Патент USA US2136591код для вставки
Nov. 15, 1938. R. G. M'dOPHERSON 2,136,591 METHOD FOR MANUFACTURE OF‘ COMPOUND AGGLOMERATE CONTAINING FUEL Filed March 9, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1‘ @C \l .3 Inveaafor: a. Maol'o’aehsom l a“: , Noir. 15, 1938. R. G. MWPHERSON 2,136,591 METHOD FOR MANUFACTURE OF COMPOUNDAGGLOMERATE CONTAINI-[NG FUEL Filed March 9, 1956 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 .13708325173”: - Boy $.Maol’izezagon; ' by . ' r ' ‘9s _ Patented‘Nov. 15, 1938 2,136,591 UNITED STATES PATENT“ OFFICE 2,136,591 METHOD For: mmacruns or con . romp AGGLOMERATE coxrammo Roy G. Macl'her'son, Framinghani, Mus. - Application March 9, 1936, Serial No. 67,774 ' 4' Claims. (01. 44-10)‘ This invention relates ‘generally to the art of fuel production, and more speci?cally to a novel and improved process and apparatus for making at low coking temperature an anthracitic com 5 pounded ,fuel, primarily for domestic use, or the making of gas. The process is useful also for making agglomerates for use in metallurgical and other ?elds. ' ‘ \ ‘ ~ The domestic users of coal require preferably 10 a free but steady burning fuel, that is free from dust and gives off but° little 'smoke. Without ‘ question, properly prepared anthracite coal is the nearest approach now available to an ideal fuel for that purpose, but the commercial supply of sizes larger than silt or ?nes is relatively limited, and expensive. ' ‘ " The diluting agent may be a burnable material, ' as anthracite fines, or coke breeze,'or semi-coke made for the purpose. or it may even be incom bustible material, such as lime,.ores, or even com mon sand. 6 While much time and effort have been expended _ in the attempt to make a satisfactory product for domestic use, from soft coal, I am convinced that one or more elements besides the soft coal are needed for satisfactory production. 10 The best material to be used in any given case will be determine by the particular use for which the product is to made, and the availability of the supply of these materials. A mixture of soft coal and anthracite ?nes, or 15 Soft coal,‘of which there is an unlimited supply ‘crushed lump anthracite, with a suitable binder, of varying qualities, at reasonable ‘prices, is well‘ treated primarily for fuel'and‘not for distillation adapted for steam making and kindred purposes of other products, makes a very satisfactory, free‘ _‘ a and long burning material for domestic use. 20 on a large scale, but not for household use, be Many materials may be used as binders, and 20 cause it lacks the qualities already recited as de sirable for that purpose. of fine sizes of both their'character may affect materially the result ing product. Bunker oil, starch solutions, ‘even kindsof coal therelis an immense'quantity that water, have been used. A thin tar, obtained as cannot be used satisfactorily for ' domestic pur 25 poses. Many attempts have been made to make an agglomerate or compound coal, so-called, of an thracite and bituminous fines, or slack, both sep arately and together, and with and without other 30 materials, compressed with a bonding material of some kind, and in the form of briquettes, or J ovoids. Such coals or fuel have some merits, but the art has never been commercially very suc cessful. Coke made from soft coal of various by low temperature coking, is a. satisfactory binder. I ‘ > A heavy coal tar usually 'facilitates the blend ing power of a compound, and decreases the amount of bituminous coal to be used. Molding of the mixture in some form is desir-' able in the making of domestic fuel, as it increases 30 the compactness of the original mixture, and ren ders it more convenient for subsequent treatment. Accordingly, the present invention is directed to the production of an improved, novel compound 35 kinds has long been used, but such coke usually , fuel, by a novel process and apparatus. 35 has been the by-product of processes for distilling In the drawings of one embodiment of my novel gases of various kinds, at high temperature, and apparatus for carrying out my improved process the coke has therefore been porous, quite low in and illustrated herein: volatilecontent, and not entirely satisfactory for described Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section, with parts in '40 domestic use, as might be expected. Coke for elevation, of one ‘embodiment thereof ; 40 domestic use should be dense in structure, and Fig. 2, a vertical cross section on line 2-2 of free burning. ‘ - . While most bituminous coals will make a dense coke, if heated slowly, it has been found prac 45 tically impossible to convert any natural bitumi nous coal alone into a dense, low temperature coke-like fuel immediately and rapidly. But I have discovered that a properly prepared mixture of bituminous‘ coal and other materials or ele 50 ments can be quickly and satisfactorily treated by my novel method, and thereby produce a novel fuel. So far as I have been able to ascertain, all commercialsoft coals are too rich in volatile content to be handled directly. They need to be '55 diluted with less volatile solid material, . 1, looking toward the right; and . Figs. 3 and 4, modi?ed forms, respectively, of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. I ?rst mix my materials in any suitable man- 45 ner, the proportions of the various ingredients depending upon the character of the‘various in dividual materials used and. the type of product desired. Anthracite ?nes is inexpensive and readily obtainable, and yard screenings are very 50 satisfactory for use with bituminous coal. I pre fer that the dry ingredients shall be ground or classi?ed to pass a vl0 mesh screen. When anthracite silt is used with the soft coal, the liner the anthracite silt the greater the per~ s5 2 ‘ 2,186,591 centage of soft coal that must be used within practical limits. For example, I have found that 30 parts of soft coal and '70 parts of yard screen ings, as usually-obtained locally, with 8 parts of temperatures they will fuse together, unless well light tar, all by volume, made a satisfactory com bination. These proportions, however, will vary according to the degree of ?neness of the mate rials and the kind of tar used. _ ~ erably fed to an endless-conveyor l, travelling on a driving roll 2 and pressure roll I, and driven from any suitable means, not shown. I have dis covered that there is a distinct advantage in treating ‘my product in the form of a ribbo , or elongated sheet. The cost of manufacture is rela tively low, and the process may be substantially . ' product, as theywill'dislntegrate on the ?re‘ be fore they are consumed, and burn with a smoky ?ame. I have discovered that by compressing the material into a wide ribbon, or into an essentially continuous sheet of desired width, bonded to hold 1 After mixing the material A, Fig. 1, it is pref continuous. separated. Unless they can be so treated, they make an inferior fuel, as compared to my novel l Immediately above and cooperating with the roll I is a second pressure roll l, mounted adjust ably to vary the amount of pressure as desired, and controlling the thickness of the ribbon of its shape until the exterior surface s‘ears over fsu?lciently to ensure its ?nal form, and then treating it at so-called low temperature of ap proximately 1400 to 1600° F.. it is cheaper, and far more satisfactory as a compound fuel than any that I know of. _ ' The material, Fig. 1, a‘tter passing between the compressing rolls onto the plate 5, is deposited upon alsuitable endless conveyor 28, as a woven wire belt on rollers til, suitably driven as by an 1, exterior drive belt ‘II, from and by driving ele ments not shown. The belt 2! may travel over idlers 32, if desirable for support. - . As the material is fed to the plate 5, after being material passing through the rolls. compressed to a suitable thickness, say one to two . The conveyor | delivers the mixture upon a , inches, a hinged, or spring, cover 33 presses lightly table 5, suitably secured, as by securing its ?anged thereon, to help keep it from buckling, if so in .ends 6 to the end walls of a retort, or closed clined, and to practically prevent the ingress of chamber ‘I, with a non-oxidizing atmosphere air to the retort, and the material then passes around the material, and of kettle iron, chrome through the retort ‘I, which is properly heated, iron, or other suitable material, and of proper say‘to about 1400’ I‘. As the sheet of material length,s'ay20to30feet._ ' approaches the forward end of the retort, a star The retort is properly housed in a prick or other wheel 34, driven by any means, not shown, or any setting l, with a front wall 0, fire arch II, baiiies other convenient device, may mark and crease the II, ‘as needed. and rear wall i2, forming a com sheet regularly to an extent suillcient to help bustion chamberiwith a ?ue~|2a leading to' a ' cause the sheet to break into pieces of fairly 1mi chimney, not shown._ The retort housing is pro form size, as they drop into thehopper It, or in -» vided with ports ii for supplying fuel gas, also a nozzle II for gas,.if desired, and again may have an oil burner II of convenient type and size, or the combustion chamber may be heated in any of the ways of engineering practice. 7 _ . This retort has, at its rear end, a downwardly - inclined chute II, or discharge passage, leading “to a combined storage and curing hopper ll, or other receptacle, suitably supported, with one or subsequent handling. ' _ h . _ By closing the valve 28, and discharging the fuel into the hopper 25 through valve 2|, only a minimum amount of air will be admitted to‘ the hopper l8 and retort '|. By closing the valve.2| ' and opening the valve. 26,'the i’uel may be dis charged from the hopper 25 into a car or other receptacle, without admitting morethan a small quantity of air through the valve 2|. ' more outlets I! for drawing of! any gaseous prod The cycle of operation of valves- 2| and 26 may ucts or vapor, and "at the hopper's lower end, it -be regulated to suit the manufacturing condi - has a discharge outlet 2!, provided with any suit able valve for substantially excluding the air from tions. . v - With ‘temperature of approximately 1400“ F., the hopper l8. This valve may be a cone-shaped _ element 2|, operated by a rod” extended through the mixture should yield its volatile products to the hopper top, and pivoted on a post 24, and provided with a weight or other means for causing torily in about 13 to 15 minutes in the retort. By the foregoing process, the bituminous coal the valve to remain normally closed. ' _' the desired extent, and in effect coke satisfac- ' part with ‘some of its volatile content, and The hopper I. may discharge into a second .will combine with the anthracite fines to form a dense similar hopper 25, also closed by a suitable valve - mass, and I can continuously, and at low cost, 26, conveniently controlled, as by a lever 21, the _ produce a dense anthracite agglomerate or com purpose being ordinarily not to have more than pounded fuel of convenient sized- pieces, free and one of these valves 2| or 28 open at the same time. long burning, having a heating value essentially It has been proposed, among other methods, to extrude a. coal compound or mixture under equivalent to that of the bestgrades of anthra pressure through a tube subjected to substantially cite, and burning with no hard clinkers. The ash content may be regulated by the selection of ‘suit a coking temperature, so that the extruded com ' pound would be coked when discharged. This able raw materials. It is further to be understood that the actual plan, however, has many disadvantages and diill- ' culties. It has been found by experience di?icult arrangement of the elements of the apparatus to cause the molded compound to flow and ex-‘' used may be varied. For example, Fig. 3, the trude continuously without frequent interruption, pressure rolls 3, 4, may be located within the re thus causing shut-downs'of the machine. ‘ tort, and kept cool, i1’ desired, through the means Briquettes have been made and carbonized, but of hollow shafts 35, carrying water or steam there this process is expensive and di?icult; it requires through. means to produce tremendous pressure, and it is Another variation which may be used is shown di?icult to maintain an airtight seal to the retort in Fig. 4. wherein the material is compressed and while feeding’ the briquettes to it, and it is ex formed into a sheet by means of a suitable press ceedingly hard to apply a proper temperature to 36, operated by either toggles, cylinder and pis the briquettes, as they disintegrate with applica ton means 21, or otherwise, and resulting in an _; on of high heat, and again because, atcoking 2,186,591 3 intermittent, yet substantially continuous feeding the strip thus formed while conveying it through motion of the ribbon of material. ' a non-oxidizing heating zone at a coking tem perature for a su?icient time to volatilize the binder and sinter together vthe coking and non coking material in a hard dense mass, and sep of the conveyor, or by allowing the material upon ' Reasonable variation in the length of time re quired for the material to travel through the re tort may be accomplished by adjustment of speed discharge into the. hopper I8 to remain therein and mull inits own heat for the desired time. Small quantities of air may be admitted here, or 10 into the hopper 25, to support a partial combus tion, and thus furnish additional heat for treat ment, if desired. , My invention is not restricted to the particular form or embodiment of means for practising it 15 herein shown. I claim: 1. The process of making compounded smoke arating said mass into fragments of desired size. 3.'A continuous process of agglomerating cok ing and non-coking comminuted solid material comprising mixing a smallerproportion of coking material and a larger proportion of non-coking 10 material with su?icient volatile liquid to serve as a temporary binder when compacted, pressing and scoring the mixture without preheating to compress the same into a self-sustaining con; tinuous strip with a density of the order of the 15 average of non-cokable constituents in the raw less fuel comprising mixing about ten to - state and containing depressions at regular inter vals, freely supporting the strip thus formed while conveying it through a non-oxidizing heating thirty parts of comminuted coking coal with about 20 ninety to seventy parts of comminuted non-cok ing coal and enough volatile liquid lubricating medium to serve as a temporary binder without substantially changing its character as a dry mix ture, compressing the_mixture essentially cold to form a self-sustaining continuous strip of ap proximately the density of an anthracite coal product, freely supporting the compacted strip while passing it through a heating zone contain ing substantially no oxygen in the surrounding 30 atmosphere at a coking temperature for a period sufficient to volatilize and coke the binder and part of the coal thereby causing the coking and non-coking coal to agglomerate in a hard dense coke-like mass having a, speci?c gravity approxi mating that ofthe non-coking coal used, said mass containing su?icient volatile matter to be free burning in domestic heaters, and separating said mass into convenient size pieces for trans portation and use. 40 I v 2. A continuous process of agglomerating cok ing and non-coking comminuted solid material comprising mixing a smaller proportion of cok ing material and a larger proportion of non-coke ing material with su?icient volatile liquid to serve 45 as a temporary binder when compacted, rolling the mixture without preheating to compress it into a self-sustaining continuous strip with a density of the order of the average of non-cokable constituents‘ in the raw state, freely supporting Zone at a coking temperature for a sufficient time 20 to volatilize the binder and sinter together the v coking and non-coking material in a hard dense mass, and separating said mass into fragments along lines of fracture corresponding to said de pressions. _ 4. A process of making a dense‘ solid agglomer 25 ate_ containing carbon uniformly distributed throughout the mass, comprising mixing coking coal in lesser amount and non-‘coking solid mate rial in greater amount with a ,su?icient amount of 30 liquid binder to hold the mixture together with out changing its dry character when compacted, continuously feeding and compacting the mixture without preheating, and controlling the degree of compacting to r‘itain a density of product of the order of the average of the non-cokable con stituents in the raw state, exposing the compacted material for a substantial length of time before coking it, conveying said material through an oxygen free atmosphere in a coking zone at a 40 controlled rate of speed and while free from re straint subjecting it to a temperature sufficient to cause the volatilization and coking of" the binder and coking coal to form a dense solid agglomer-l ate containing solid carbonaceous material and a minimum amount of volatile material suitable for ' charging to 'a furnace. ROVY‘ G. MAcPI-IERSON.