close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2136715

код для вставки
NOV. 15, 1938..
K. SWARTWOQD
2,136,715
CONVERSION OF HYDRVOCARBON OILS
Filed May 27, 1957
CONDEN
22
FURNACE 2|
FURNACE
56.11::
0 l
FURNACE
FURNACE '
INVENTOR
KENNETH SWARTWOOD
/
ATIQBNEY
Patented Nov. 15, 1938
2,136,715
UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,136,715
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Kenneth Swartwood, Chicago, Ill., assignor to
Universal Oil Products Company, Chicago, 11].,
a corporation of Delaware
Application May 27, 1937, Serial No. 145,021
6 Claims. (Cl. 196—9)
This invention relates to an improvedvprocess condensate and further obviates the use of a heat
for the pyrolytic conversion of hydrocarbon oils ing coil for cracking said re?ux condensate. It
to produce high yields of good quality gasoline has a further advantage in that any materials of
accompanied by the production of gas and the gasoline boiling range produced in the coking step,
production of liquid residue as an intermediate
product, the latter being reduced to coke in a zone
separate from that wherein it, is formed and
vaporous products evolved from the residual
liquid in the coking, operation being subjected to
10 appreciable cracking following their removal
from the coking zone, to produce additional yields
of good quality gasoline therefrom, by com
mingling said‘ vapors with highly heated gaseous
products of the process.
In modern cracking processes designed for the
15
production of maximum yields of gasoline, it is
common practice to coke the residual liquid re
and which are normally of inferior antiknock
value, are subjected to additional cracking to
gether with the normally liquid products of the
coking step boiling above the range of gasoline
under the high temperature conditions prevailing
in said vapor reaction chamber to which the total
vaporous products from the coking zone are sup
plied. This results in a substantial improvement
in the antiknock" value of these gasoline frac
tions. I have further found that the gasoline
produced by further cracking of the coking;still
vapors in the manner herein provided is of im
proved antiknock value as compared with that i
sulting from cracking of the charging stock and
normally produced by cracking re?ux condensate
intermediate liquid products of the process in
order to obtain high yields of gasoline to the ex
clusion of a residual liquid product. In opera
tions of this character, the volatiles evolved from
the residual liquid in the coking step consist prin
-cipally\of liquid products, boiling above the range
25 of gasoline, and gas. Only minor yields of ma—
terials boiling within the range of gasoline are
resulting from fractionation of the coking-still
normally produced in the coking step, particu
larly when the latter is accomplished at sub
stantiallyatmospheric or relatively low super
30 atmospheric pressure, as is usually the case. and a
major portion of the additional yields of gasoline
which are produced as the result of coking the
residual oil are obtained by further cracking of
intermediate liquid products of the coking step.
35 To accomplish this, the usual practice is to sub
ject the vaporous products of the coking step to
fractionation, either alone or together with
vaporous products of the cracking step wherein
the residual liquid is produced, and returning the
40 re?ux condensate resulting from fractionation of
the coking-still vapors to further cracking in a
vapors in the conventional manner. This is very 20
likely due in part to reforming of the gasoline
fractions contained in the vaporous products of
the coking step, but, due to the relatively small
quantity of such fractions normally produced,
I am led to believe that this does not fully ac
count for the good quality of the total gasoline
produced by said further cracking of the total
vapor stream.
Another factor which may enter
into the production of good antiknock gasoline in
this step of the system is the fact that these 30
products are cracked at high temperature under
substantially vapor-phase conditions, since high
temperature vapor-phase conditions are known
to produce both ole?nic and aromatic compounds
of good antiknock value. However, I believe that
a third factor of material importance is the pres‘
Lence of the highly heated normally gaseous
products in the reaction zone to which the vapor
ous products of the coking step are supplied and
that there is some interaction between the com
mingled materials in this zone which results in a _
heating coil of the system; the fractionated, material improvement in the antiknock value of
vapors which contain any gasoline produced in the gasoline produced not fully accounted for by
the coking step being recovered. .
I
the other two factors mentioned.
The present invention ‘departs from the above
Another important feature of the invention
45
described conventional practice by providing for which, however, is not to be construed as a limi
further cracking of the total vaporous products
of the coking stepby supplying the same directly
from the coking zone to a vapor reaction chamber
wherein they are commingled with highly heated
gaseous products of the process and are sub-,
jected therewith to appreciable conversion time
at a relatively high temperature. This improved
method obviates fractionation of the vaporous
products of the coking step to produce a re?ux
tation, resides in the segregation of vaporous and
heavy liquid products in the reaction chamber to
which the volatiles evolved by coking of the
residual liquid are supplied and the provision for
subjecting the vaporous components in this re
action chamber to more prolonged conversion
time than that afforded said heavy liquid com
ponents. This is accomplished by directing the
materials removed in vaporous state from the 55
2
2,136,715
as will be later explained, is directed from the
lower portion of this zone through line H and
valve I! to pump l3 by means of which it is
coking zone against the walls of the reaction
chamber, which, due to the fact that the reaction
chamber is not externally heated, are relatively
cool and serve to condense entrained heavy liquid
particles from the vapors. The heavy liquids thus
contacted with the walls of the reaction chamber
?ow rapidly downwardly thereover to the outlet
supplied through line H and valve l5 to heating
coke, supplying vaporous products of the coking
operation directly from the coking zonerto-an
ing and separating chamber 21.
Chamber 2‘! is'preferably operated at a sub
other reaction chamber, heating regulated quan
stantially ‘reduced pressure relative to that em
ployed in chamber 24‘ and functions as a zone 35
coil l6.
-
In case the charging stock is an oil correspond
ing in cracking characteristics to the re?ux con
of this zone while the vaporous components are densate supplied to heating coil IE, it may, when
intimately commingled with the highly heated ' desired, be supplied directly to this zone by means
of lines l1, l8, l9, valve '20 and'line H or it may 10
10 gases supplied to this zone and are subjected
therein to more prolonged conversion time as they be supplied to the fractionator, as previously de
scribed, to commingle in this zone with the re?ux
pass through the chamber.
condensate formed therein.
One speci?c embodiment of the invention com
The oil supplied, as described, to heating coil
prises subjecting re?ux condensate formed within
‘the system, as will be later described, to cracking ,IB is heated during its passage through this zone 15
temperature at superatmospheric pressure in a to the desired cracking temperature, preferably
at a substantial superatmospheric pressure, by
heating coil and communicating enlarged reac
means of heat supplied from furnace 21 and the
tion chamber, supplying both vaporous and liq
heated products are directed through line 22 and
uid conversion products from the reaction cham
valve 23 to reaction chamber 24,
20
20 ber to a reduced pressure vaporizing and sepa
Chamber 24 is also preferably maintained at 1
rating chamber wherein vapors and non-vaporous
a substantial superatmospheric pressure and, al
liquid residue are separated, subjecting said va
pors to fractionation for the formation of said though not illustrated in the drawing, this zone‘
is preferably insulated to conserve heat so that
re?ux condensate which is supplied to the afore
mentioned heating coil, subjecting fractionated the heated products supplied thereto are sub 25
vapors of the’ desired end-boiling point to con
jected to appreciable continued conversion time
densation, collecting and separating the result, in the reaction chamber. Both vaporous and liq
ing distillate and uncondensed gases, supplying uid conversion products are, in the particular
said non-vaporous liquid residue from the’va
case here illustrated, withdrawn in comrningled
porizing and separating chamber to a separate state from the lower portion of chamber 24 and 30
zone wherein it is reduced to substantially dry directed through line 25 and valve 26 to vaporiz
35 titles of said uncondensed gases to a high oil
cracking temperature in a separate heating coil,
introducing the heated gases into said separate
reaction chamber wherein they commingle with
the vaporous products supplied to this zone from
the coking step, subjecting the commingled va
pors and gases to substantial conversion at high
cracking temperature in said separate reaction
zone and supplying the total vaporous, liquid and
gaseous ~ products from said separate reaction
chamber to said vaporizing and separating
chamber.
_
.
v
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing il
lustrates one specific form of apparatus in which
the process of the present invention may be suc
_
50 cessfully conducted.
. 'Referring to the drawing, charging stock for
the process, which may comprise any desired type
of hydrocarbon oil, is supplied through line ‘I
to valve 2 to pump 3 wherefrom it is fed through _
line _4 and, depending upon its gharacteristics
wherein appreciable further vaporization of the
liquid products supplied thereto are subjected to
appreciable further vaporization and wherein the
vapors are separated from non-vaporous ‘liquid L
40
-
residue.
Vapors are directed from the upper portion of
chamber 21 through line 28 and valve 29 to frac
tionation in fractionator III for the formation of
re?ux condensate, which comprises-the compo
nents of the vaporous products boiling above the 45
range of the desired ?nal gasoline, product of the
process.
Fractionated vapors of the desired end-boiling
point, which, in case chargingstock is supplied to ,
the fractionator including any components 50
thereof boiling within the range of the desired
gasoline product, are directed from the upper
portion of fractionator l0 through line 30 and
valve 3| to condensation and cooling in condenser .
32, the resulting distillate and uncondensed gases 55
are directed through line 33 and valve 34 to col
lection and separation in receiver 35. The gas
of a plurality of points within the system or may, _
when desired, be supplied in part to several of said eous products produced within the system and
collected in receiver 35 are removed from this
60 points. The charging stock may pass from line 4' zone through line 36 and may pass, in part, 60
through line 5 into fractionator in, entering this
zone at any desired point or plurality of points through valve 31 in this line to storage or else
where as desired. Regulated quantities of the
by means of a plurality of lines such as indi
cated at 6 and 1 ‘in the drawing and controlled gaseous products are, however, diverted from
by the respective valves 8 and 9. Other manners line 36 through line 38 and valve 39 to pump or
in which the charging stock may be supplied to compressor 40 by means of which they are sup
the system will be later described and are not plied through line ll *and valve 42 to heating coil
43 for further treatment therein, as will be later
to be considered equivalent since they are em
and the method of treatment to which the charg
ing stock is best suited, it may be fed _to any one
ployed principally to give the process greater
?exibility with respect to the type of charging
described.
‘
The distillate recovered in receiver 35 may be
stock employed and may be selected to suit re- ' directed therefrom through line 44 and valve 45
to storage or to any desired further treatment.
quirements.
When desired, regulated quantities of the dis
Re?ux condensate formed in fractionator It
tillate collected in receiver 35 may be recirculated
and comprising either the total re?ux conden
75 sate or selected high-boiling fractions thereof, by well known means, not illustrated, to the upper
3
2,136,715
portion of fractionator ill to serve as a cooling
and re?uxing medium in this zone.
the fractionator and directed through line 65 and
The residual liquid which is separated from
supplied through line 68 and valve '89 to heating
the vaporous products of the process in chamber
211 is withdrawn from the lower portion of this
zone and directed .through line 46 and valve ll
to pump 48 by means of which it is supplied
through line M and valve 50 to line 5! and thence
supplied either through line 52 and valve.“ di
10 rectly to coking chamber 54 or through valve 55
in line 5i to heating. coil 56 wherefrom it is sup
plied through line 51, valve lit and line 52 to
coking chamber 54.
.,
In case the charging stock is a residual oil of
relatively high-boiling characteristics'unsuitable
as cracking stock for heating coil it, it may be
commingled with the liquid residue withdrawn
from chamber 211 and supplied therewith to cok
ing chamber 543 by passing the charging stock
29 through valve Ed in line it into line hi or by
directing the same from line it through line it
and valve ‘ti into chamber 21!. On the other
hand, other types of charging stock may, when
desired, be supplied all or in part to chamber it,
25 as described, and, by‘ directing the same into the
upper portion of this zone, it may serve as a re
?uxing and cooling medium for assisting separa
tion of vaporous and heavy liquid products in this
zone.
30
Coking of the residual liquid from. chamber it
valve 86 to pump 81 by means of which they are
coil 63, either alone or together with any corre- '
sponding fractions of the charging stock, in case
the latter is supplied to the fractionator. All or
regulated quantities of the charging stock may, on
the other hand, be supplied directly to heating
coil 63 by diverting the same from line H through
line ‘l0 and valve ‘M into line 88, through which 10
it is supplied to heating coil 53. In case the
charging stock is a relatively low-boiling oil
having cracking characteristics similar to those
of the low-boiling fractions of the re?ux con
densate, it is preferablyv commingled therewith
either in fractionator id or in line 68 and sup
plied therewith to heating coil 63. On the other
hand, relatively heavy'charging stock or charging
stock of relatively wide boiling range may, when
desired, be supplied alone to heating coil 63 and 20
the total re?ux condensate from fractionator it
supplied,'as previously described, to heating coil
it.
'
'
Heated products are discharged at the desired
cracking temperature from heating coil t3 and 25
directed through line ‘if and valve ‘it preferably
into the lower portion of chamber 5t wherein they
comrningle' with the materials undergoing coking
in this zone and supply heat thereto for e?‘ect
ing or assisting their reduction to coke.
or a mixture of residual liquid and charging
stock may be accomplished, within the scope of
lowed to accumulate therein until the chamber
the invention, in any desired manner and, as an
is substantially ?lled or until its operation is .
illustration, two alternative but non-equivalent
completed for any other reason, following which
methods of coking are provided in the case here
it may be cleaned in any well known manner,
illustrated. One of the methods illustrated com
prises passing the heavy oil to be coked through
heating coil 56 in the manner previously de
scribed, and therein heating the same, by means
not illustrated, and prepared for further oper
ation. Chamber-5t is provided with a drain line
‘it controlled by valve l5 and this line may, when
. of heat supplied from furnace M, to a tempera
ture adequate to e?ect its subsequent reduction
to coke in chamber 5t. Preferably, when this
method of operation is employed, the heavy oil
is heated to a relatively high temperature in
coil 56, but highyelocity and high rates of heat
ing are employed in this zone such that the ‘oil
is heated to the desired high temperature with
out permitting it to remain in the heating coil
and communicating lines for a sumcient length
of time to form appreciable deposits of coke
therein.
'
The other mode of operation herein illus
trated, with reference to the coking step, in
volves the use of a heat carrying medium which is
The coke produced in chamber ht may be al- \
desired, also serve as a means of introducing a
suitable cooling material such as steam, water,
H
or the like intothe chamber after its operation
has been completed and preferably after it has
been isolated from the rest of the system, in order
to hasten cooling and facilitate removal of the
coke. Although only one coking chamber is 45
shown in the drawing, it will, of course, be under
stood that a plurality of such zones may be em
ployed, when desired, in which case they may
be operated either alternately or simultaneously.
Vaporous products are removed from the upper
portion of the coking chamber through line it
and may be directed through valve 'lll'in this
line into the upper portion of'reaction' chamber
‘it, wherein they are preferably. directed by means
of a suitable spreader flange or spray arrange
introduced at high temperature into direct con
tact with the materials undergoing coking in the
coking chamber, the heavy oil to be coked pref
ment indicated at it against the interior surface
of the walls of the chamber whereby any en
erably being supplied directly to this zone without
passing through heating coil 5%, although the
trained heavy liquid particles are contacted with
the walls and passed rapidly downward thereover
latter may be employed in conjunction with the
use, of a heat carrying medium, when desired.
Heating coil M, which is disposed within furnace
it, is employed in the case here illustrated for
heating the heat carrying medium to the desired
relatively high temperature and serves at the
to the lower portion of the chamber, while the '
lower boiling uncondensed components of the va
pors are subjected, as will be later described, to
substantial continued conversion time at high
temperature as they pass downward through
chamber ‘it.
65
he an alternative method of operating chamber
same time as a cracking zone for low-boiling
iii, the vaporous products from chamber 54 may
fractions of the re?ux condensate formed in frac
tionator it! and/or charging stock for the proc
be directed from line ‘it through line 90 and
ess. In accordance with this mode of operation, valve i into the lower portion of the reaction
the re?ux condensate formed in fractionator it chamber and are preferably directed against the
may be separated into selected relatively low
walls of the chamber by means of a suitable
boiling and high-boiling fractions, the high-) spreader ?ange or spray device 19', whereby their
boiling fractions supplied, as previously described, heavy liquid components may pass rapidly down
to heating coil it and the low-boiling fractions ward to the bottom of the chamber to be quickly
removed from a suitable intermediate point in ‘withdrawnv therefrom without being subjected to 75
4
2,186,715
appreciable cracking time in this zone, while their
measured at the outlet therefrom, ranging, for
. vaporous components pass upwardly through the
example, from 750 to 1050° F. or more, with any
desired pressure of from 30 to 300 pounds or
thereabout per square inch at this point in the
system‘, the preferred range being a temperature
' chamber and are subjected, as will be later de
scribed, to substantial cracln'ng time at high tem
. perature during their passage through this zone.
Gaseous products of the process directed, as
previously described, from receiver 35 to heat
ing coil 48 are heated therein to a relatively
high temperature by means of heat supplied
10 from a suitable furnace 88 and the highly heated
gases are discharged through line 8| into reaction
chamber 18, means being provided for supply
ing the same either to the upper portion of this
zone through‘ line 82/ and valve 83, in case the
ll vaporous products from chamber 54 are sup
plied to the upper portion .of chamber 18, or the
lower portion of the chamber through line 84
and valve 85, in case the vaporous products from
chamber 54 are supplied to the lower portion
from 950 to 1000° F. and a superatmospheric pres
sure of from 50 to 150 pounds per square inch.
Heating coil 88, when utilized and when the ma
terial supplied thereto for conversion is a rela
tively low-boiling oil such as light re?ux con 10
densate from fractionator l0, preferably employs
a high conversion temperature, as measured at the
outlet therefrom, which may range for example,
from 900 to 1000° F, or thereabouts and prefer
ably a superatmospheric pressure of the order of 15
200 to 800 pounds or more per square inch is
employed at this point in the system. The cok
ing chamber may employ any desired pressure
no higher than that utilized in the communicat
of chamber 18. The highly heated gases thus in- ' ing heating coil or coils, the preferred range being 20
troduced into chamber 18 commingle therein with from 50 to 150 pounds per square inch, super
atmospheric. Heating coil 43 preferably employs
the non-residual vaporous components of the ma
terials supplied thereto from the coking chamber, a high cracking temperature of the order of 950
heating the latter to a high cracking temperature, to 1200° F. or thereabouts and any desired pres
sure ranging from substantially atmospheric to 25
whereby they are subjected to substantial crack
ing as they pass through chamber 18. Although several hundred pounds superatmospheric pres
not illustrated in the drawing, chamber 18 is sure may be employed in this zone. Chamber
preferably insulated to conserve heat but this ‘i8 ‘is preferably operated at substantially the
zone is preferably not heated externally so that same pressure as that employed in the coking
the walls are relatively cool and will serve to chamber, although lower pressure down to sub 30
condense entrained heavy liquid particles from stantially atmospheric may be utilized in this zone,
when desired.
the vapors which come in'contact therewith.
As a speci?c example of one of the many pos
In case the vaporous products from chamber
84 are supplied, as described, to the upper portion sible operations of the process which may be
35 of chamber 18, the total products resulting from conducted in an apparatus of the character il '35.
lustrated and above described, the charging stock
the cracking operation in this zone may be re
is a heavy Mid-Continent gas oil of approxi
moved in commingled state from the lower por
tion thereof and directed through line 88 and mately 22° A. P. I. gravity and is supplied to
valve 81 into chamber 21, wherein their vaporous vaporizing and separating chamber 21, wherein
.49 and heavy liquid'components separate; the latter
being returned to the coking zone and the former
passing from chamber 21 to fractionation in frac
tionator I8.
I
In case vaporous products from chamber 84 are
45 supplied, as described, to the lower portion of
chamber 18, liquid products are. directed fromthe
lower portion of this zone through line 88 and
valve 8'! to.chamber 21, while all or a major por
tion of the vaporous and gaseous conversion
products are separately removed from the upper
portion of the chamber and‘ directed through
line 88 and valve 88 into chamber 21.
The preferred range of operating conditions
which may be employed, within the scope of the
invention, in an apparatus such as illustrated
and above described, may be approximately as
follows: The temperature employed at the" outlet
of heating coil I8 may range, for example, from
it serves as a cooling medium and, being sub
stantially vaporized in this zone, is thence sup
plied to fractionator 21 together with the vapor
ous conversion products of the process. The
total re?ux condensate formed in the fractionator
and the charging stock, which is condensed in 45
this zone, are supplied to heating coil l8.
The ‘
temperature employed at thev outlet of. this heat
ing coil is approximately 950° F. and the outlet
pressure is approximately 350~pounds per square
inch. Reaction chamber 24 is operated at sub 50
stantially the same pressure. A superatmos
pheric pressure of approximately 150 pounds per
square inch is employed in the vaporizing and
separating chamber to which the total products
55
from the reaction chamber are supplied and sub
stantially the same pressure is utilized in the '
succeeding fractionating, condensing and collect
ing equipment. The residual liquid from cham
850 to 975° F. or thereabout, preferably with a ‘ ber 21 is quickly heated in heating coil 88 to an
superatmospheric pressure at this point in the ‘outlet temperature of approximately 980° F. at 60
system of from 100 to 500 pounds or more per a superatmospheric pressure of about 150 pounds
square inch. Substantially the same or somewhat per square inch and is thence introduced into,
lower superatmospheric pressure may be employed v alternately operated coking chambers wherein
in reaction chamber 24. The vaporizing and Sen
arating chamber 21 is preferably operated at a
substantially reduced pressure relative to that em
ployed in reaction chamber 24 which may range,
for example, from 150 pounds or thereabout per
square inch down to substantially atmospheric
.79 pressure. The pressures employed in the frac
tionating, condensing and collecting portions of
the system may be substantially the same or
somewhat lower than that employed in the vapor
izing and separating chamber. Heating coil 88,
.73 ‘when
utilized, may employ a temperature, as
the high-boiling components of the residual liq
uid are reduced to coke. The vaporous prod
ucts from the coking chambers are supplied to
reaction chamber ‘I8 wherein high-boiling en
‘as
trained liquids are quickly separated therefrom -
and the remaining vapors commingled with
highly heated gases from heating coil 48, the lat 70
ter being introduced into chamber 18 at a tem
perature of approximately 1050° F. The pres
sure employed at the outlet from heating coil 48
is approximately 200 pounds per square inch and
is reduced in chamber 18 toapproximately 150 .7
2,136,715
5
pounds per square inch. The total materials
mentioned cracking operation, heating regulated
from chamber ‘I8 are supplied to vaporizing and
separating chamber 21. This operation will pro
duce per barrel of charging stock approximately
63% of 400° F. end-point gasoline having an
octane number of approximately '72 by the mo
tor method and approximately 65 pounds, per
barrel of charging stock, of low volatile petroleum
quantities of said normally gaseous materials,
following their separation from said gasoline, to
a high oil-cracking temperature, introducing the
highly heated gases into the reaction zone where
in they commingle with said vaporous products
{of the coking operation, raising said vaporous
products to cracking temperature by the heat of
coke, the remainder being chargeable principally said gases, maintaining said commingled vapor
10 to uncondensable gas.
I claim- as. my invention:
1. In a process wherein hydrocarbon oils are
cracked at cracking temperature and superat
mospheric pressure to produce primarily gasoline,
,15 liquid residue, and normally gaseous materials,
which are separated, and wherein said liquid res
idue is reduced to coke in a zone separate from
that wherein it is separated from the vaporous
and gaseous products of the cracking operation,
ous and gaseous materials at an active cracking 10
temperature in said reaction zone for a su?icient
length of time to effect the production therefrom
of additional yields of good antiknock gasoline,
separating the products of the last mentioned
cracking step into residual liquid, intermediate 15
liquid products boiling above the range of gaso
line and gasoline, recovering said gasoline, and
returning said intermediate liquid products to the‘
?rst mentioned cracking operation.
4. In a process wherein hydrocarbon oils are 20
20 the improvement which comprises introducing ,
vaporous products of the coking operation into a cracked at cracking temperature and superatmos
‘reaction zone separate from that of the atom
mentioned cracking operation, heating regulated
quantities of said normally gaseous materials,
25 following their separation from said gasoline,
to a high oil-cracking temperature, introducing
the highly heated gases into said reaction zone
wherein they commingle with said vaporous prod;
ucts of the coking operation, raising said vapor
30 ous. products to cracking temperature by the
heat of. said gases, maintaining said commingled
vaporous and gaseous materials at an active
cracking temperature in said reaction zone'ofor
a sumcient length of time to effect the produc
35 tion therefrom of additional yields of good anti—
knock gasoline, and recovering the latter.
2. In a process wherein‘ hydrocarbon oils are
cracked at cracking temperature and superat
mospheric pressure to produce primarily gasoline,
40 liquid residue and normally gaseous materials,
which are separated, and wherein said liquid res
, idue is reduced to coke in a zone separate from
that wherein it is separated from the vaporous
' and‘gaseous products of the cracking operation,
45
the improvement which comprises introducing
vaporous products of the coking operation into
a reaction zone separate from that of the afore
mentioned cracking operation, heating regulated
quantities of said normally gaseous materials,
pheric pressure to produce primarily gasoline, liq
uid residue and normally gaseous materials,
which are separated, and wherein said liquid
residue is reduced to coke in a zone separate 25
from that wherein it is separated from the va
porous and gaseous products of the cracking op
eration, the improvement which comprises in
troducing vaporous products of the coking opera
tion into a reaction zone separate from that of
the aforementioned cracking operation, heating
regulated quantities of said normally gaseous ma
terials, following their separation from said gaso
line, to a high oil-cracking temperature, intro
ducingv the highly heatedgases into said reaction 35
zone wherein they commingle with said vaporous
products of the coking operation, raising said va
porous products tfi cracking temperature by the
heat of said gases, maintaining said commingled
vaporous and gaseous materials at an active
cracking temperature in said reaction zone for a
su?cient length of time to effect the production
therefrom of. additional yields of good antiknock
gasoline and commingling the products of the
last mentioned cracking operation with the prod
ucts of the first mentioned cracking operation in -
the zone wherein said separation of vaporous
and residual liquid conversion products is accom
plished.
following their separation from said gasoline, to r
5. A process for the pyrolytic conversion of til
50 a high oil-cracking temperature, introducing the
hydrocarbon oils which comprises subjecting an
highly heated gases into said reaction zone where
oil to conversion conditions of cracking temper
~ in they commingle with said vaporous products of ature and substantial superatmospheric pressure,
the coking operation, raising said vaporous prod
separating the resulting vaporous and residual
55 ucts to cracking temperature by the heat of said liquid conversion products, subjecting said va
gases, maintaining said commingled vaporous and pors to fractionation for the formation of reflux
gaseous materials at an active cracking temper
condensate which is returned to the aforemen
;‘ature in said reaction zone for a sui?cient length tioned cracking step, subjecting fractionated va
of time to effect the production therefrom of pors of the desired end-boiling point to con
, additional yields of good antiknock gasoline, sep
densation, collecting and separating the result~ 60
arating gasoline and residual liquid from the ing distillate and uncondensed gases, remov
products of the last mentioned cracking step, re
covering said gasoline, and returning said resid
ual liquid to the coking step.
65
3. In a process wherein hydrocarbon oils are
cracked at cracking temperature and superatmos
pheric pressure to produce primarily gasoline,
liquid residue and normally gaseous materials,
which are separated, and wherein said liquid res
idue is reduced to coke in a zone separate from
that wherein it is separated from the vaporous
and gaseous products of the cracking operation,
the improvement which comprises introducing va
porous products of the coking operation into a
reaction zone separate from that of the afore
ing said residual liquid conversion products from
the zone wherein they are separated from said
vaporous products and reducing, the same to coke
in a separate zone, heating regulated quantities
of said uncondensed gases to a high oil-crack
ing temperature, comminglin'g the highly heated
gases with vaporous products removed from the
coking zone, subjecting the last-named vaporous
products to appreciable cracking in substantially
vapor-phase by the heat of said gases, and sup
plying resulting products of the last mentioned
cracking operation to the zone wherein said sep
aration of vaporous and residual liquid conver—
sion products is accomplished.
6
2,186,715
6.. In a process wherein hydrocarbon oil is
heated to cracking temperature at superatmos
pheric pressure 'in a heating coil, the heated
products passed through an enlarged reaction
chamber, also maintained at substantial super
atmospheric pressure, and then introduced into
a reduced pressure vaporizing and separating
chamber, vaporous and residual liquid conversion
products separately removed from said vaporizing
10 and separating chamber, the residual liquid re
duced to coke in a separate coking zone, said
vaporous products subjected to fractionation for
the formation of re?ux condensate, the latter
returned to further cracking within the system,
15 fractionated vapors oi the desired end-boiling
point subjected to condensation and the result
ing distillate and uncondensed gases separated,
the improvement which comprises heating regu
lated quantities or said uncondensed gases to a
high oil-cracking temperature in a separate heat
ing coil, supplying highly heated gases directly
from the last mentioned heating coil and vapor
ous products from the coking zone to a separate
enlarged reaction chamber and therein raising
said vapors to an active cracking temperature by
the heat of said gases, maintaining the vapors
and gases at the attained temperature of the 10
mixture inv commingled state for a su?icient
length of time to effect the production therefrom
of. substantial quantities of good antiknock gaso
line, and supplying the total products from the
last‘ mentioned reaction chamber to said vaporiz 15
ing and separating chamber.
KENNETH SWAR'I'WOOD.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 073 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа