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Патент USA US2136591

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Nov. 15, 1938.
Filed March 9, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1‘
a. Maol'o’aehsom
a“: ,
Noir. 15, 1938.
Filed March 9, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Boy $.Maol’izezagon; '
Patented‘Nov. 15, 1938
METHOD For: mmacruns or con
. romp AGGLOMERATE coxrammo
Roy G. Macl'her'son, Framinghani, Mus.
- Application March 9, 1936, Serial No. 67,774
4' Claims.
(01. 44-10)‘
This invention relates ‘generally to the art of
fuel production, and more speci?cally to a novel
and improved process and apparatus for making
at low coking temperature an anthracitic com
5 pounded ,fuel, primarily for domestic use, or the
making of gas. The process is useful also for
making agglomerates for use in metallurgical
and other ?elds.
The domestic users of coal require preferably
10 a free but steady burning fuel, that is free from
dust and gives off but° little 'smoke. Without
‘ question, properly prepared anthracite coal is the
nearest approach now available to an ideal fuel
for that purpose, but the commercial supply of
sizes larger than silt or ?nes is relatively limited,
and expensive.
The diluting agent may be a burnable material, '
as anthracite fines, or coke breeze,'or semi-coke
made for the purpose. or it may even be incom
bustible material, such as lime,.ores, or even com
mon sand.
While much time and effort have been expended _
in the attempt to make a satisfactory product for
domestic use, from soft coal, I am convinced that
one or more elements besides the soft coal are
needed for satisfactory production.
The best material to be used in any given case
will be determine by the particular use for which
the product is to
made, and the availability of
the supply of these materials.
A mixture of soft coal and anthracite ?nes, or 15
Soft coal,‘of which there is an unlimited supply ‘crushed lump anthracite, with a suitable binder,
of varying qualities, at reasonable ‘prices, is well‘ treated primarily for fuel'and‘not for distillation
adapted for steam making and kindred purposes of other products, makes a very satisfactory, free‘ _‘ a
and long burning material for domestic use.
20 on a large scale, but not for household use, be
Many materials may be used as binders, and 20
cause it lacks the qualities already recited as de
sirable for that purpose. of fine sizes of both their'character may affect materially the result
ing product. Bunker oil, starch solutions, ‘even
kindsof coal therelis an immense'quantity that water,
have been used. A thin tar, obtained as
cannot be used satisfactorily for ' domestic pur
25 poses.
Many attempts have been made to make an
agglomerate or compound coal, so-called, of an
thracite and bituminous fines, or slack, both sep
arately and together, and with and without other
30 materials, compressed with a bonding material
of some kind, and in the form of briquettes, or
J ovoids.
Such coals or fuel have some merits, but
the art has never been commercially very suc
cessful. Coke made from soft coal of various
by low temperature coking, is a. satisfactory
A heavy coal tar usually 'facilitates the blend
ing power of a compound, and decreases the
amount of bituminous coal to be used.
Molding of the mixture in some form is desir-'
able in the making of domestic fuel, as it increases 30
the compactness of the original mixture, and ren
ders it more convenient for subsequent treatment.
Accordingly, the present invention is directed to
the production of an improved, novel compound
35 kinds has long been used, but such coke usually , fuel,
by a novel process and apparatus.
has been the by-product of processes for distilling
In the drawings of one embodiment of my novel
gases of various kinds, at high temperature, and apparatus
for carrying out my improved process
the coke has therefore been porous, quite low in
and illustrated herein:
volatilecontent, and not entirely satisfactory for described
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section, with parts in
'40 domestic use, as might be expected. Coke for
of one ‘embodiment thereof ;
domestic use should be dense in structure, and
Fig. 2, a vertical cross section on line 2-2 of
free burning.
. While most bituminous coals will make a dense
coke, if heated slowly, it has been found prac
45 tically impossible to convert any natural bitumi
nous coal alone into a dense, low temperature
coke-like fuel immediately and rapidly. But I
have discovered that a properly prepared mixture
of bituminous‘ coal and other materials or ele
50 ments can be quickly and satisfactorily treated
by my novel method, and thereby produce a novel
fuel. So far as I have been able to ascertain,
all commercialsoft coals are too rich in volatile
content to be handled directly. They need to be
'55 diluted with less volatile solid material,
. 1, looking toward the right; and
Figs. 3 and 4, modi?ed forms, respectively, of
the apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
I ?rst mix my materials in any suitable man- 45
ner, the proportions of the various ingredients
depending upon the character of the‘various in
dividual materials used and. the type of product
desired. Anthracite ?nes is inexpensive and
readily obtainable, and yard screenings are very 50
satisfactory for use with bituminous coal. I pre
fer that the dry ingredients shall be ground or
classi?ed to pass a vl0 mesh screen.
When anthracite silt is used with the soft coal,
the liner the anthracite silt the greater the per~ s5
centage of soft coal that must be used within
practical limits. For example, I have found that
30 parts of soft coal and '70 parts of yard screen
ings, as usually-obtained locally, with 8 parts of
temperatures they will fuse together, unless well
light tar, all by volume, made a satisfactory com
bination. These proportions, however, will vary
according to the degree of ?neness of the mate
rials and the kind of tar used. _ ~
erably fed to an endless-conveyor l, travelling on
a driving roll 2 and pressure roll I, and driven
from any suitable means, not shown. I have dis
covered that there is a distinct advantage in
treating ‘my product in the form of a ribbo , or
elongated sheet. The cost of manufacture is rela
tively low, and the process may be substantially
product, as theywill'dislntegrate on the ?re‘ be
fore they are consumed, and burn with a smoky
?ame. I have discovered that by compressing the
material into a wide ribbon, or into an essentially
continuous sheet of desired width, bonded to hold
After mixing the material A, Fig. 1, it is pref
separated. Unless they can be so treated, they
make an inferior fuel, as compared to my novel
Immediately above and cooperating with the
roll I is a second pressure roll l, mounted adjust
ably to vary the amount of pressure as desired,
and controlling the thickness of the ribbon of
its shape until the exterior surface s‘ears over
fsu?lciently to ensure its ?nal form, and then
treating it at so-called low temperature of ap
proximately 1400 to 1600° F.. it is cheaper, and
far more satisfactory as a compound fuel than
any that I know of. _
The material, Fig. 1, a‘tter passing between the
compressing rolls onto the plate 5, is deposited
upon alsuitable endless conveyor 28, as a woven
wire belt on rollers til, suitably driven as by an 1,
exterior drive belt ‘II, from and by driving ele
ments not shown. The belt 2! may travel over
idlers 32, if desirable for support. -
As the material is fed to the plate 5, after being
material passing through the rolls.
compressed to a suitable thickness, say one to two
The conveyor | delivers the mixture upon a , inches, a hinged, or spring, cover 33 presses lightly
table 5, suitably secured, as by securing its ?anged thereon, to help keep it from buckling, if so in
.ends 6 to the end walls of a retort, or closed
clined, and to practically prevent the ingress of
chamber ‘I, with a non-oxidizing atmosphere air to the retort, and the material then passes
around the material, and of kettle iron, chrome through the retort ‘I, which is properly heated,
iron, or other suitable material, and of proper say‘to about 1400’ I‘. As the sheet of material
approaches the forward end of the retort, a star
The retort is properly housed in a prick or other wheel 34, driven by any means, not shown, or any
setting l, with a front wall 0, fire arch II, baiiies other convenient device, may mark and crease the
II, ‘as needed. and rear wall i2, forming a com
sheet regularly to an extent suillcient to help
bustion chamberiwith a ?ue~|2a leading to' a ' cause the sheet to break into pieces of fairly 1mi
chimney, not shown._ The retort housing is pro
form size, as they drop into thehopper It, or in
-» vided with ports ii for supplying fuel gas, also a
nozzle II for gas,.if desired, and again may have
an oil burner II of convenient type and size, or
the combustion chamber may be heated in any of
the ways of engineering practice.
This retort has, at its rear end, a downwardly
- inclined chute II, or discharge passage, leading
“to a combined storage and curing hopper ll, or
other receptacle, suitably supported, with one or
subsequent handling.
By closing the valve 28, and discharging the
fuel into the hopper 25 through valve 2|, only a
minimum amount of air will be admitted to‘ the
hopper l8 and retort '|.
By closing the valve.2| '
and opening the valve. 26,'the i’uel may be dis
charged from the hopper 25 into a car or other
receptacle, without admitting morethan a small
quantity of air through the valve 2|.
more outlets I! for drawing of! any gaseous prod
The cycle of operation of valves- 2| and 26 may
ucts or vapor, and "at the hopper's lower end, it -be regulated to suit the manufacturing condi
- has a discharge outlet 2!, provided with any suit
able valve for substantially excluding the air from
- With ‘temperature of approximately 1400“ F.,
the hopper l8. This valve may be a cone-shaped
_ element 2|, operated by a rod” extended through
the mixture should yield its volatile products to
the hopper top, and pivoted on a post 24, and
provided with a weight or other means for causing
torily in about 13 to 15 minutes in the retort.
By the foregoing process, the bituminous coal
the valve to remain normally closed. '
the desired extent, and in effect coke satisfac- '
part with ‘some of its volatile content, and
The hopper I. may discharge into a second .will
combine with the anthracite fines to form a dense
similar hopper 25, also closed by a suitable valve - mass, and I can continuously, and at low cost,
26, conveniently controlled, as by a lever 21, the _ produce a dense anthracite agglomerate or com
purpose being ordinarily not to have more than pounded fuel of convenient sized- pieces, free and
one of these valves 2| or 28 open at the same time. long burning, having a heating value essentially
It has been proposed, among other methods,
to extrude a. coal compound or mixture under equivalent to that of the bestgrades of anthra
pressure through a tube subjected to substantially cite, and burning with no hard clinkers. The ash
content may be regulated by the selection of ‘suit
a coking temperature, so that the extruded com
pound would be coked when discharged. This able raw materials.
It is further to be understood that the actual
plan, however, has many disadvantages and diill- '
culties. It has been found by experience di?icult arrangement of the elements of the apparatus
to cause the molded compound to flow and ex-‘' used may be varied. For example, Fig. 3, the
trude continuously without frequent interruption, pressure rolls 3, 4, may be located within the re
thus causing shut-downs'of the machine. ‘
tort, and kept cool, i1’ desired, through the means
Briquettes have been made and carbonized, but of hollow shafts 35, carrying water or steam there
this process is expensive and di?icult; it requires through.
means to produce tremendous pressure, and it is
Another variation which may be used is shown
di?icult to maintain an airtight seal to the retort in Fig. 4. wherein the material is compressed and
while feeding’ the briquettes to it, and it is ex
formed into a sheet by means of a suitable press
ceedingly hard to apply a proper temperature to 36, operated by either toggles, cylinder and pis
the briquettes, as they disintegrate with applica
ton means 21, or otherwise, and resulting in an
_; on of high heat, and again because, atcoking
intermittent, yet substantially continuous feeding the strip thus formed while conveying it through
motion of the ribbon of material.
a non-oxidizing heating zone at a coking tem
perature for a su?icient time to volatilize the
binder and sinter together vthe coking and non
material in a hard dense mass, and sep
of the conveyor, or by allowing the material upon '
Reasonable variation in the length of time re
quired for the material to travel through the re
tort may be accomplished by adjustment of speed
discharge into the. hopper I8 to remain therein
and mull inits own heat for the desired time.
Small quantities of air may be admitted here, or
10 into the hopper 25, to support a partial combus
tion, and thus furnish additional heat for treat
ment, if desired.
My invention is not restricted to the particular
form or embodiment of means for practising it
15 herein shown.
I claim:
1. The process of making compounded smoke
arating said mass into fragments of desired size.
3.'A continuous process of agglomerating cok
ing and non-coking comminuted solid material
comprising mixing a smallerproportion of coking
material and a larger proportion of non-coking 10
material with su?icient volatile liquid to serve as
a temporary binder when compacted, pressing
and scoring the mixture without preheating to
compress the same into a self-sustaining con;
tinuous strip with a density of the order of the 15
average of non-cokable constituents in the raw
less fuel comprising mixing about ten to - state and containing depressions at regular inter
vals, freely supporting the strip thus formed while
conveying it through a non-oxidizing heating
thirty parts of comminuted coking coal with about
20 ninety to seventy parts of comminuted non-cok
ing coal and enough volatile liquid lubricating
medium to serve as a temporary binder without
substantially changing its character as a dry mix
ture, compressing the_mixture essentially cold to
form a self-sustaining continuous strip of ap
proximately the density of an anthracite coal
product, freely supporting the compacted strip
while passing it through a heating zone contain
ing substantially no oxygen in the surrounding
30 atmosphere at a coking temperature for a period
sufficient to volatilize and coke the binder and
part of the coal thereby causing the coking and
non-coking coal to agglomerate in a hard dense
coke-like mass having a, speci?c gravity approxi
mating that ofthe non-coking coal used, said
mass containing su?icient volatile matter to be
free burning in domestic heaters, and separating
said mass into convenient size pieces for trans
portation and use.
2. A continuous process of agglomerating cok
ing and non-coking comminuted solid material
comprising mixing a smaller proportion of cok
ing material and a larger proportion of non-coke
ing material with su?icient volatile liquid to serve
45 as a temporary binder when compacted, rolling
the mixture without preheating to compress it
into a self-sustaining continuous strip with a
density of the order of the average of non-cokable
constituents‘ in the raw state, freely supporting
Zone at a coking temperature for a sufficient time 20
to volatilize the binder and sinter together the v
coking and non-coking material in a hard dense
mass, and separating said mass into fragments
along lines of fracture corresponding to said de
4. A process of making a dense‘ solid agglomer
ate_ containing carbon uniformly distributed
throughout the mass, comprising mixing coking
coal in lesser amount and non-‘coking solid mate
rial in greater amount with a ,su?icient amount of 30
liquid binder to hold the mixture together with
out changing its dry character when compacted,
continuously feeding and compacting the mixture
without preheating, and controlling the degree of
compacting to r‘itain a density of product of the
order of the average of the non-cokable con
stituents in the raw state, exposing the compacted
material for a substantial length of time before
coking it, conveying said material through an
oxygen free atmosphere in a coking zone at a 40
controlled rate of speed and while free from re
straint subjecting it to a temperature sufficient to
cause the volatilization and coking of" the binder
and coking coal to form a dense solid agglomer-l
ate containing solid carbonaceous material and a
minimum amount of volatile material suitable for '
charging to 'a furnace.
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