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Патент USA US2136473

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Nov. 15, 1938.
2,136,473
E. c. sLoAN ET A1.
HAT
Filed Feb. 4, 19:55
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Nov. 15, 1938.
E. c. sLoAN ET A1.
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2,136,473
HAT
Filed Feb. 4, i935
s sheets-sheet a
50
Nov. 15, 1938.
E. c. sLoAN ET Al.
2,136,473
HAT
Filed Feb. 4, 1955
9
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
Nov. 15, 1938.
AE. c. SLOAN ET A1.
. 2,136,473
HAT
Filed Feb. 4, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
Nov. 15, 1938.
E. C. SLOAN ET Al.
2,136,473
HAT
Filed Feb. 4, .1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
ntented Noa 15„ 1938
,136,473
Edward 6C'. Sloan, Geneva, and Gustave d. Sperre,
at. «Chai-les, lill., assignors to .liesse B. Hawley,
Geneva, lill.
application February él, 11935, Seriali No. 4,@62
il' Claims.
The present invention relates to hats and more
particularly to hats made of ñbrous material.
Among the objects of the invention are to pro
vide a novel hat composed of fibrous material and
having a covering of suitable material and also
a novel method of producing such hat. The in
vention comprehends the making of a hat which
will be light in weight, which will have excellent
heat transfer insulating properties, which will
not absorb and hold ?luids and thus will be huid
proot’, which is impervious to fluids, which may
be easily cleaned with the usual cleaning agents
without any injurious eñect on the hat, which 1s
(Cl. M3)
shape it initially’received when molded or ac
creted etc. Should anything tend to change lts
shape, it will restore itself to its original shape
or state, thus making for permanency of form
and condition.
Another advantage of making the hat by ac
creting ñbrous material upon a contoured porous
former is that any desired shape, contour and
design feature may be obtained which would be
impossible `to effect by the deformation of a
sheet of material, the final desired form being
produced by the present invention initially when
the libres are accreted, interlaced and integrated.
invention comprehends more particularly
and decorated as desired, which has coverings of _ theOur
making of hats of the character described
lid
any desired material, which will maintain its
shape, which will have the appearance of hats above with a covering, preferably of cloth, on
made olf-cloth or the like, which may be produced either the outer ‘or inner surface _of the hat or
quickly with simple operations at small expense both, said coveringbeing preferably obtained by
molding a sheet of cloth by means of dies of the
20 and cost and on a large scale or in a large ca-pacity of production without the necessity of same contour as that of the hat body- blank, and
making hats of different 'sizes to fit different sizes maintaining said sheet under constant yieldable
of heads thus eliminating the need for different stretching tension in all directions throughout
the molding stage, and until said sheet is caused
' equipment, machinery and apparatus for diifer
ent sizes of hats, which will be accurately and to conform to the shape of the mold. The cover
still, tough and durable, which may be colored
.Ul
uniformly made, which in the manufacturing
thereof may be easily- and quickly made in any
desired shape or form, which mayv be compressed
or compacted as desired, which will have sharp,
Well defined and . distinct features, ornate or
otherwise, which will have any surface finish de
sired and any color or combination of colors as
desired, and which will have an attractive ap~
pearance.
35
ing thus formed. is continuous in all directions,
that is, the strands are uncut trom edge to edge,
and the covering conforms in size and shape with
the body and is free of tension and stresses in all
directions. lin the case of a cloth covering only
on the outer surface of the' hat, the latter pref
erably has an inner coating of any desired suit
able substance with or without an inner liner ot
cloth or the like.
,
rlf'he invention also comprehends the producing
ci a novel hat composed of fibrous material in
itially deposited, accreted, interlaced and integrated so as tol form a seamless integral stiff hat
in the final desired shape, form or contour and
In the case of covering both
the outer and inner surfaces, the hat body or
carcass is completely encased or enveloped in the
cloth or like covering.
'I'he body or carcass of the hat of the present
invention is preferably produced by the method
character, free of internal stresses tending to and means disclosed in the co-pendíng applica
change its form, shape or contour as initially tion of Jesse B. Hawley, identified as Serial No.
produced, 4thus avoiding warping, distortions and g 4,866, filed February 4, 1935, and as disclosed
the like. The hat of the present invention is
made or composed initially in its final and intend
45 ed form of ñbrous material deposited, accreted,
interlaced, molded` and integrated preferably
upon a contoured porous former so that the
member so produced is seamless, of the desired
thickness and compactness or density, light in
5l)` Weight, stiff, tough and durable, and without
`deforming stresses and strains.
There is no
tendency for it to change to any other shape or
contour or even become distorted to any degree,
because it is not deformed from any other shape
or contour, and hence it remains normally of the
therein.
,
Other objects, advantages, capabilities, fea
tures, process steps and the like are compre
hended by the invention as will later appear and
as are inherently possessed by the invention.
Referring to the drawings;
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through a
means for forming `the hat of fibrous material;_
Fig. 2 is a similar fragmentary view of a form
of drying die that may be used;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 of the male
drying die with a female drying die;
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view of a heat
(l
2,186,478
2
transfer die means which may be used in lieu
of the dies shown in Figs. 2 and 3;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary top plan view of a
part of the die means shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a horizontal sectional view taken in
beating of the material in the beater engine,
water proofing wax or wax emulsion may be
added to the mixture, as in the proportion of
about 0.25 to 8 percent of the weight of the dry
material first placed in the beater. The beating
planes represented by line 6-6 in Fig. 4 of the
drawings;
and stirring may be continued for a suilicient
period of time, such as from 10 to 15 minutes
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view
of a hat blank made in accordance with the in
oughly dispersed and mixed or incorporated with
10 vention;
Fig. 8 is a similar view showing a hat blank
having coatings or coverings.
Fig. 9 is a similar view of a male die composed
until the wax or wax emulsion has been thor
the fibres, after which powdered alum or a solu 10
tion of alum may be added in a quantity suf
iiclent to set the wax on or in the nbres. 'I‘his
wax or wax emulsion has the property of soften
ing, and water and moisture proofing the fibres,
as also smoothing the surfaces of the fibres. The
the like;
`
Fig. 10 is a plan view of `a holderfor the cloth , beating and stirring may continue until the set
ting has been effected, and then the material
covering to be applied to the- hat blank;
Fig. 11 is a vertical sectional view of a male termed “stock" may be stored in a suitable tank
of yieldable material, such as rubber, gelatin or
die of yieldable material and showing a stretched
20 sheet of cloth on it before the application of the
female forming die;
‘
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary similar view showing
or vat for use when molding or accreting on the
20
porous former or die.
As other examples, in lieu of wax or wax emul
sion, paper maker’s rosin in an amount of about
1 to 5 percent of the weight of the dry mate
rial flrst placed in the beater may be used, or
latex, or powdered or emulsiiied asphalt, and the 25
like may be used, each of which may also be set
with .alum as above described in connection with
Fig. 14 is a fragmentary sectional view -taken wax. 'I'he rosin has the property of stiffening,
through the edge or rim portion of the hat blank and water and moisture proofing the fibres. The
30
30 and its coatings and coverihgs prior to forming latex toughens and renders the fibres resilient or
lresistant to deformation and the like. The
a bead;
Fig. 15 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view asphalt is used to give the fibres water and .
of part of a bead forming die means With a hat moisture proofing characteristics as also for stif
blank and its coverings in place before forming fening the fibres.
As further examples, proofing may likewise, 35
35 the bead ;
Fig. 16 is a similar view showing the formed by a like or similar process, be effected with
starch, glue, casein, or silicate of soda, and the
bead;
Fig. 17 is a fragmentary sectional view of a hat like, in which case setting with alum is not neces
having an inner coating or covering of desired sary as in the cases referred to above. The
starch stiiîens and smooths the ñbres. The glue,
v4:0 material as powdered cork or the like;
casein and the silicate of soda stiffens the fibres.
Fig. 18 is a similar view of a male die of yield
'I'he glue is particularly useful in connection with
able- material and a. cloth liner for the brim por
tion of the hat before application of the liner to wax to counteract the softening effect the wax
the application of the hot female die;
Figs. 13 and 13*l are similar views but showing
25 another male die of yieldable material and a
hot female die for treatment of the hat blank
with its coverings;
the hat blank; »
45
Fig. 19 is a. similar view showing the applica
tion of the liner and the use of a hot female die;
Fig. 20 is a similar view of the edge of the brim
before beading;
Fig. 21 is a similar view showing the bead and
the bead forming means, as in Fig. 16;
Fig. 22 is .a view in elevation of a completed
hat constructed in accordance with the inven
Fig. 23 is a bottom plane view of the same; and,
55
Fig. 24 is a fragmentary sectional view on an
enlarged scale showing a means of connecting
the sweat band to the hat.
Referring more in detail to the drawings, the
hat is produced from fibrous material, such as
60 pulp `or the like, and may include any other
fibrous material such as wool,'cotton, linen, silk,
jute, hemp, asbestos, kapok, and similar fibrous
material, the term pulp being herein used gen
erically to include any, or any combination, of
65 the various fibres that may be used.
For the
purpose of carrying out the invention, the fibrous
material is placed with water in a beater or
beater engine to beat the fibres and to disinte
grate and disperse the water, and also to shorten
and hydrate the fibres to the desired point or
extent.
The mixture of batch as it is usually called is
then treated with suitable substances to “proof”
the fibres. This may be effected in any of several
75 ways. As for example, while continuing the
has on the fibres.
The fibrous material preferably used is that of 45
pulp or pulp mixed with other fibres as desired.
The pulp or pulp component may be of kraft
fibres such as southern kraft fibres, sulphite pulp,
or rope pulp, wherein the material is Stiff and
will produce a comparatively stiiiî- hat. When 50
using softer fibres such as soda pulp, the material
is softer and produces a less stiff hat. The
sulphite pulp reduces the shrinkage of the kraft
pulp and adds strength when used with the soda
pulp, and hence it is preferable to use sulphite 55
pulp especially the Mitscherlich pulp, with either
the kraft or soda pulp. The unbleached fibres
are vstronger than the bleached fibres, while the
Mitscherlich sulphite pulp is stronger than the
common type of pulp fibres. Preferably the
kraft and sulphite pulp, both the common and
the Mitscherlich type, are used. By mixing the
stiffer with the softer materials with or without
the other fibrous material mentioned above, any
desired degree of stiffness or softness may be had.
'I'he means selected to illustrate the invention
comprises a molding or forming die in the form.
of a contouredplate l provided with a plurality
of openings or apertures 2, the lower rim 3 of
the plate being seated upon a table or platen 70
l having an apertured hub 5 in which is secured
the upper end of a duct 6 leading to a suitable
source of suction or pressure (not shown). The
platen 4 is adapted by suitable means (not
shown) to be lowered into and raised out of the
casema
bath l in a vat or tank B. The plate l and the
platen d `enclose a chamber 9 in which is normally
created a suction for the drawing of the water
of the bath through the holes t. The bath l
consists of water and fibrous material the hbres
of which are maintained in dispersed suspension
Áin the water by suitable agitation of the bath
by any desired means (not shownl'.
‘The upper and outer surface of the plate l is
lil shaped or contoured to conform with the shape
or form of hat to be molded thereon. Upon this
contoured surface is a reticulated sheet or screen
lll of. ñne mesh and conforming in shape or
contour to the surface contour of the plate l.
in operation, with the device in the position
shown in Fig. l, a suction is created inthe cham
ber t, and the platen t with the plate l and
' screen it are lowered and submerged in the bath
"l, The suction draws the water through the
interstices of the screen it and the holes 2 to be
delivered to the duct t, causing a deposit, accre
tion, interlacing and integration of the fibres in
theform of a contoured layer or stratum il on
the screen it, the thickness and compactness or
25 density of this stratum depending upon the time
of immersion, the magnitude of the suction, the
nature of the fibres, and the percentage of libres
in the bath. in some cases setting up a vibra~
tion in the mold will also have some effect, par
ticularly in the interlacing of the ñbres.
When the desired layer or stratum is accreted,
interlaced and integrated, the platen il and the
mold die lmlll with the hbrous material thereon
are raised out of the bath. The suction during
emersion is continued to prevent the washing
away of some of the fibrous material, and also,
after emersion, to draw air through the fibrous
blank or stratum for removing surplus water,
that is, as a preliminary ~drying of the same.
lif desired warm or heated air or the like may
be thus drawn through the blank to dry the
blank but it is preferable to dry the blank `in a
manner hereinafter disclosed.
'
.
’li‘o assist in expelling the Surplus water in the
blank, a female die li shown in dotted lines in
Fig. l may be applied to the blank with pressure
to squeeze out some of the water as also to partly
compress or compact the blank, the suction in
portion of the wall 23 has a rim ft which seats
upon a table or platen 2t having an apertured hub
2l in which is connected a pipe or duct 28 lead
ing to a suitable source of suction or pressure (not
shown). The wall it and platen it thus enclose d
a chamber ill. The die if and blank l l are moved
down so as to set the blank ll on the contoured
wall ft as shown in Fig. 2, the die il applying
the necessary pressure to compress and compact
the fibrous material oi' the blank l l, and the lili
vacuum therein being changed to a pressure so
as to relieve the blank from the die ll -and to
cause it to adhere to the die il, after which the
die' l2 is removed. The heat of the die wall fd
converts the moisture or Water remaining in the
blank to steam, vapor and the like, which are
drawn through the apertures fd by reason of the
vacuum in chamber
and are discharged
through the duct 2t. If desired heated or hot
air, gas, or other medium may be drawn through
the blank and the holes fil to effect a drying of
the blank, but it is preferable to apply a hot
female die it comprising an imperforate con
toured wall or plate tl the lower edge portion of
which has a nange :if upon which the lower edge
portion it of the housing or casing .iid seats. The
casing tt may be octagonal in shape and‘com
prises end Walls
and tt (see Fig. 6), side walls
3l and iid, angle walls llt, llt, dl and ¿lll provided
with openings llt, lill, dit and «it for-»the projection
of llames from burners lll, llt, lill and bd into the
chamber bl, and a top wall tf. Besides applying
heat the wall di also applies pressure to compress
and compact the fibrous material of the blank ll
as also to give the blank the desired ñnished deh
nition of contour. The steam, vapor, moisture,
and the like are drawn through the holes ft and
20
25
itil
Eli»
discharged through the duct
If desired, and preferably, the drying and corn
pressing may be effected on the heat transfer die
shown in Figs. d, 5 and 6 wherein is shown a male
die comprising a Wall or plate bt having at its
lower edge a flange dll seated upon a table or plat
en lib, thus enclosing a chamber bfi for containing
a heat transfer medium. At the top the wall' td 45
has an opening 53E with which communicates a
duct 5l preferably formed integral at its upper end'
to the plate t3 and having its lower open end tt
the chamber t continuing to draw out this water ` located in an aperture provided in the platen bb
il@ and discharge it through the duct t. -
The female die if comprises a contoured wall
or plate it conforming to the shape or contour
of the blank, and'having holes or apertures ill
vfor the passage of air. .llt the base is provided a
base hangs lll upon which seats the lower edge
portion> it of the housing or casing ll' of. the
female die, this casing comprising walls lli' and a
top it, thus enclosing a chamber llt about thewall lil. .dt a suitable low point is connected a
pipe or duct 2| for the discharge of any water
that may be drawn through the apertures it
under the influence of the vacuum created in the
chamber ft at the time when the wet blank l l
is compressed between the die walls l and i3.
The die lf serves as a transfer means for the
blank ll. After the blank ll has been corn-`
pressed, the vacuum in chamber d is discontinued
and a pressure is edected therein while a suction
(Fig. ll) . The platen 5t is clamped to a platen bd
which has a opening tt in line with the opening
in platen fait in which the duct portion lit is
located, and in which is connected an end of a
duct lil leading to a suitable source of suction (not
shown). Both platens tb and 5l’ are provided 55
with openings di!A and lit for projection there
through of flames from burners lill into the charn
ber bt.
In the upper'or outer contoured surface of the
wall 5t are provided a plurality of channels or 60
grooves 65, tt and tl! extending more or less
radially and of which channels t5 lead to and
communicate with the opening 5311, there being
also cross channels t8, (it, ‘lll and 'il more or less
circular or oval shaped for establishing communi 65
cations between and among the channels lib, tt
and bl whereby steam, vapors etc. may be led to
the opening 53a and duct 5l.
.
is created in chamber ft of the female die. The
'ill die lf ,is then lifted and the blank il will be
lifted with it, the blank adhering to the wall ld
of the die l2. The die l2 with the blank l l cling
lng toit are then brought over a hot male die 22
Upon the wall 53 is located a contoured die wall
‘l2 having a plurality of holes or apertures it, 70
and being provided at its lower edge portion with
- having a contoured wall or plate 23 provided with
form with the top knot feature in the hat blank
to be later more fully described.
76
a plurality of holes or apertures 24.
The lower
a ñange 74 seated upon the flange 5t of the wall l
53. At the top the wall 'l2 has a boss "lb to con
4
2,186,478
wall 12 is covered by a thin fine mesh reticulated
the blank particularly for effecting insulation
against heat transfer, although incidentally the
The upper and outer contoured\surface cf the
member or screen 16 having the same contour as
coating will also add to the water and moisture
the wall 12, and having a base flange 11 seated
gäoioñng property or characteristic of the hat
upon the flange 14 of the wall 12 and an upper
y.
After the blank, as shown in Fig. 7, has been
dried and set, its rim portion IIn is preferably
dipped in shellac or the like so as to facilitate
boss 18 conforming to the boss 15.
'I‘he hat blank I I reposes on this screen having
been> transferred from the molding die shown in
F'ig. 1 by the transfer die I2 and placed upon the
screen 16 by changing the vacuum in the cham
ber 20 of the transfer die I2 to a pressure, after
which the transfer die is removed. andthe female
die 30 is brought in place to compress the blankA
Ii.
The wall 3| of the female die 30 is contoured to
15
the desired shape to be given to the hat blank,
and has its base flange 32 above or over the
flange 11 of the screen 16 and has at the top a
boss 18. It will be noted that the die. walls 12
20 and 3| as also the screen 16 have contoured de
sign features, such as bosses 15, 18 and 18 to form
a boss 80 in the blank II in representation of a
top knot on the hat (Figs. 7, 8, 17 and 19), also
ribs running radially over the crown part to form
ribs 8l in the hat blank in representation of seams
or the like on the hat crown (Figs. 7, 8, 17 and
19), and also ridges 82, 83 and 84 to form ridges
85 in the hat blank in representation of folds or
pleats 85 on the hat (Figs. 7, 8, 17 and 19).
While the female die compresses the blank Il,
hot productsof combustion are projected through
the burner holes into the chambers 56 and 5I
so as to heat the walls 53 and 3| and to supply
heat to the wall 12 and to the blank Il. A suc
tion is effective in the duct 51 whereby the
steam, vapors, and moisture formed in the ma
terial of the blank will be drawn out by way of
the reticulations of the screen 16, the holes 13
in the wall 12, the channels 65--1I in the surface
of the Wall 53, and thence to the opening 53“L and
through the ducts 51 and 6I. The blank is thus
dried and set with the desired finish definition as
impressed by the particular surface contour of
the die walls and the screen 16. The female die
45 28 may then be removed and the blank taken off
the later forming of this rim portion into a bead
later described herein.
10
After the sheilac has dried, it is preferable to
coat, as by brushing, the outer surface of the
blank with a “size” so as to form the coating
or skin referred to above. If desired, particu
larly in the case of where the inside of the hat
is to have no cloth covering or to have only a
cloth liner on the inside of the brim, a like coat
ing may be applied on the inside surface of the
hat. In the case of where both the inside and
outside surfaces of the hat are to be wholly cloth 20
covered, it is preferable to omit the inner coating
of the size. For the purpose of illustration the
coatings are designated by the reference char
acters 86 and 81 in Fig. 8 of the drawings.
The “size” preferably used is that known as 25
nitrocellulose cotton which is dissolved in lacquer
solvents, and is preferably pigmented with any
of the various enamel pigments suitable to the
color the hat is to have, or any suitable dye may
be incorporated for the same purpose. If desired 30
any other similar “size” may be used such as
that made from acetate cotton. Even latex or
rubber cement and the like may be used. The
“size” does not penetrate the fibrous mass but
simply forms a sealing coating or skin on the
surface of the blank. The coating or coatings,
as the case may be, also increase the water
proofing properties or characteristics of the hat
material.
_
After the coating or coatings are dry, either 40
the outside or both the outside and the inside
may then .be coated with a coating 88 and/or
88a of a thermoplastic substance preferably of
a resin base, or the like, the thermoplastic being
preferably applied by spraying in liquid form and 45
of the screen 16. If desired a transfer die similar
to that shown in Fig. 1 with a suction in its cham
ber may be used to remove the blank from the
screen 16, after which a pressure in the chamber
of the transfer die will suffice to blow off the
having a volatile solvent. After the volatile sol
vent has evaporated and the thermoplastic sub
stance has dried, a cloth covering is applied and
a hot female die with the proper contoured wall
blank.
The hat blank or carcass shown in Fig. 7 is
site pressure. The heat of the female die causes
the thermoplastic substance to fuse or become
therefore substantially stiff, strong, tough, and
water and moisture proof, thel fibres from which
sufficiently plastic as to become bonded to the
cloth covering as is more fully explained later.
55 it is composed having been treated in the beater
with the “proofing” substances mentioned above.
The stiffness of the blank is particularly of the
kind whereas when a part of the hat is displacedY
or strained, it will either be readily restored to its
00 original form without any injury to the hat, or
restore itself to its original shape when the
straining stress is removed, a characteristic
which is not present in articles accreted in the
usual Way from the usual fibres, the “proofing”
65 substances and the mode of “proofing” giving the
hat, in this invention, the peculiarly new and
beneficial properties and characteristics men
tioned above. The moisture and water proofing
quality is such as to make it unnecessary to coat
70 the hat with a coating or covering of water and
moisture proofing substance, but in the present
invention it is preferable to apply a coating
either on the outside or inside surface or both
which will form a covering or skin to seal oif the
interstitial spaces or cells in the fibrous body of
is pressed against the cloth covering with requi
Then the die is removed, the thermoplastic sub
stance so setting as to bond the cloth to the hat
50
55
thus forminga tough durable covering for the
hat.
.
When applying the.c1oth covering, it is prefer
able to place the coated blank on a die 89 (Fig. 9) 60
of suitable yieldable material, such as rubber,
gelatine and the like, the die being fixed to a
platen 90 having a support 9|.
The thermoplastic substance referred to is in
the class of synthetic resinous compounds known 65
as the vinyl resins of the polymerization group
and more particularly those which are perma
nently thermoplastic, characterized by the bond
group or radical -CH:CHz, and which are in
soluble in most all known solvents, particularly 70
the hydrocarbon solvents, except the solvents of
the ester type or the higher ketones, such as
hexone and butyrone. In other words, the sub
stance used in this invention is chemically inert
to the extent indicated above and hence is im 75
i
5
2,186,473
Y
pervious to and proof against moisture, water, . described method of molding the cover has a very
acids, alkalies, alcohols, oils, greases, fats, and decided and important advantage, which has been
the like. In its normally pure state it is odorless, fully set forth in the copehding application Serial
tasteless, colorless, and transparent. It is also No. 68,458, filed March 12, 1936, which is a divi
non-'inñammable It may be given any color or sion of this application, and further description
made translucent or opaque as desired by the
say at this point, however, that the tendency of
able and resilient.
molding operation, due to unequal strains and
It also has a very strong
10 bonding or adhesive property. i It may be applied
either in liquid or solid form or both. When us
ing this substance in liquid form, acetone pref
erably is used as the solvent but it is to be under
stood other solvents as mentioned above may be
used without affecting the idea of invention
herein disclosed.
The present invention comprehends the appli
cation of a covering of cloth or the like to the
outer surface of the hat blank, or to both the
20 outer and inner surfaces of the hat blank, so as
to produce a hat with a cloth~ or like covering,
or whereby the hat blank or carcass will be en
tirely encased or enveloped in the cloth or like
covering.
‘y
thereof is deemed unnecessary. It is sufficient to
.incorporating or mixing therewith of dyes, pig
ments, fillers, or the-like. 'It is also tough, dur
In either case of applying a cloth covering to
the outer surface of the hat or to both the outer
and inner surfaces, of the hat, each covering of
cloth may ñrst be formed or deformed between
dies to the general shape of the hat blank before
30 applying the covering or coverings, although in
25
the molded cover to 'change its shape after the
stresses upon the different threads of the fabric,
is practically prevented.
~
1
The cloth 92 is then placed ony the hat blank
which is on the male die 89 (see Figs. 9» and 13) .
As stated above the hat blank has on its outer
surface a covering or stratum 81 of thermoplastic
substance. This stratum is of sufficient thickness
as to penetrate the cloth piece 92 when subjected
to heat as described below.
A hot female die, such as die 30b with the con
toured wall 3|b, is forced down over the cloth 92, 20
and the heat of the die causes the thermoplastic
substance to fuse and become sufficiently plastic so
that it penetrates into the cloth 92. 'I‘his die is
like die 30* and is preferably steam heated, with
the exception the wall 3|b has a ñnish surface 25
contour which is not present in die wall 3 la.
In the present invention the thermoplastic sub
stance is preferably applied to the surface of the
coated hat blank by spraying in liquid form,.
although it might be applied with a brush.
As 30
some cases depending on the kind of cloth used, the volatile solvent evaporates the liquid thickens
the covering may be applied directly to the blank ‘ and even becomes tacky. Air drying may be used
withoutv preforming the covering sheet.
Referring to Figs. 10, 11, 12 and 13, a sheet 92
35 of cloth is held in a stretched condition by a
group of resilient connecting elements 93 such as
springs suitably engaged with the cloth as by clips
94 and with a ring 95. The cloth is wetted with
water or other suitable liquid and isA then brought
40 over a male die 96 of yieldable material such as
but if desired the coating may be dried more
quickly in heated air or the like. It is preferable
to air dry first to obtain a removal of the major 35
portion of the volatile solvents, and then force
dry, in heated air. to remove the residual vola
tiles.
-
` As indicated above, the die l3l)b is applied with
pressure. It is heated to the necessary tempera 40
rubber„gelatin or the like, and is stretched taut i ture to fuse and melt the thermoplastic substance
over the die as shown in Fig. 11 by forcing down
the ring 95 (shown in Fig. 10) around the die and
below it. The die has on its contoured surface a
45 stratum 91 of flbrous material such as one of the
so that it will be sufficiently plastic or iiuidal to
flow under the influence of heat and pressure of
the die. The fused thermoplastic substance will
enter or penetrate into the' interstices of the cloth 45
92 to unite therewith. The die is then removed
and the thermoplastic substance will congeal or
uncoated hat blanks, the stratum 91 adhering to
the surface-of the die body 96 with any suitable`
adhesive not affected by water, steam, moisture solidify and set. vThis substance acts as a stif
and heat.
To the outer surface of the stratum 91
50 is engaged a sheet 98 of cloth also made to adhere
to the stratum with a suitable adhesive which is
- not affected by water, steam, moisture and heat,
and which is also pervious so as to permit passage
of steam, vapors, moisture and the like.
With the parts in the position as shown in Fig.
11, the cloth 92 being held in taut stretched condi
tion, a hot female die 30a having a contoured wall
3|“, such as shown in Fig. 12 of the drawings', is
forced down over the assembly so as to change
the shape of the cloth sheet 92 to the contour of
the die surface, that is, to conform to the contour
of the surface of the cloth sheet 98, as clearly
shown in Fig. 12. The threads of the cloth sheet
fener or reinforcer for the body of the hat. It
also acts as a very strong adhesive or bond for
maintaining the parts in the relations assumed 50
when subjected to pressure and heat; also as a `
protecting and preserving means preventing the
access of moisture and other deteriorating media,
etc. to the material of the hat and the cloth cover 55
ing, and also, in some cases, as an adorning or
embellishing means to give the hat an appearance
of elegance and the like. '
The above discloses the applying of an outer
cloth covering for the hat. The same operation 60
is used for applying inner and outer coverings
of cloth. Referring to Fig. 13“, the cloth 9|)a
destined to form the inner covering of the hat
92 are so stressed and strained as to- make the p is placed upon a die 89a of suitable yieldable ma
65 sheet 92 attain the contoured form or shape Iterial such as rubber, gelatine and the like. A
65
shown in Fig. 12. The steam, vapors and mois
rubber band |98 is preferably stretched over the
ture escape through the interstices of the strata
91 and 98 to the lower edge ithereof. After the
cloth sheet 92 is dried, the female die lilla isre
moved and the cloth sheet 92 peeled off of the die
96. The die tilla is similar to that shown in Figs. 3
and 6 with the exception it is preferably heated »
by steam instead of by flames from burners, and
hencehas ducts 33a for conductingsteam into
and from the chamber 5Ia of the die. The above
lower portion of the cloth 9Ua to hold it in place
as shown-in Fig. 13a.
'I'hen the hat blank with
its coatings or coverings of thermoplastic mate- .
rial 88 and 88a, _is placed upon the sheet 90EL of 70
clothv reposing on the die 89a. Then the sheet
92 of cloth which is destined to form the outer
covering of the hat is placed upon the outer sur
face of the hat blank as shown in Fig. 13a.
.Coverings 88 and 98e of 'thermoplastic material
6
2,136,473
having a chamfered part ||'| which serves to
guide the rim IIB over the edge portion of the
hat. The rim has an inner smooth guide surface
I I8 leading into a bead forming or curling groove
are of sufficient thickness as to enter or pene
trate into the cloth coverings to become united
thereto or bonded therewith when the assembly
is subjected to heat and pressure as described
I|9 provided in the plate ||0 adjacent the rim
H6, as clearly shown in Fig. 15 of the drawings.
To thc cover plate H5 are threadedly secured
posts |20 having heads |2| on which is normally
supported a presser plate |22 having a contoured
surface |23 to conform With the inner surface
of the brim of the hat when the die part |04ß
is lowered for the presser plate to press on the
brim of the hat to hold the hat in place when
being acted upon. On the posts are springs |24
which react between the plates ||5 and |22 as
is clear from the drawings.
To form the bead or to curl the rim portion,
after removing the band |03, the upper die com
ponent |04a is lowered, the inner smooth guid
ing surface ||8 of which slides over and along
the outer surface of the rim part of the hat.
At the same time the presser plate |22 contacts
the brim part of the hat at the surface |23 of the
below.
A hot female die, such as die 30b with the con
toured wall 3Ib, is then forced down over the
outer sheet of cloth, and 'the heat and pressure
of the die causes the thermoplastic substance to
10 so fuse or become plastic as to penetrate into
and become united or bonded with the cloth
coverings 90“ and 92. The die is then removed
and the thermoplastic substance sets and solidi
iles. This substance acts as a stiffener or rein
15 forcer for the body of the hat, also as a very
strong adhesive or bond for firmly and rigidly
maintaining the parts in the relations assumed
when subjected to pressure and heat, also as a
protecting and preserving means for preventing
20 the access of moisture and other deteriorating
media.,- etc. to the material of the hat and the
cloth coverings, and also in some cases, as an
C21
10
15
20
adorning or embellishing means to give the hat
an appearance of elegance and the like,
plate, the springs |24 being compressed to apply
After the die has been removed and the ther
the required pressure.
25
25
moplastic substance has set, the inner cloth sheet
As the die part |04 is further lowered the up
00" i's trimmed even with the outer edge of the per edge of the rim of the hat is forced into the
rim Il“, and the outer sheet 92 in either case groove i i9 at the outer side thereof and the edge
of making the hat with an outer cloth covering `portion of the rim is curved or curled inwardly
30 or with outer and inner cloth coverings, is , as it is caused to move along the curved surface 30
trimmed _to leave an overhang S9 (see dotted ‘ of the groove so as to bring the end of the curl
line showing in Fig. 14). A coating or covering l or the edge of the curled part into engagement
of thermoplastic substance |00 besides covering/ with the inner face of the brim as is clearly
i
i
i
f
the inside of the hat also isv applied to the edge l shown in Figure 16 of the drawings. Steam or
35 of the rim and to the inner surfaces of the over
other heat transfer medium is passed through 35
hang 99 and the edge portion of 'the rim of the the chamber ||3 of the die part |045 as the latter
cloth 00* when .the latter is present, in ample ' is held in place to hold the curled part or bead in
amount for bonding the parts when the overhang the form shown in Fig. 16. The heat is trans
is turned or folded in over the edge of the rim.
mitted through the bead body so as to fuse the
The extension 99 is shown in dottedflines in thermoplastic substance whereby it will permeate 40
Fig. 14 before it is turned or folded in and in the coverings of the bead, especially the portion
contacting the brim of the hat. Then cooling
full lines after it is turned or folded in, the ex
tension then having a part |0| bonded to the edge water or other heat exchange medium is passed
of the blank, and an inwardly extending part
|02 bonded to the inner marginal portion of the
hat brim rim or the edge portion of the cloth
90" as the case may be. An expansible band
or hoop |03 may be used to hold the part |02
in place until the thermoplastic substance dries.
'I'he beading die means is shown as comprising
two die parts |04 and |04“~ of which the die part
|04 has a wall |05 contoured to correspond to the
outer surface of the hat, this wall having a part
|06 for supporting the brim part of the hat, and
65 a part |01 for supporting the crown of the hat.
The lower portion of the wall may be open for
the projection of the crown top as shown in Fig.
15. The wall |05 is preferably formed integral
with a supporting’base |08 which may be cylin
drical or oval shaped. The upper outer edge |09
1s designed to be no greater in diameter than the
outer diameter of the hat brim, as is clearly
shown in Figs. 15 and 16.
The die part |04* comprises an annular plate
||0 having upstanding spaced annular walls |||
and ||2 forming therebetween an annular chan
nel I|3 with which communicate pipes or ducts
H4, there being two pipes of this kind, one act
ing as an inlet and the other as an outlet, for
70 delivery and discharge of heat transfer media
or fluids. The upper edges of the walls || | and
through the chamber ||3 to cool the die part
|0411. This causes the thermoplastic substance 45
to set and harden or congeal so as to rigidly and
firmly hold the bead in its curled form and to
firmly bind or unite the edge portion of the bead
to the adjacent portion of the hat brim. The die
part |04n is then raised and the hat removed from 50
the die part |04. Whether or not the edge por
tion of the bead be bonded to the adjacent por
tion of the hat brim, the solidified thermoplastic
nevertheless rigidly holds the bead to its curved
shape.
55
In the case of a hat not having any inner cloth
covering, it is preferable to apply colored thermo
plastic substances to the inside of the hat, and
hence the inner coating or covering of the ther
moplastic material |00 (see Fig. 17) may be of 60
any desired color. As for example the portion of
this covering which covers the brim part of the
hat may be of a color such as green and the
portion which covers the inside of the crown
maybe white or any other desired color. In 65
.some cases it 'may be desired to coat the .coated
part in the crown with some substance like pow
dered cork. In Fig. 17 is shown a coating of pow
dered cork |25. 'I'his may be applied by brushing
the inside of the crown with a clear “size” and 70
then sifting fine powdered cork on this wet coat
After drying with the adhering cork the
| I2 seat against a cover plate ||5 suitably se- A ing.
cured to the walls ||| and ||2 in fluid tight con
tact.
Depending from theplate |I0 is a rim H6
76
lacquer coating may be sprayed thereover. In
this way the insulating qualities of the hat may
be increased or enhanced. After this treatment 75
7
2,136,473
the edge may be trimmed or be curled as pre
viously described.-
`
In some cases, it may be desired to place a liner
on the inside of the brim of the hat. In _such
case, (Fig. 18) a linerA of cloth |26, which may or
may not have been previously treated on its outer
surface with a thermoplastic substance, is placed
, upon the brim portion of a male die |21 of suit
able yielding material such as rubber, gelatine
10 and the like. If desired, a coating of thermoplas
fic substance may be applied to the surface of
the liner at this time, or preferably, a coating of
thermoplastic substance is sprayed on the inner
surface of the hat brim. The hat blank is then
15 placed upon this die and upon the liner so as to
attain the relationship shown in Fig. 19. Then
the hot female die 30h may be brought into place
to apply heat and pressure so as to cause the liner
|26 to adhere to the brim portion of the blank
20 and also to cause a fusion or melting of the
thermo-plastic substance whereby the liner |26
will be bonded to the brim portion of the blank.
The die is then removed and as the thermoplastic
substance solidiñes and sets, the liner‘ is firmly
25 held bonded to the brim of the hat. The edge
portion of the blank is then treated in the curling
die so as to form a bead as shown in Fig. 21. In
this case, the edge portion |28 of the liner is
trimmed even with the edge of the blank and the
30 overhanging portion or extension 99 ofthe outer
cloth covering (see dotted line portions thereof
in Fig. 20) is turned in or folded inwardly into'
the position shown in Fig. 2`0 and held in posi#
tion by the ring or hoop |03 as in Fig. 14. The
curling of the edge is performed in the'same way
as described in connection with Figs. 14, 15 and
16 so as to provide the bead shown in Fig. 21.
The hat as 4formed in laccordance with the
present invention and following the illustrative
,40 ambodiment selected to illustrate the invention,
comprises a crown |30, a brim |3| having an
edge bead |21. At the top of the crown is formed
a boss 80 to represent a top knot, ridges 8| to
represent seams or the like, andv ridges 85 to
represent folds. or pleats or the like.
At the juncture |32 between the crown and the
brim and inside of the hat are located connecting
means |33 which, in the particular embodiment
to
selected to illustrate the invention, are shown in
the form of resilient strips which may be metal
or the like. Each strip is provided at its lower
end with an opening for receiving the shank of
a lug or male part |34 of a glove snap type of
securing or fastening means, the shank being
55 provided with suitable flanges |35 and |36 at
both sides of the lower end of the member |33.
A socket or female part |31 of the glove snap
type of fastening means extends through a hole
provided in the juncture |32 of the hat and has
60 an inner'ilage |38 abutting the inner surface
of the hat and an outer head or flange part |39
of such a size as to' form a sort of an abutting
flange at the outer surface of the hat.
The upper end of the strip |33 has a bend |40
65 and a short suspending end portion |4| which is
provided with a hole in which is received a hol
low rivet or eyelet |42 suitab-ly secured to the
hat band |43 as clearly shown in Fig. 24.
The hat band |43 is in the form of a strip of
70 material which has sufficient stiffness to be held in
some general form and still is resilient enough to
give for changing the size of the band. In the
drawings, this hat band is shown to be of oval
shape and is connected at spaced points to the
75 connecting or supporting strips |33 as clearly in
_dicated in the drawings. The band has free end
portions | 44 and | 45 which may be suitably con
nected together by any suitable means. In the
particular embodiment selected to illustrate the
invention the end portions |44 and |45 are pro
vided with eyelets |46 and |41 through which
may be threaded a cord of elastic or non-elastic
material as desired, in such manner that the
ends |48 and |49 of the cord may be tied together
to form a knot |50 at such a point as to deter 10
mine the size of the hat band. By tying the cord
with greater or less length of the lap of the cord
between the end portions of the hat band, it will
be apparent that the end portions |44 and |45
may be at a greater or less distance with respect -
to each other accordingly increasing or decreas
ing the size of the hat band.
_
-
In making adjustments ofthe size of the hat
band each element |33 is capable of swinging
about the axes of the snap means and also of 20
the eyelet |42 to one side or the other. In other
words, as the hat band is enlarged or made
smaller in size the member |33 will be capable of
movement angularly about either the axes of the
snap or angularly about the axes of the eyelet 25
in the hat band. In this way, the resilient mem
bers |33 compensate for the adjustment or varia
tion in the size of the hat band. There is suiîì
cient friction between the flanges of the snap
and the flanges of the eyelets on the hat band 30
as to hold the elements | 33 in adjusted position.
The members |33 are also flexible so that as
the hat band is forced upon the head, when plac
ing the hat upon the head, and is expanded`
at the lower portion of the hat band, the mem 35
bers |33 will be flexed in compensation of that
movement of the hat band.
The hat, it will be noted, is supported by way
of the elements |33‘in a'sort of suspension from
the hat band, the hat band being supported
on the head of the wearer. It will also be noted
that the hat band is spaced from the lower por
tion of the crown so that there is provided an air
space between the hat'V band and the hat so as to
afford free circulation of air. By reason of the 45
resiliency or flexibility of the members or ele
ments |33, when the hat band is placed upon the
head, there is a certain amount of tension or
pressure tending to hold the hat band snug yet
comfortably upon the head of the wearer.
A chin strap |5| may also be secured to the
hat band by suitable connecting elements, such
as the lug and socket snap referred to above,
such snap being designated as |52 and |53 in
Fig. 23, it being understood that they are the ,55
same type as shown in Fig. 24.
One of the advantages of having both the hat
band and the chin strap detachably >connected
to the hat is that the hats may all be made of one
size and when the hat is to be used by the wearer 60
of a different size of head, the hat band which
is nearest to the size of the head may be easily
snapped into place by snapping the male parts
into the female parts of the snaps. If the hat
band is not of the exact size of the head, adjust 65
ment may be made by tying the knot |50 at the
proper point for the particular size of head of
the wearer. Then the chin strap which has been
chosen by the person to wear the hat, may be
easily snapped into place as is obvious from the' 70
drawings.
Another advantage is that should the hat be
used by a person for a short period of time. such
as by an Army man, the hat may then be issued
to another Army man but a new hat band and 75
8
2,136,478
. a new chin strap will be attached into place in
lieu of the ones formerly used by the previous
Army man. It will obviate the necessity of issuing
an entirely new hat to the second man.
Another advantage is that when it is desired
to clean the hat, it is an easy matter 'to remove
the hat band and the chin strap and after the
hat has been cleaned it is as easy to replace them.
v While we have herein disclosed a few embodi
10 ments of the invention and a method of making
the same, it is to be understood that the inven
tion is not limited thereto but comprehends other
constructions, details, arrangements of parts, fea
tures, process steps and the like without depart
ing from the spirit of the invention.
Having thus disclosed in the invention, we
claim:
`
1. A hat comprising a body composed of com
pressed pulp material the fibers of which have
been initially so accreted and compressed as to
form a relatively thin substantially rigid integral
unit of the desired form, a pre-formed covering
complemental to the contour of said body and
adhered to at least one surface thereof, said
covering consisting of a single piece of woven
fabric whose strands are uncut from edge to edge
and conforming in size and shape with said body
and free of tension and stress in all directions so
as to maintain its contour independently of said
body.
~
2. A hat comprising a body composed of com
pressed pulp vmaterial the fibers of which have
been initially so accreted and compressed as to
form a relatively thin substantially rigid integral
unit of the desired form, a pre-formed covering
complemental to the contour of said body and
adhered to at least one surface thereof, said
covering consisting of a single piece of Woven
fabric whose strands are uncut from edge to
edge and conforming in size and shape with said
body and free of tension and stress in al1 direc
tions so as to maintain its contour independently
of said body, and said cover extended over and
covering the edge of the brim of said body.
3. A hat comprising a body composed of com
pressed pulp material the fibers of which have 10
been initially so accreted and. compressed as to
form a relatively thin substantially rigid integral
unit of the desired form, a covering of woven
material on at least one surface of said body and
extending around the edge of the brim thereof. 15
a thermo-plastic material adhering said covering
to said body, the edge portion of said brim rolled
into a hollow bead with the covered edge thereof
in abutment with the covered face of said brim,
said thermo-plastic material adhering said edge
to said brim face.
4. A hat comprising a body composed of com
pressed pulp material, the fibers of which have
been initially so accreted and compressed as to
form a relatively thin substantially rigid integral 25
unit of the desired form, a covering of cloth. on
at least one surface of said body contributing to
the stiffness thereof, a bonding substance firmly
and intimately bonding said covering to said body,
the edge portion of the brim and cover rolled
into a bead with the edge thereof in abutment
with a surface of said brim, and bonding material
adhering said edge Ato said brim surface.
EDWARD C. SLOAN.
GUSTAVE A. SPORRE.
35
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