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Патент USA US2136439

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Nov. 15, 193s.
A. E. Hum»
2,136,439
TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 2, 1937
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NOV. 15, 1938.
A_ E. HUDD
2,136,439
TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed- Feb. 2, 1937
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TRAIN CONTROL. SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 2, 1957
2,135,439
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6 Sheets-Sheet 6
Patented Nov. l5, ~1938
2,136,439
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,136,439
TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM
Alfred Ernest Hudd, Worth, Crawley, England
Application February 2, 1937, Serial No. 123,706
In Great Britain February 8, 1936
19 Claims. (Cl. 246-63)
This invention is for improvements in or re
lating to train control systems of the kind in
which a receiver on the train is arranged to
traverse and to be inductively influenced by,
5 without Contact with, tWo magnets disposed
apart along the track at each signal location,
whereby the receiver under the influence of the
first magnet applies the brakes and/or operates
a Warning device and may be reset under the in
10 fluence of the second magnet and in which means
associated with the signalling system are pro
vided Íor rendering the second of the magnets
to be traversed operative or inoperative accord
l
ing to whether the signal is at “clear” or at
“danger”, respectively, and in which means un
der the control of the driver are provided for
resetting the receiver.
According to this invention, a train control
system of the kind referred to is characterized
2 O ' in that the receiver comprises a movable perma
nently polarized member With or Without an as
The single movement of the polarized member,
when traversing a track magnet, may be effected
by so arranging each track magnet that the lines
of force from one pole only of each track magnet
effectively influence the polarized member.
The polarized member may be arranged to be
influenced only by the lines of force from one
pole of each track magnet by so arranging the
track magnet that only one pole is traversed.
For example, by arranging the track magnet
transversely to the direction of the track so that
only one pole will be immediately beneath the
15
receiver.
As already indicated, the train control system
is of the kind including means under the control
of the driver for resetting the receiver mech
anism. These resetting means may cause the
polarized member to be moved from the “brakes
on” position back again to its initial position.
sociated collecting-plate and in that the two
track magnets and permanently polarized mem
Preferably, the first magnet of _each pair to be
traversed is a permanent magnet and the second
ber or collecting~plate are so relatively dis
is an electro-magnet.
posed and the polarized member is so initially
set that an operative pole of each active track
magnet influences the polarized member or said
in that said polarized member comprises a per
manent magnet. In an alternative construction,
collecting-plate so as each to effect a single
movement of the polarized member and in that
the operative pole of each magnet and the per
an armature movably mounted in relation to and
influenced by a fixed permanent magnet in the
manently polarized member or collecting-plate
overlap during traverse and one or both of them
extend across the centre line of the track. Pref
erably, a single permanently polarized member
f is employed in the receiver which, together with
the track magnets, are disposed along the centre
line of the track. It will be appreciated that in
referring to “two magnets” each magnet may be
made up of a group of magnets but any one
An important feature of the invention consists 25
however, the polarized member may comprise
receiver.
A further feature of the invention consists in
that the polarized member, whether it be a per
manent magnet or an armature, is so mounted
that between its limits of movement it is in un 35
stable equilibrium, tending to remain at one of
said limits. In this arrangement, when the po
larized member comprises »a pivoted permanent
magnet, it may have associated therewith a ñxed
group of magnets eñ‘ects but a single movement
armature, so arranged that at each limit of 40
of the permanently polarized member. By “ope
movement of the permanent magnet, one or
other of its poles is nearer the armature than the
other, whereby there is a tendency for the per
manent magnet to remain at either limit of its
movement.
45
The effectiveness of the track magnets in mov
erative pole” is meant a pole which influences
the receiver in such a Way as to move the per
4
member in the position to which it was last
moved.
manently polarized member. In an arrangement
' in which a collecting-plate is associated with the
polarized member, only a single collecting-plate
is arranged across the Width of the track.
In one arrangement, according to this in
50 vention, the track magnets are so arranged with
their poles along the length of the track that
both poles are traversed in succession and so
that the second pole is the operative pole and
effects said single movement of the polarized
55 member, While the first pole tends to keep said
ing the permanent magnet may be enhanced by
the provision of a ñxed collecting-plate on the
receiver which is arranged to be inñuenced by
the track magnets during the traverse thereof
so that the collecting-plate temporarily becomes
a magnet and which collecting-plate is so dis
posed in relation to the movable permanent mag
net of the receiver that the latter is moved from
one limit of movement to the other, when the
55
2,136,439
’ 2
receiver traverses a track magnet.
Preferably,
the permanent magnet of the receiver is pivot
ally mounted and a collecting-plate is arranged
so that a part thereof extends across the pivot
axis on one side of the magnet. A second col
lecting-plate may be so disposed that a part
thereof extends across the pivot axis on the
opposite side of the permanent magnet, for ex
ample, one plate may be above and the other
below the magnet, the upper one of which is
preferably longer than the other. The purpose
of arranging one collecting-plate to be longer
than the other is so that when the shorter col
lecting-plate is over one pole of the track mag
15 net, the longer collecting-plate may be influenced
by the other pole and thus both poles of the
track magnet may effect movement of the perma
nent magnet of the receiver.
It will be appreciated that it is necessary in
20 a train control system of the kind referred to at
the commencement 0f the speciñcation for the
movable member of the magnet of the receiver
to be disposed comparatively close to the track
magnet and thus there is the danger, unless pre
25 cautions are taken to the contrary, for the re
ceiver to be damaged by obstacles on the track.
An important feature of the present invention
consists in that the magnetic receiver is housed
Within a non-magnetic steel casing which, for
the track a visual distant signal and a visual
home signal. In such an arrangement, there
may be arranged near each distant signal two
track magnets disposed one after the other along
the track and there are arranged near each home
signal location two pairs of magnets, the magnets
in each pair being arranged in close proximity,
and the two pairs being separated along the
length of the track, and, as already referred to
above, the magnet of each pair last to be trav
ersed by the receiver is provided with means
which permit it to energize the receiver only when
the signal is at “clear”.
Where, at any signal location, there are two
visual signals concerning any particular track, 15
namely a visual home signal and a visual dis
tant signal, two pairs of track magnets are dis
posed apart along the length of the track near
the signal location and are so arranged that the
pair last to be traversed by the receiver is in 20
close proximity to the visual signals, the mag
nets in either pair may be either disposed apart
or in close proximity but, preferably, the mag
nets in the first pair are disposed apart and the
magnets in the second pair are in close proximity. 25
Preferably, in any of the track magnet arrange
ments referred to above, each magnet is arranged
with its poles apart along the length of the
track.
30 example, may be formed from what is- known as a
non-austenitic stainless steel alloy.
In an arrangement in which the receiver com
In an arrangement in which the receiver con 30
trols the application of the brakes by opening a
valve in the train-pipe, it is convenient for the
prises collecting-plates, one or both may form a
Valve to be located at a distance from the receiver,
for example, in the driver’s cab. Said valve may
be operated by the receiver either through a
pneumatic transmission or an electric transmis
sion. Various methods of arranging transmis
sions are hereinafter described and claimed.
Such transmissions, in addition to controlling
the application of the brakes, may also be ar 40
ranged to operate an audible warning device. A
feature of the invention consists in that a delay
action device is so associated with the train-pipe
valve that the valve opens a predetermined time
after the actuation of the warning device. This
arrangement is particularly suitable for use with
a track magnet system in which the magnets of a
pair are disposed apart. In such an arrange
ment, when the signal is at “clear” both track
magnets are energized. It is desirable that a
closure for the casing. The casing may be dome
shaped and the upper collecting-plate may be
arranged to form a closure member.
When a train control system according to the
present invention is associated with a visual track
signalling system, the track magnets may be lo
40 cated near any visual signal location in a num
ber of different ways.
For example, two track
magnets may be located one after the other
along the track near each visual signal location,
either in close proximity to one another or dis
posed apart. Whichever arrangement is em
ployed, the track magnet in each pair last to be
traversed by the receiver is so controlled that it
only energizes the receiver when the signal is
clear. Where the magnets are in close proximity
50 they will move the polarized member and return
1t again to its initial position in such rapid suc
cession that the driver will not receive any indi
cation in the cab. The object of disposing the
two magnets of any pair apart is so that the
55 driver may receive a short indication, for ex
ample on the warning device, when the signal
is' at “clear”. In yet another arrangement of
track magnets, two pairs of track magnets are
disposed apart along the length of the track near
60 any visual signal location, so that the last pair
to be traversed is in close proximity to said
location. The purpose of this arrangment is that
after the ñrst pair of magnets has given a warn
ing to the driver that the signal is at “danger”,
he can slacken speed until such time as the sec
ond pair of magnets gives him a warning.
On
second track magnet.
It will be appreciated that where a pair of track
magnets are provided, and also means for reset 60
ting the receiver member, the latter may be oper
ated upon in any of three ways. When the track
is clear, it will be given a double movement, i. e.
two movements in opposite directions, by the two
track magnets, and when the signals are at "dan
ger” may either receive a single movement by one
of the track magnets so as to apply the brakes, or
receipt of this second warning he should stop the
train, and he will then be close enough to the
it may be again returned to its initial position by
visual signal to receive an indication from it
the resetting means.
70 when the track is again clear.
line is provided at each location.
It is convenient for the
driver to know what o-peration took place at the
The above arrangements of track magnets are
suitable for use with a signalling system in which
a single visual signal concerning any particular
75.
warning shall be given without the applica
tion of the brakes. It will be appreciated that
when the first magnet is traversed, the warning
device will immediately come into operation, but
owing to the delay-action device the brakes will
vnot have been applied by the time the polarized
member is returned to its initial position by the
For example,
there may be disposed at successive locations on
signal location which was last passed and a fea
ture of the present invention consists in the pro
vision of a visual indicator which is so associated
with the movable member of the receiver that
three different indications are given according to
3
2,136,439
whether a single movement, a double movement
or a resetting movement are given to the receiver
member, any one of which indications, after
being recorded, is retained until the indicator is
next operated. Two different forms of indicator
are hereinafter described and claimed.
The following is a description of certain alter
native ways of carrying out the invention, refer
ence being made to the accompanying drawings,
10
in which:--
,
`
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation
of the apparatus on the train in which a pneu
matic transmission is employed for transmitting
the movement of the polarized member in the
receiver to the train-pipe valve,
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic plan view of the
apparatus shown in Figure 1, and also showing
the disposition of the track magnets for use with
a signal system in which a single visual signal
20 concerning any particular _line is provided at a
number of locations on the track,
Figure 3 shows the disposition of the track
magnets for use with a signal system in which at
each signal location on the track there is a visual
25 distant signal and a visual home signal concern
ing any particular line,
Figure 4 is a somewhat similar diagrammatic
view to Figure l, showing an electrical transmis
sion between the receiver and the train-pipe
30 valve,V
magnet. The opposed projections are disposed
at such a distance apart and the pivot axis of
the magnet I 0 is so disposed in relation to the
armatures that one end or other of the magnet
tends to remain attracted towards one or other
of the projections. The armature I5, however,
is provided with a longer collecting-plate I6 than
the aforesaid collecting-plate I4. The length of
the upper collecting-plate I 6 is about the same
as the length, namely 22 inches, of each track
magnet, one of which is indicated at I‘I in Fig
ure l. The receiver also comprises a resetting
mechanism for the permanent magnet I0. The
resetting mechanism comprises a iiexible dia
phragm I8 which divi‘des a casing I9 into two 15
compartments 20 and 2I, which diaphragm is
urged by a spring 9 towards the right in Figure 1.
The compartment 2I is provided with a bleed
hole 22 communicating with the atmosphere. The
compartment 20 communicates through a con 20
duit 23 with a valve chamber 24. Normally, the
conduit 23 is placed in communication with the
atmosphere through an air ñlter 25 in the valve
chamber 24 but when it is required to reset the
Vpermanent magnet I Il, a slide valve 26 in the 25
valve chamber 24 is moved by a manipulating
member 21 against the action of a spring 8 so
as to connect the conduit 23 through another con
duit 28 with a source of vacuum 29».
Secured to
Figure 5 shows an alternative arrangement for
the electro-magnetic means which controls the
the diaphragm I8 is a resetting rod 30 having a 30
slot 3I formed therein through which the arm
I I extends. The resetting rod 30 also carries are
train-pipe valve when a pressure system is em
ployed instead of a vacuum system,
Figure 6 is a front elevation of one form of
35
setting valve member 22. The resetting valve
member and the valve member I2 coi-operate with
two ports formed in a nose-piece 33 at the end of 35
indicator,
a control conduit 34. It will be seen from Figure
Figure '7 is a section on the line 'I-l of Fig
ure 6,
Figure 8 is a similar view to Figure 6 but with
40 the indicating dial removed,
Figure 9 is a fragmentary elevation showing the
moving parts in a position when the track signals
are at “clear”,
Figure 10 is a section on the line lil-III` of
Figure 9,
Figure 11 is a fragmentary elevation showing
the moving parts in a position when the track
signals are at “danger” and a moment after the
driver has operated the 'resetting mechanism,
50
Figure l2 is a section on the line I2-I2 of
Figure 11,
Figure 13 is a fragmentary elevation showing
the moving parts in the position they assume
after the driver has operated the resetting mech
anism,
Figure 14 is a section on the line III-_I4 of
Figure 13, and
Figure 15 is a similar view to that shown in
Figure 1 of an alternative form of receiver in
60 which a soft-iron pivoted armature is inñuenced
by a iixed permanent magnet on the train.
Referring to the arrangements shown in Fig
ures 1 and 2, the magnetic receiver comprises a
permanent magnet I@ arranged with its poles
disposed apart in the direction of the track. The
permanent magnet is arranged to rock about a
horizontal axis disposed transversely across the
track and has secured to it an upwardly-extend
ing arm Il in which is loosely mounted a valve
70 member I2. A fixed armature I 3 having a col
lecting-plate III is disposed beneath the perma
1 that the permanent magnet Ill, the armature I3
and its collecting-plate I4, the armature l5, the
diaphragm casing I9 and its associated parts are
all housed within a casing 35 which is dome
shaped and has its closed end directed down
wardly. The casing is closed at its top by the
collecting-plate I6. The function of this casing
is twofold. It prevents the parts of the receiver
housed therein from mechanical damage through 45
obstructions on the track and also shields them
from dust and dirt. The casing requires to have
considerable strength and is formed from a non
austentic stainless steel alloy in order not to in
terfere with the operation of the permanent track 50
magnets. The casing is circular and is of a suit
able size to house the lower collecting-plate which
is a disc 6 inch-es in diameter. The upper collect
ing-plate is 22 inches by 10 inches wide and is
secured by bolts 36 to flange 31 formed at the 55
upper part oi’ the casing 35. A sealing ring 38
is disposed-between the upper collecting-plate and
said flange. The interior of the casing 35 com
municates with the atmosphere through an air
filter and moisture-absorber indicated generally 60
at 39. The moisture-absorber may comprise
silica gel.
The control conduit 34 communicates with what
Ais termed hereinafter “a governor-type relay de
vice.”
These words are intended to include any 65
arrangement in which under normal conditions,
i. e. when the receiver is not inñuenced by a track
magnet, pressure is balanced on either side of a
diaphragm or plunger which is arranged to con
trol the brakes and/or the warning device either
directly or through a second “governor relay de
nent magnet IB and a similar armature I5 is dis
vice” and in which means controlled by the re
posed above the permanent magnet.
ceiver are arranged to upset said balance of pres
sure, whereby. the plunger or diaphragm is caused
The arma
tures vare U-shaped so as to provide a pair of op
75 posed projections at each end of the permanent
40
to move and therebyoperate the brakes and/or 75
4
2,136,435
warning device. One specific form of governor
type relay device comprises a chamber 40 which
is divided into two compartments 4I and 42 by a
iiexible diaphragm 43. The lower compartment
the valve member I2 closes the port with which
42 communicates with the control conduitI 34 and
the upper compartment communicates through a
nose-piece 32.
conduit 44 with the aforesaid source of vacuum
29. The diaphragm 43 has secured to it a valve
spindle 45 and also has formed in it a
bleed-hole
two
46
so
that
compartments
4|
the
pressures in
and 42
may
the
become
it is associated. Also, the spring 9 in the com
partment 26 will tend to maintain the resetting
rod 30 in a position to close the other `port in the
Assume now that the receiver
approaches a track-magnet which, it will be
noted, is disposed with its poles along the track
but which is differently oriented to the receiver
magnet. As the receiver approaches the track
magnet, the right-hand end of the upper col 10
lecting-plate will ñrst come under the influence
equal. A compression spring 46 urges the
flexible diaphragm towards the compartment 42.
of the south pole of the magnet, but the projec
tions` of the armatures do not become polarized
The valve spindle 45 extends through a valve
until the two collecting-plates are influenced re
15 chamber 48 in one wall 'of which are provided
three ports 49, 50 and 5 I. The port 49 communi
spectively by the two poles of the track magnet. 15
This takes place when the lower collecting-plate
cates with a conduit 52 leading to a pneumatic
is under the influence of the south pole of the
horn 53.
track magnet and the upper collecting-plate is
under the influence of the north pole of the track
magnet, 'whereupon the projections of the upper
The port 50 communicates with the
aforesaid conduit 44 which in its turn communi
20 cates with the source of vacuum 29. The port
5I communicates through a conduit 54 with a
secondr governor-type relay device hereinafter
described.
The aforesaid ports 49, 50 and 5| are controlled
25 by a valve chest 55 carried by the aforesaid valve
spindle 45.
The valve chamber 48 communi
Cates with the atmosphere through an air iilter
56 and a bleed-hole 1.
At the top of the valve chamber is located
30 a visual indicator 51 which is operated in the
manner hereinafter described by the movement
of the valve spindle 45.
The second governor-type relay device com
prises a _casing 58 divided into two compartments
59 and 6I) by a flexible diaphragm 6|. The com
partment 60 communicates with the conduit 54
and with a small vacuum reservoir 62 through a
conduit 63. The capacity of the vacuum reser
voir is about .3 cubic feet. Secured to the dia
phragm is a valve stem 64 which extends out
through the compartment 59 and is provided at
its outer end with a valve member 65 which con
trols the passageway 66 from the train-pipe 61
and puts said passageway into and out of com
munication with the atmosphere.
Normally
when the brakes are off the train pipe 61 is under
vacuum. The upper compartment 59 also com
municates with said passageway 66 through a
suitable port 68. The opening movement of the
valve member 65 is in opposition to a compression
spring 69 and the extent of opening movement
is controlled by a setscrew 10. The valve mem
ber 65 co-operates with a suitable valve seat 1|.
armature I5 will be given a north polarity and
the projections of the lower armature I3 will be
given a south polarity, which conditions tend to
maintain the receiver permanent magnet in its
initial position. Eventually, the lower collecting
plate will be mainly inñuenced by the north pole
of the track magnet and the upper collecting
plate by the south pole of the track magnet.
Under these conditions, the projections of the
upper armature will be given a south polarity 30
and the projections of the lower armature a north
polarity and the permanent magnet will thus be
moved. In Figure 1 of the drawings, the per
manent magnet is shown in an intermediate po
sition during this movement.
35
As soon as the permanent magnet I0 moves,
the valve member I2 will cause the conduit 34 to
be placed in communication with the interior of
the casing 35, and thence with the atmosphere.
The balance of pressure on the two sides of the
diaphragm 43 will thus be upset and the dia 40
phragm will rise, carrying the valve chest 55 to
its uppermost position. In this position, the
pneumatic horn 53 will be placed in communica
tion with the vacuum reservoir 13 via the ports
49 and 56 and conduit 44. Thus, the horn will
sound. At the same time, the conduit 54 will be
placed in communication with the atmosphere
through the air ñlter 56. Thus, the balance of
pressure on the two sides of the diaphragm 6|
will be upset as soon as air has suiîiciently filled 50
the small vacuum reservoir 62. Thus, after a
voir 13 having a capacity of about 2 cubic feet
delay, the diaphragm 6| will rise and open the
train-pipe 61 to atmosphere through the pas
sage 66, between the valve member 65 and the
55
valve seat 1I, and through the siren 12.
As will be explained with reference to Figure 2,
which communicates with the train-pipe through
if a signal is at “danger” the permanent mag
a non-return valve 14. The operation of the de
net of the receiver is not again influenced by
any track magnet until it has been reset. Thus.
when the signal is at “danger”, the driver will 60
hear the horn sound and unless he resets the
receiver within a given time, the brakes will be
When the valve member is opened, the inflowing
air may be caused to operate a siren 12.
The source of vacuum 29 comprises a reser
vice is as follows.
Considering again the receiver end of the
mechanism, assuming the receiver is not over a
magnet on the track, it will be appreciated that
the permanent magnet will tend to remain in
either of two positions, one in which the ’left
hand' end is attracted to- the bottom armature
and the right-hand end to thev upper armature,
or the other where the left-hand end is at
tracted to the upper armature and the right
70 hand end to the lower armature. The ends of
the magnet are maintained out of actual contact
with the armatures by non-magnetic stops (not
shown). Normally, the permanent magnet is
arranged to remain in the first of these positions
76 and in this position it will be appreciated that
applied. To reset the receiver, the driver pushes
the manipulating member 21 against the ac
tion of the spring 8, thereby moving the slide
valve 26 which places both the conduits 28 and
23 inA communication with the vacuum reser
voir 13. Thus, the chamber 20 will be subjected
to vacuum and the diaphragm I8 will move to the
left, carrying with it the resetting rod 30. The w
end of the slot 3| in the valve spindle will ulti
mately engage the arm || and bring the valve
member I2 into contact with its associated port
so as to close that port. In the meantime, the 75
2,136,439
valve member 32 will have uncovered its port.
Thus, unless the manipulating member 21 is re
leased, the brakes will be applied. Upon releas
ing the manipulating member 2l, the vacuum in
the chamber 20 will be destroyed and the reset
ting rod 30 will move to the right, causing the
valve member _32 to close its port. The valve
member l2 will maintain its port closed since,
owing to the provision of the slot 3l, the arm II
10 will not again be engaged. The permanent mag
net of the receiver in this manner is reset.
As
will also be explained with reference to Figure
2, when the track is clear and both a perma
nent magnet and an electro-magnet are active,
the receiver permanent magnet will open and
close the valve I2 in such quick succession that
the brakes are not applied.
_
It will 'be appreciated that in addition to the
valve 65 for placing the train-pipe in communi
20 cation with the atmosphere, there is also pro
vided the usual brake control valve l, as shown
in Figure 2 of the drawings. Also shown in Fig
ure 2 is a track magnet arrangement suitable
for a signalling system in which there is only
25 one visual signal concerning any particular line
at each signal location, that is to say, in which
a distant signal is placed alone at one location
and further along the track a home signal is
placed alone. The visual distant signal is sho-wn
30 at 'i6 (Figure 2) and the visual home signal is
shown at il.
A permanent magnet 'i8 is placed
5
hand, at the home signal, owing to the fact that in
each pair of magnets the electro-magnet is dis
posed in close proximity to the permanent mag
net, the two movements of the receiver perma
nent magnet will take place in such quick suc-cession that no warning signal will be received.
If the distant and home signals are' at “dan
ger” the electro-magnets 19, 83 and 95 are not
energized. Under these conditions, the perma
nent track magnet 'IB will move the receiver per
manent magnet, the horn will blow and unless
the driver resets the receiver, the brakes will be
fully applied. He should know that he is at a
distant signal and thus he will reset the receiver
before the brakes are fully applied and should 15
proceed at a reduced speed. Finally, when the
home signal is approached, he will get another
blast on the horn, under the action of the per
manent magnet 82 and he should know that he is
about 600 feet away from the home signal. A1' 20
ter resetting the receiver permanent magnet he
should proceed with extreme caution until
another blast of the horn takes place under the
influence of the permanent track magnet 84; he
should then bring the train to a standstill. He 25
should be able to see the visual signal even 1n
foggy conditions and thus be able to ascertain
when the track is again clear.
In Figure 3 is shown an arrangement of track
magnets suitable for use with a signal system in
which, at each location on the track, both a vis
in the middle of the track at a distance of-
ual distant signal and a visual home signal are
about 630 feet from the visible distant signal 1o
cation with its poles disposed apart along the
provided. Near each such signal location there
35 track so that the pole more remote from the
an electro-magnet 9i disposed about 3l) feet
apart and arranged similarly to the pair of mag
signal is south. Thirty feet further on, and
therefore 600 feet from the distant signal loca
tion, there is disposed an electro-magnet 19 with
its north pole more remote from the signal. A
40 pair of contacts Bü are` arranged in circuit with
~the electro-magnet and means are associated
with the distant signal for closing the contacts
when the signal is clear. In this latter case, both
the permanent track magnet and the electro
magnet will affect the receiver. The permanent
track magnet, asl already explained, will cause
the horn to blow, but there will be a delay before
the brakes are applied, and the energized elec~
tro-magnet will cause the permanent receiver
magnet to be returned to its initial position be
50 fore the brakes are applied.
Six hundred feet in front of the home signal
il there are disposed a permanent track magnet
82 and an electro-magnet 83 arranged end-to
end in close proximity and with their south poles
55
outermost. A similar pair of magnets compris
ing a permanent track magnet 84 and an elec
tro-magnet 95 are disposed in like manner 1n
close proximity to `the home signal location.
60 The electro-magnets B3 and 85 are arranged 1n
circuit with two pairs of electric contacts 8B and
8l and a source of electric supply 88. One pair
of contacts, e. g., the contacts 8l, are arranged
to be controlled by the signal lever in the sig
65 nalman’s cabin, while the other pair of contacts
‘dt are arranged to be controlled by the move
ment of the signal itself.
Ii the distant and home signals are at “clear”
the electro-magnets i9, 83 and 85 will be ener
Owing to the spacing apart of the track
70 gized.
magnets 'i8 andl 79, there will be sufficient pause
between the two- movements of the receiver mag
net as to permit a blast to take place on the horn
but, as already indicated, there is not suiiicient
75 time for the brakes to be applied. 4On the other
are disposed a permanent track magnet 9D' and
nets near a single `distant signal as described
above. Each such pair of magnets is disposed
about 600 feet away from the visual signal loca
tion which is indicated at 92. Situated in close 40
proximity to each visual signal location are a
permanent track magnet 93 and an electro-mag
net 94 placed end-to-end in close proximity to
one another and arranged similarly to the pair
of magnets in close proximity to a single home 45
signal as described above. The electro-magnets
9i and 94 are connected in parallel with a source
of electric supply 95. Three pairs of contacts
9E, 97 and 98 are provided in the circuit. The
pairs of contacts 96 and 91 are arranged on 50
either side of the source of supply 95, one being
controlled by the signal lever in the signalman’s
cabin and the other being controlled by the home
visual signal. The pair of contacts 98 is ar
ranged in circuit with the electro-magnet fur 55
ther from the visual signal location and is con
trolled by the movement of the visual distant
signal. Thus, should the visual signals not re
spond to the signalman’s control, the track mag
nets under such conditions must necessarily op 60
erate the warning device due to the fact that the
electro-magnets are fde-energized. Where both
signals are at “clear”, all the contacts are closed;
when the home signal is at “clear” and the dis
tant signal is >at “danger”, the contacts 91 are 65
closed and the contacts 98 are open.
There are three possible signal conditions at
each location and these will be met with in suc
cession by the driver of a train travelling along
a clear line towards a home signal at “danger”. 70
He will receive the “all-clear” signal when the
visual home and distant signals are both at
“clear”; he will then come to a signal location at
which the home signal is at “clear” and the dis
tant signal is at “danger” while at the next lo 75
6
2,136,439
cation he approaches, both signals will be at
“danger”. Where a system of light signalling 1s
used, in the ñrst case the green light will show,
then returned to its initial position by the elec
tro-magnet. The indicator is arranged to show
three conditions. First, when the track is clear,
in the second case the amber light, and in the
third case the red light. These three conditions
receiver permanent magnet has not been moved
i. e. a condition which obtains when either the
are now considered in turn.
at all or has been moved first in one direction
If both signals are at “clear”, both electro
magnets 9| and 94 are energized. Thus, the re
ceiver permanent magnet will be returned to its
initial position each time it is moved by the track
magnets 90 and 93. There will be time for the
horn to be operated by the track magnet 90 since
it is disposed away from the electro-magnet, but
there will not be sufficient time for the brakes
and then quickly back again to its initial posi
tion by the track magnet. Second, when a sig
nal has been at “danger” and the driver has
to be applied. When, however, the receiver
traverses the magnets 93 and 94, there will not
be suñicient time even for the horn to be oper
ated owing to the close proximity of the mag
nets to one another. Thus, in passing the signal
20 location, the driver will hear one blast on the
horn but the brakes will not be applied.
If the home signal is at “clear” and the distant
signal is at “danger”, the electro-magnet 94 will
be energized but the electro-magnet 9| will not
be energized. The permanent magnet 90 will
move the receiver permanent magnet, the horn
will blow and the driver should reset the receiver
so as to prevent the brakes from becoming ap
plied. When the train passes the visual signal
30 location, at which the second pair of magnets
are located, no warning will be receivedV on the
horn owing to the close proximity of the per
manent magnet and the electro-magnet.
If both signals are at “danger”, neither of the
35 electro-magnets 9| and 94 will be energized; the
permanent magnet 90 Will move the receiver per
manent magnet, the horn will blow, whereupon
the driver should reset the receiver but reduce
speed. After 600 feet the permanent magnet 93
40 will move the receiver permanent magnet, an
other blast on the horn will take place, and the
brakes will be applied.
In any of the track signalling systems referred
to above, instead of the magnets being arranged
‘ with their poles disposed apart along the length
of the track, they may be sunk in the track in
an upright position and in such an arrangement
the permanent track magnets will be arranged
with their north poles uppermost and the elec
50 tro-magnets with their south poles uppermost.
Alternatively, the magnets could be arranged so
as to extend transversely in relation to the direc
tion of the track, and so that only one pole is
traversed by the receiver. In this case, the
north pole of the permanent magnet will be
traversed and the south pole of the electro-mag
net will be traversed.
It will be seen from the above description that
in order that a driver shall know whether or not
GO to apply the brakes and reduce speed, he should
know what was the nature of the last operation
of the receiver, and to this end the aforemen
tioned indicator 51 is provided. One form of
indicator will now be described.
As already set out above, the indicator is op
erated by the valve spindle 45. The indicator
may be used with either of the signalling sys
tems. It will be remembered that at any signal
location, When there is a signal at “danger”, the
polarized member of the receiver is moved in one
direction only by the track magnet and remains
there until reset by the driver, and that at any
signal location when the track is clear the polar
ized magnet of the receiver is first moved in one
75 direction by the permanent track magnet, and
reset the receiver permanent magnet, and, third,
a condition when a single signal is at “danger”
and the driver has not reset the receiver perma
nent magnet. It will be noted from Figure 6
that these three conditions are marked on the
indicator as “Clear”, “Cancel” and “Caution”.
As best seen from Figures 6 to 14, the receiver
comprises an indicating hand |00 fixed to a hol
low pivot pin |0| which is mounted on a peg |02
ñxed to a back-plate |03. Mounted also on the
hollow pivot pin is a sector-plate |04 having a
rim portion |05. Two pegs |06 and ||0 are ar
ranged towards the centre of the sector-plate
and near the hollow pivot pin i0 l. An operating
stem |01 is reciprocably mounted in the base
|08 of the indicator, which operating stem is ar 25
ranged to be engaged by the valve spindle 45.
The operating stem is provided with a forked
extremity |09 which is arranged to straddle the
hollow pivot pin |0l. A tension spring || | is ar
ranged to draw the sector-plate |04 towards the
right of Figure 7 and to maintain the peg |06 in
engagement with the limb ||2 of the forked
member. Thus, upon raising the operating stem
|01, the sector-plate will be rotated in an anti
clockwise direction until the peg ||0 comes into 35
contact with the other limb ||3 oi the forked
member. A detent member ||4 is carried by a
pivot pin ||5 secured to the plate |03 and is pro
vided with a notched extremity ||6 comprising
a cam-face ||1 and a lip ||8. Disposed beneath 40
the intermediate portion of the detent member
||4 is a carrier member | I9, which carrier mem
ber is reciprocable in a direction parallel with the
.axis of rotation of the indicating hand |00. The
reciprocation of the carrier member is eiîected 45
by a flexible diaphragm |20 to which it is at
tached, which diaphragm is mounted in a com
partment formed between the plate |03 and the
back part of the indicator casing |2|. The di
aphragm is pressed towards the front part of 50
the indicator by a compression spring |22. The
space to the rear of the flexible diaphragm com
municates through a passageway |23 with a con~
duit |24 (see Figure 1) which latter conduit com
municates with the conduit 23. Thus, when the
manipulating member 21 is operated to reset the
receiver permanent magnet, the rear face of the
diaphragm |20 is subjected to vacuum. The car
rier member ||8 is provided with a nose-piece
||9 located beneath the intermediate part of the 60
detent member | I4, which nose-piece is provided
with a cam-face |25 and a notch |26.
The operation of the indicator is now de
scribed. When the track signals are at “clear”,
the operating stem |01 will be in its lowermost
position and the peg |06 will rest on the limb
||2 of the forked extremity |09. In this posi
tion, the sector-plate |04 will be directed up
wardly with its rim portion |05 beneath the nose
piece ||9 and out-of-contact with the detent
member ||4. The nose-piece will be in its for
wardmost position with the detent resting at the
top of the cam face |25 as indicated in the frag
mentary view at the top of Figure 10. Under 75
2,136,439
these conditions, the indicating hand will point
to the word “Clearf’
Assuming now that the receiver passes a sig
nal location at “danger”, the receiver permanent
magnet will be moved, causing the valve spindle
45 to be raised and the horn to blow, and these
conditions will prevail until the driver resets the
receiver permanent magnet. So long, however,
as the horn is blowing and the brakes are ap
10 plied, the valve spindle will remain in its upper
most position, whereby the sector-plate is moved
15
20
25
30
35
40
permanent magnet. The switch arm |43 is con
nected by a lead |44 to one contact |45 of a
two-way switch having a switch arm |46 con
nected to the positive side or" an electric source
of supply. The movement of the switch arm |46 Ul
is controlled by a manipulating member |41
which is employed for resetting the receiver
permanent magnet. This is effected by moving
the switch arm |46 into engagement with the
other contact |48 of the two-way switch, which
contact is connected by a lead |49 to a coil |54
to the left, as shown in Figure l1, and the indi
which surrounds the lower armature | 3. An
cator hand will point to “Caution”. As soon as
other lead |5| from said coil |54 is connected
the driver operates the manipulating member 2l to one end of a coil |63 situated at one side of
to reset the receiver permanent magnet, the rear an electro-magnetic relay switch |52, which coil
side of the diaphragm |20 will be subjected to
|53 is connected at its other end to the negative
vacuum, the nose-piece ||9 will be moved to side of the electric source of supply. A coil |64
the left, as in Figure '1, and the detent member situated at the other side of said electro-magnetic
||4 will drop into the notch |25, as shown in relay switch is connected at one end to the afore
the fragmentary view shown in Figure 12. The said contact |42 of the iirst said two-way switch
valve spindle 45 will then descend, carrying with through a lead |53, and at its other end to the
it the operating stem lill. The sector-plate |44 ' negative side oi the electric source of supply.
will be drawn to the right in Figure 13, and the An electric light coloured purple and indicated
rim portion |05 will enter the notched end |55 at | 54 is connected to the contact |45 and through
in the detent member ||4. In entering the a lead |55. Another lead |55 from said purple
notched end, the rim will engage the cam-face light is connected to a contact |57 of the electro
||'| and lift the detent member ||4 out of the magnetic relay switch. The switch-arm |53 of
notch |26, as shown in Figure 14. The rim |45 said latter switch is connected to the negative
will be retained within the notched end by the side of the electric supply. A second contact
lip ||8 and thus the sector-plate will assume the
|59 of said switch is connected by a lead liâil to
position shown in Figure 13 and the indicator an electric light |5| coloured green. A second
hand will point to “Cancel” fromy which the lead from said green light is connected to one
driver will know that he has acknowledged a
end of the electro-magnet |33 and through a
warning signal. As soon as the receiver again lead |52 to the Contact |4| of the ñrst said two
traverses a permanent magnet on the track., the way switch. A yellow electric light |29 is on one
operating stem |31 will rise, causing the sector
side connected to the lead |53 and on the other
plate to move to the left, and bringing the rim side to the negative side of the source oi" supply.
|05 out of the notched end. The spring |22, Said negative side is also connected to the elec
bearing on the diaphragm |24, will cause the tro-magnet |35. The switches are shown in a
nose-piece to move forward and the detent mem
position when the track is clear. It will be seen
ber to be raised to the position shown in Figure that one side of the green light is connected to
l0. .Assuming the signal is at “Clear”, the oper
the negative source of supply through the lead
ating stem will descend to the position shown in
itil, contact |59, and switch-arm |58, while the
Figure 9 and the sector-plate will return to the other side is connected through the lead |32,
45 upright position shown in that figure.
The arrangement shown in Figure 4 is some
what similar to that shown in Figure l with the
50
7.
exception that there is an electric transmission
between the receiver and the parts of the mech
anism in the driver’s cab. The ñrst governor
type relay device is replaced by an electromagnet
|30 having a movable armature and actuating rod
|3|. The actuating rod is provided at one end
with a valve member |32 and at the other end
55 with a valve member |33. The valve member
|32 controls a port |34 which on one side corn
municates through a bleed-hole |35 and an air
filter |35 with the atmosphere and on the other
`side with a passage |31 which is connected to
60 a conduit |38 which communicates with the relay
device which operates the train-pipe valve in
the manner described with reference to Figure
1. The other valve member |33'controls a port
|39 which on one side communicates with the
65 passage |3'l and conduit |33 and on the other
side with a conduit |45 which is connected direct
to the train-pipe. The actuating rod and valve
members are so arranged that when the electro
magnet is energized, the port |34 is closed and
70 the port |39 is opened, and when the electro
magnet is de-energized, the port |34 is opened
and the port |39 is closed. The Aelectric trans
mission comprises a two-way switch having contacts |4| and |42, either of which may be en
75 gaged by a switch arm |43 moved by the receiver
20
30
‘
40
contact |4i, switch-arm |43, lead |44, contact 45
|45, switch-arm |45 with the positive side of the
source of supply. In this position, the part |34
is closed.
Normally the green light will be lighted and
when passing over a signal location at “Clear”, 50
the switch-arm |43 will be moved into contact
with the contact |42 and then quickly bach again
to the contact |41. An electric bell is connected
between the lead |53 and the negative side of
the source of supply and as soon as the switch
55
arm contacts with the contact |42, the bell will
sound, the green light will be extinguished, and
the yellow light will light. When the switch-arm
moves back into contact with the contact |4|,
the bell will stop ringing, the yellow light will 60
go out and the green light will come on again.
Should, however, the receiver pass a signal set
at “danger”, the switch-arm |43 will move into
and 4remain in contact with contact |42, the
green light will go ofi, the yellow light will remain 65
lit and the bell will remain ringing until the
manipulating member |41 is moved so as to bring
the switch-arm |45 into contact with the contact
|48. This will establish a circuit through the
coil |54 and also through the coil |63 of the
electro-magnetic relay device, which will cause
the switch-arm |53 to Contact with the contact
|57, and also the coil |50 will reset the perma
nent magnet. When the‘manipulating member
|41 is released, the Switch-arm |46 will be moved
8
2,136,439
back into contact with the contact |45 and the
purple light will light.
Since the switch-arm S58
is no longer in contact with the contact |59, the
green light will not be lit, so that the purple light
alone will remain lighted. 'I‘he last-mentioned
conditions will prevail until the receiver again
traverses a track magnet. The switch-arm |43
will then again be brought into contact with the
contact |42, thereby lighting the yellow light and
10 establishing a circuit through the coil |54 of the
electro-magnetic
relay
switch,
whereby the
switch-arm |58 will again be brought into con
tact with the contact |59. If the track is clear,
the switch-arm |58 will remain in this position
15 and the green light will remain lit when the
switch-arm |43 has returned into contact with
the Contact |4|. If, however, the signal is at
“danger”, the driver will again operate the ma
nipulating member |41 which will return the
20 switch-arm |58 to the contact |51 and the pur
ple light will again light up when the driver re
leases the manipulating member |41. It will be
noted that so long as the driver holds the switch
arm |46 into contact with the contact |48, the
25 electro-magnet |39 cannot be energized and that
when the latter is in a de-energized condition,
the brakes are applied. Furthermore, none of
the lights will be lit.
In applying the electric control last described
30 above to a brake system in which the brakes are
applied by the release of pressure in a pipe-line,
when the electromagnet |30 is not energized, the
actuating rod | 3| is in such a position that the
valve |28 shown in Figure 5 places the train
pipe in communication with atmosphere through
a whistle |65. As will be remembered, the elec
tro-magnet |30 becomes de-energized when the
receiver traverses a track magnet and the switch
arm |43 is brought into contact with the con
40
tact |42.
.
In Figure 5, the electro-magnet control valve
is shown connected directly to the pipe-line in
stead of through a governor-type relay device,
as described with reference to Figure 1 and to
Figure 4.
In the construction shown in Figure 15, the
receiver comprises a fixed permanent magnet |19
having two pole pieces I 1|, |12 which project
downwardly towards the track and inwardly to
wards one another. An armature |13 in the form
of a thin soft-iron metal plate is pivotally mount
ed between the two pole pieces, but has its axis
|14 offset towards the track from the line joining
the lower extremities of the two pole pieces.
Thus, the armature tends to remain in either of
its two limits of movement. The length or" the
armature is such as to leave a small gap between
each end thereof and the adjacent pole. Two
stops |15 and |16 are provided for engaging the
two ends of the armature and preventing them
from passing upwardly beyond the poles. ,The
armature is arranged to control the main control
valve |11 which opens up and closes communi
cation between the train-pipe 61 and the atmos
phere. The control valve may be connected to
a diaphragm |19 which divides an airtight cham
ber |39 into two compartments |8|, |82. Both of
these compartments communicate through bleed
holes |83 and |84 with a vacuum supply and the
compartment |82 communicates through a pipe
line |85 with a nose-piece IBSA situated in the
neighbourhood of the armature. This latter
valve is so arranged that when the armature
moves from a position in which the brakes are
75 inoperative to a position where the brakes should
be operative, the valve opens the pipe-line |85 to
the atmosphere through a port |81 in the valve
casing and thus subjects the diaphragm |19 to a
different pressure on either side thereof, causing
it to move and open the main control valve,
whereby the brakes are applied. In order to reset
the pivoted armature to its initial position, there
is provided in close proximity thereto a second
airtight chamber |83 containing a diaphragm |89
dividing the chamber into two compartments |90
and |9|. The compartment |9| communicates
through a bleed-hole |92 with the atmosphere
and the compartment |90 communicates through
a pipe-line |93 to a resetting valve |94 disposed
in the driver’s compartment of the train and
thence normally to atmosphere through the port
|95.
The resetting valve is so arranged that
when operated it will close the port |95 and place
the pipe-line |93 and the aforesaid compartment
|9û into communication with a source of vac
uum. Thus, the diaphragm |89 will be moved.
The second diaphragm chamber |88 referred to
above is disposed between the permanent magnet
and the armature adjacent the pole-piece |1|.
Attached to the diaphragm |239 is a spindle |96; 25
arranged to project through a hole in the arma
ture and provided with a knob |91 on the outer
end thereof. It will be noted that the chamber
is disposed above that end of the armature which
is drawn downwardly when the brakes are applied
and thus the knob may be employed for drawing
the armature up again when it requires to be
reset. The valve |86 for operating the main con
trol valve is also disposed between the magnet
and the armature on the same side of the axis
of the armature as is the diaphragm chamber
E88 but nearer to said axis. It comprises a valve
member |98 which is loosely mounted on the
armature and which is arranged to co-operate
with a port in the nose-piece |86A which nose
piece is disposed between the magnet and the
armature.
The magnet forms one wall of a cas
ing (not shown) which hermetically encloses the
armature, the valve and the diaphragm cham
ber. One of the walls of the chamber is pro
45
vided with an air-ñlter and/or moisture-absorber
|99.
I claim:
1. A train control system comprising track
magnets at various signal locations, a receiver
on the train having a permanently polarized
member mounted to move between ñxed limits,
a pneumatic brake system having a train-pipe
valve, a governor-type relay-device controlling
said drain pipe valve, a conduit extending from
the receiver to said relay-device, a valve in said
conduit operatively connected to said polarized
member, means in the receiver which tend to
retain the polarized member at either of said
limits, each of which track magnets is so dis
posed in relation to the polarized member that
when the magnets are traversed in the direction
to which the signal applies, movement of the
polarized member will take place only in one di
rection during said traverse to apply the brakes, 65
means associated with the signal system on the
track for at times countering the effect of the
track magnets on the receiver and means under
the control of the driver for resetting the polar
ized member to a position to release the brakes.
2. A train control system comprising track
magnets at various signal locations, a receiver
on the train having a permanently polarized
member mounted to move between iixed limits
and located near the track, a pneumatic brake
2,136,489
system having >a train-pipe valve operated by
a governor-type relay-device, a second gover
nor-type relay-device, a conduit operatively con
necting together the two relay devices, a valve
operatively connected to the polarized member,
a conduit connecting said valve to said second
governor-type relay-device, means in the re
ceiver which tend to retain the polarized member
at either of said limits, each of which track
10 .magnets is so disposed in relation to the polarized
member that when the magnets are traversed
in the direction to which the signal applies, move
ment of the member will take place only in one
direction during said traverse to apply the brakes,
15 means associated with the signal system on the
» 9
to lsaid relay-device, a nat-faced valve member
carried loosely by an arm attached to the polar
ized member, a valve seat having two ports there
in, one o-f which is controlled by the valve mem
ber, a conduit extending from‘the other port of
said valve‘seat to the relay-device, means in the
receiver which tend to retain the polarized mem
ber at either of said limits', each of which track
magnets is so disposed in relation to the polarized
member that when the magnets are traversed in 10
the direction to which the signal applies, move
ment of the member will take place only in one
direction during said traverse to apply the brakes,
means associated with the signal system on the
track for at times countering the eiiect of the
track for at times countering the effect of the
track magnets on the receiver and means under
the control of the driver for resetting the polar
ized member to! a position to release the brakes.
20
3. A train control system comprising track
magnets at various signal locations, a receiver
on the train having a permanently polarized
ized member to a position to release the brakes.
6. A train control system comprising track
magnets at various signal locations, a receiver 20
on the `train- having a permanently polarized
member mounted to move between ñxed limits, a
member mounted to move between iixed limits
and located near the track, a pneumatic brake
25 system having a train-pipe valve operated by a
pneumatic> brake system having a train-pipe
valve, a pneumatic transmission between said
polarized member and said valve, which polar
governor-type relay-device, a second governor
track'magnets on the receiver and means under
the control of the driver ior resetting the polar
25
izedv member is located near the track, means
type relay-device, a conduit operatively connect
in the receiver which tend to retain the polarized
ing together the two relay devices, a valve op
eratively connected to the polarized member, a
conduit connecting said valve to said second gov
member at either of said limits, each of which
track magnets is so disposed in relation to the
polarized mem-ber that when the magnets are 30
traversed in the direction to which the signal ap
ernor-type relay-device, means in the receiver
_which tend to retain the polarized member at
either of said limits, each of which track mag
nets is so disposed in relation to the polarized
35 member that when the magnets are traversed in
the direction to which the signal applies, move
ment of the member will take place only in one
plies, movement of the member will take place
only in one direction during `said traverse to
apply the brakes, means associated with the sig
nal system on the track for at times countering
the effect of the track magnets on the receiver
and a resetting member pneumatically connect
direction during said traverse to apply the brakes»,
ed with said polarized member and the valve
means associated with the signal system on the
controlled thereby.
40 track for at times countering the effect of the
track magnets on the receiver, means under the
control of the driver for resetting the polarized
member to a position to release the brakes and
a pneumatic horn associated with one of said
45 relay-devices.
4. A train control system comprising a num
ber of visual signals, two track magnets located
one after the other along the track near any
visual signal location, means associated with the
50 visual signal for rendering the magnet in each
pair last to be traversed to be operative when
the signal is at “clear”, a receiver on the train
having a permanently polarized member mount
ed to move between fixed limits, a pneumatic
brake system having a train-pipe valve, a gov
orner-type relay-device operatively connected to
said train-pipe yvalve through a delay-action de
vice, a valve operatively connected to said polar
ized member, a pneumatic horn controlled by
60 said governor-type relay-device, which track
magnets and polarized member are so arranged
.that one track magnet eiîects movement of the
polarized member in one direction and the other
65 track magnet effects movement in the opposite
direction, whereby the train-pipe valve opens a
predetermined time after the actuation of said
pneumatic horn.
5. A train control system comprising track
70 magnets at various signal locations, a receiver
on the train having a permanently polarized
member mounted to move between fixed limits,
a pneumatic brake system having a train-pipe
valve, a governor-type relay-device controlling
75 4said valve, a conduit extending from the receiver
7. A. train. control system comprising track
magnets at various signal locations, a receiver
on the train having a permanently polarized
member mounted to move between ñxed limits,
a pneumatic brake system having a train-pipe
valve, a> governor-type relay-device controlling
said valve, a conduit extending from the receiver
to said relay-device, a flat-faced valve member
carried loosely by an arm attached to the polar
ized member, a valve seat having two ports there
in, one of which is controlled by the aforesaid 50
nat-faced valve member, a resetting diaphragm
arranged to move both the polarized member and
the fiat-faced valve member, a' second receiver
valve-member~arranged to open the other port
during the resetting of the polarized member and
to close the port when the diaphragm returns to
its initial position, a conduit extending from said
ports to the relay-device, means in the receiver
which tend to retain the polarized member at
either of said limits, eachof which track magnets 60
is so disposed in relation to the polarized mem
ber that when the magnets are traversed in the
direction to which the signal applies, movement
of the member will take place only in one direc
tion during said traverse to apply the brakes,
means associated with the signal system on the
track for at times vcountering the effect of the
track magnets on the receiver and means under
the control of the driver for causingy the resetting
diaphragm` to move the polarized member to a 70
position to release the brakes.
8. A train control system comprising two track
magnets, on-e arranged after the other at each
signal location, a receiver on the train having a
permanently> polarized member mounted to move 75
10
2,136,439
between ñxed limits, a pneumatic brake system
having a train-pipe valve, a governor-type relay
device controlling said valve, a conduit extending
from the receiver to said relay-device, a valve
operatively connected to said polarized member,
which pair of track magnets are so disposed in
relation to the polarized member that one of
them moves the polarized member in one direc
tion and the other in the opposite direction,
means associated with the last track magnet to
be traversed in each pair to render that magnet
operative only when the track is clear, resetting
means under direct control of the driver for re
setting the polarized member from a “brakes-on”
position to a “brakes-off” position, an indicator
operatively connected to the governor-type relay
device and with the resetting means so as to
indicate either a single movement of the relay
device when one track magnet is operative, or
a double movement when both track magnets are
operative, or to indicate the actuation of the
cuit and closes the second, whereby a different
visual indication is given according to whether
one track magnet is operative or two track mag
nets are operative, or according to whether the
resetting means have been operated.
l1. A train control system comprising two track
magnets disposed apart along the track at each
signal location, a magnetic receiver on the train,
a movable permanently polarized member in the
receiver adapted to control the brake gear and
so disposed as to come into the magnetic fields
of the track magnets, mea-ns associated with the
signalling system on the track for rendering the
second track magnet operative only when the
track is clear, which track magnets and polarized 15
member are arranged with their poles along the
length of the track and so that the two poles of
each track magnet are traversed successively by
said polarized member and when so traversed in
the direction to which the signal applies, the 20
approach of the leading pole of the ñrst magnet
resetting device.
tends to keep said polarized member at one limit
9. A train control system comprising two track
magnets arranged one after the other at each
of its movement, while the trailing pole effects
movement of the polarized member to apply the
brakes and the approach of the leading pole of
the second magnet tends to maintain the polar
ized member in the latter position, while the
trailing pole returns the polarized member to its
initial position to release the brakes when the
track is clear.
12. A train control system comprising two
track magnets disposed apart along the track
at each signal location, a magnetic receiver on
the train, a permanent magnet mounted in
said receiver to pivot about a horizontal axis
arranged transversely in relation to the track,
which permanent magnet is adapted to control
the brake gear, two fixed collecting-plates in said
receiver, one arranged above and the other below
vthe pivoted permanent magnet and both arranged
to extend along the length thereof from one pole
to the other, the former of which collecting-plates
25 signal location, a receiver on the train compris
ing a movable member adapted to control brake
gear, which movable member and track mag
nets are so arranged that said movable member
may be moved in one direction by one of said
30 track magnets and in the opposite direction by
the other magnet, a resetting device for moving
the movable member of the receiver from a
“brakes-on” position to a “brakes-off” position,
means for rendering the last magnet of each pair
to be traversed operative only when the track is
clear, an electric indicator having three electric
circuits each containing an electrically-operated
visual indicator, a two-way switch controlling
two of the circuits, which switch is operated by
40 the movable member of the receiver, and the
third of which circuits is controlled by a switch
operated by the resetting mechanism, whereby a
different visual indication is given according to
whether one track magnet is operative or two
45 track magnets are operative, or according to
whether the resetting means have been operated.
10. A train control system comprising two
track magnets arranged one after the other at
each signal location, a receiver on the train com
50 prising a movable member adapted to control
brake gear, which movable member and track
magnets are so arranged that said movable mem
ber may be moved in one direction by one of said
track magnets and in the opposite direction by
the other magnet, a resetting device for moving
the movable member of the receiver from a
“brakes-on” position to a “brakes-01T” position,
means for rendering the last magnet of each pair
to be traversed operative only when the track
60 is clear, an electric indicator having three electric
circuits each containing an electrically-operated
visual indicator, a two-Way switch controlling
two of the circuits, which switch is operated by
the movable member of the receiver, and the
,- third of which circuits is controlled by a switch
operated by the resetting mechanism, an
electro-magnetic switch arranged in circuit both
with the two-way switch and with the resetting
switch in such manner that the operation of the
70 resetting switch to return the movable member
to the “brakes-off” position causes the electro
magnetic switch to close the third circuit and to
break the first two circuits and so that a subse
quent movement of the movable member to a
75 position to apply the brakes opens the third cir
25
30
35
40
is longer than the latter, and means associated
with the signalling system on the track for
rendering the second track magnet operative 45
only when the track is clear.
1B. A train control system comprising twoi
track magnets disposed apart along the track
at each signal location, a magnetic receiver on
the train, a permanent magnet mounted in the
receiver to pivot about a horizontal axis ar
ranged transversely in relation to the track, two
ñxed collecting-plates in said receiver, one ar
ranged above and the other below said receiver
permanent magnet so as` to extend along the
magnet from one pole to the other thereof and
each provided with two projections so disposed
apart as to lie opposite the poles of the permanent
magnet, the upper of which collecting-plates is
longer than the lower, and means associated 60
with the signalling system on the track for ren
dering the second track magnet operative only
when the track is clear.
14. A train control system comprising two
track magnets disposed apart along the track
at each signal location, a non-magnetic steel
casing, open at the top and closed at the bottom,
on the train, a single permanent magnet mounted
in said casing to pivot about a horizontal axis
arranged transversely in relation to the track, 70
two iixed collecting-plates, one arranged above
and the other below said receiver magnet, the
latter of which collecting-plates is disposed With
in the casing near the bottom thereof and the
former of which collecting-plates is adapted to 75
2,136,439
close the opening at the topi of the casing and to
extend beyond either side thereof and means
associated with the signalling system on the track
for rendering the second track magnet operative
only when the track is clear.
15. A train control system comprising av visual
distant signal and a visual home signal, two
track magnets disposed one after the other along
the track near each distant signal, two pairs
10 of track magnets near each home signal, the
magnets in each of the two latter pairs being ar
ranged in close proximity and two pairs being
separated -along the length of the track, a mag
netic receiver on the train, a movable permanent
15 ly polarized member in the receiver‘adapted to
control the brake gear and so disposed as to
come into the magnetic fields of the two pairs
of track magnets and to be moved in a single
movement in one direction by an operative pole
20 of the ñrst magnet of each pair to be traversed
and in the opposite direction by an operative pole
of the second magnet of each pair to be traversed,
means associated with the signalling system on
the track for rendering the second track magnet
25 of each pair operative only when the track is
clear, which receiver and track magnets are
arranged so that during traverse said operative
pole of each track magnet overlaps a part of the
receiver and so that at least one of the over
30 lapping parts extends without interruption across
the centre line of the track.
16. A train control system comprising both a
visual home signal and a visual distant signal
at any location on the track, two pairs of track
magnets disposed apart along the length of the
track near any such location so that the last
pair to be traversed is in close proximity to
the visual signal, which pair of magnets adja
cent the visual signal location are in close prox
imity, whereas the other pair of magnets are
disposed apart, a magnetic receiver on the train,
a movable permanently polarized member in the
receiver adapted to control the brake gear and
so disposed as to come into the magnetic fields
45 of the two pairs of track magnets and to be
moved in a single movement in one direction
by an operative pole of the first magnet of each
pair to be traversed and in the opposite direc
tion by an operative pole of the second magnet
50 of each pair to be traversed, means associated
with the signalling system on the track for ren
dering the second track magnet of each pair
operative only when the track is clear, which
receiver and track magnets are arranged so that
during traverse said operative- pole of each track
magnet overlaps a part of the receiver and so
that at least one of the overlapping parts ex
tends without interruption across the centre line
>oi’ the track.
17. A train control system comprising two
60
track magnets disposed apart along the track
at each signal location, a magnetic receiver on
the train, a permanent magnet pivotally mount
ed in the receiver adapted to control the brake
65 gear, a fixed collecting-plate in the receiver ar
ranged to extend along the pivoted permanent
magnet from one pole to the other thereof, and
11
which is arranged to direct the magnetic ñeld
of the track magnets through said pivoted mag
net so that it is moved in a single movement
in one direction by an operative pole of the
first magnet to be traversed and in the opposite 5
direction by an operative pole of the other mag
net, means associated with the signalling system
on the track for rendering the second track
magnet operative ‘only when the track is clear,
a pneumatic brake system having a train pipe 10
valve, an electric transmission between said piv
oted permanent magnet and said valve, which
transmission comprises an electro-magnet hav
ing a moving part connected to the valve, a sec
ond electro-magnet yformed on said collecting
plate and arranged to influence said pivoted per
manent magnet, a reset switch in circuit with
a source of electric power and said second elec
tro-magnet, whereby the pivoted permanent
magnet may be reset after being moved by a 20
track magnet.
18. A train control system comprising a num
ber of visual signals, two track magnets located
one after the other along the track near any
visual signal location, a receiver on the train 25
having a movable member adapted to be in
iiuenced by the track magnets and adapted to
control brake gear, one of which track magnets
is arranged to move said receiver member in
one direction while the other track magnet is 30
adapted to move the member in the opposite
direction, means associated with the magnet last
to be traversed by the receiver which render the
magnet operative only when the signal is at
“clear”, whereby, when the signal is at “clear”, 35
the two track magnets at each signal location
are adapted between them to give the movable
member of the receiver a double movement and,
when the track is at “danger”, the movable mem
ber is given a single movement by the first track 40
magnet, a resetting device under the control of
the driver for giving a return movement to the`
movable member after said single movement, an
indicator operatively connected to the movable
member of the receiver and to the resetting 45
mechanism, which indicator is adapted to indi
cate which of the aforesaid three movements
Was last eiïected.
' 19. A train control system comprising two
track magnets at each signal location disposed
apart along the track, each with its pole along 50
the track, means associated with the signalling
system on the track for rendering the second
trackl magnet to be traversed operative only
when the track is clear, a single pivoted per 55
manent magnet on the train, two iixed collect
ing-plates arranged one above the other on op
posite sides of the pivoted permanent magnet
and each arranged to extend across both poles
of the pivoted magnet, which collecting-plates 60
and track magnets are disposed centrally along
the track and the upper of which collecting
plates is longer than the lower in the direction
of the length of the track for the purpose de
scribed.
ALFRED ERNEST HUDD.
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