selector elements consist of two members
whereof one is in a position to engage with the
selecting elements of the permutation bars, said
member thereby becoming the means to move
the second member of the selector elements into
a position of coacting with the corresponding
abutments on the typewheel shaft, together with
means to hold the second member of the selec
tor in its operating position after the with
drawal of the ?rst member from coaction with 15
the permutation bars, but means are provided
for return of said second element into its orig
number of abutments as there are selector ele-.
ments, said abutments being so spaced with re
spect to the selector elements that only one se
lector element can engage with any of the abut
ments; a typewheel positioned on said shaft, to
gether with means to lock and unlock said shaft;
a cam and a source of energy to actuate it other
than the signalling impulses, said cam being in
a position to operate the means for locking and
unlocking the typewheel shaft and being of such
30 a shape as to unlock the typewheel shaft subse
quently to the actuation of the permit bar.
2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein
the cam operating the permit bar is so shaped
that the permit bar in one position of the cam
0:: C11 constitutes a means to withhold the selector
elements from coacting with the selecting ele
ments; in its next position the cam is a means
to move the permit bar into a position wherein
it does not interfere with the coaction between
40 the selector and selecting elements, and in the
next following position the cam becomes a means
to withdraw the selector elements from coacting
with the abutments on the typewheel shaft.
3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein
the selector elements consist of two members
whereof one is in a position to engage with the
selecting elements of the permutation bars, said
member thereby becoming the means to move the
second member of the selector elements into a
position of coacting with the corresponding
abutments on the typewheel shaft, together with
means to hold the second member of vthe selec
tor in its operating position after the with
drawal of the ?rst member from coaction with
,55 the permutation bars.
4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein
the selector elements consist of two members
whereof one is in a position to engage with the
selecting elements of the permutation bars, said
60 member thereby becoming the means to move
the second member of the selector elements into
a position of coacting with the corresponding
abutments on the typewheel shaft together with
means to hold the second member of the selec
65 tor in its operating position after the withdrawal
of the ?rst member from coaction with the per
mutation bars, and wherein further the per
mit bar provides a path for the ?rst element '
inal inoperative position between the end of the
?rst coding period and the end of the fourth
coding period.
6. In a telegraph printer, a receiver and a
sender each comprising a sun?ower having two
more units than there are time-units in the code
for which the apparatus is constructed, the two
last coding segments in the receiver sun?ower 25
being shorter than the corresponding segments in
the sender sun?ower, and the stop segment in
the receiver sun?ower longer than the corre
sponding segment in the sender sun?ower, to
gether with means to drive both sun?owers at
the same angular velocity.
7. In, an apparatus as set forth in claim 6, an
interrupter in series with the receiver sun?ower
to break the ?ow of current through the sun
?ower at the end of the fourth impulse during
the period when the brush in the sending sun
?ower is on the fourth coding segment and in
the receiving sun?ower on the ?fth coding seg
8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein 40
the cam controlling the means to lock the type
wheel shaft is so shaped that the shaft remains
in its locked position until after the printing of
the character set up by the coding impulses,
9. In a telegraph printer, a receiver com—' 45
prising as many permutation bars as there are
coding elements in the code used; a permit bar
and means to actuate it subsequently to the pe
riods available for the actuation of the permu
tation bars; selector elements and means to en 50
gage them with the selecting elements of the
permutation bars; a shaft carrying the same
number of abutments as there are selector ele
ments, said abutments being so spaced with re
spect to the selector elements that only one se
lector element can engage with any of the abut
ments; a typewheel positioned on said shaft,
together with means to lock and unlock the shaft;
a cam and a source of energy to actuate it other
than the signalling impulses, said cam being in 60
a position to operate the means for locking and
unlocking the typewheel shaft and being of such
a shape as to lock the typewheel shaft before the
elapse of substantially one quarter of the time
period assigned for the ?rst coding period of the 65
character next following.
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