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Патент USA US2136801

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2,136,801
Patented~ Nov. 15, 1938
a
S
STA
ATE
OFF CE
PRIMING
2,136,801
MIXTURE
Joseph D. McNutt, New Haven, Conn., assignor to
Winchester Repeating Arms Company, New
Haven, Conn., a corporation of Maryland
No Drawing. Application December 7, 1936,
Serial No. 114,641
11 Claims. (Cl. 52-3)
This invention relates to priming mixtures for
small arms ammunition and more particularly to
a non-corrosive priming mixture.
_
In recent years priming mixtures for small
0 arms ammunitionhave been of the non-corrosive
- type, that is, the potassium- chlorate formerly
used as the oxidizing agent has been-eliminated
from such mixtures and other salts used in its
1
The first two mixtures given above containing
mercury fulminate as an initiator and potassium
dinitrophenylazide or basic lead styphnate 'as
sensitizer are suitable for use in the preparation
of primers for shot shell cartridges or for metallic 5
cartridges of the center ?re type. The third for
mula employing lead styphnate (the normal lead
salt of trinitro-resorcine) as an initiator and a
place. The oxidizers most generally used and the a fuel is suitable for use in the preparation of rim
10
ones found most useful have been barium ni-. fire ammunition.
.
trate, lead nitrate and the double salt of barium
In carrying out thezinvention the ingredients of
and potassium nitrate. While the use of these the priming mixture are first t oroughlyand ‘
o
.
salts has been an advance in the art in that the
corrosive effects of the use of potassium chlorate
15 have been eliminated, the non-corrosive priming
uniformly mixed according to the practice well
known to those skilled in the art and then formed
into individual pellets of the proper size for in
dividual charges in the customary mariner. This
is generally, done by the use of charge plates
fore results. This is due to the high temperatures , provided with perforations to mold pellets of the
mixtures so produced are sluggish on ignition
and poor ignition of the propellent powder there
of decomposition of the salts mentioned. All of
20 them decompose at temperatures far above those
desired so that the oxygen is not available at the
proper ,size and weight. These pellets are then
transferred either into priming cups for shot shell
cartridges or for center ?re ammunition or into
most important time during combustion of the
empty rim ?re cartridgeshells' in the usual way. h
priming mixture. This lack of oxygen results in -In connection with rim fire ammunition the
poor sensitivity of the mixtures at the most crit
25 ical period of decomposition.
To overcome this defect in the non-corrosive
priming mixtures, I propose the use of a small
amount‘ of a hypophosphite. I have found that
the presence of a small percentage of hypophos
30 phites lowers the decomposition point of priming
charge is forced to distribute itself ‘in the hollow
rim by spinning each shell in the customary rim
?re loading machines. After the shells have been
properly primed, they are loadedwith powder and
shot or bullets in the customary way.
The formulae given above illustrate the use of
lead hypophosphite with various‘ initiators, sensi
mixtures containing barium nitrate, lead nitrate
tizers ‘and fuels in combination with dif?cultly
deco posable oxidizers, such as barium nitrate,
trate. This produces better combustion of the lead itrate and the double salt of barium and
priming mixture and therefore results in better c potassium nitrate. The invention is not limited’
35 ignition of the propellent powder. While a num
to the particular well known priming ingredients 85
ber of the hypophosphites will give the desired re
disclosed but is capable of use in connection with
sult, I have found that the use of lead hypophos
other initiators, sensitizers, fuels and dif?cultl
or the double salt of barium and potassium ni
phite is particularly advantageous in conjunction
with oxidizers whose decomposition temperature is
40 above 200° C. I therefore propose to add a small
percentage of lead hypophosphite to various non
corrosive priming mixtures in which barium ni
trate, lead nitrate or the double salt of barium and
potassium nitrate is employed as an oxidizer.
The following are typical examples of priming
mixtures in which lead hypophosphite is added
to the mixture for the purpose of lowering the de
composition temperature of the mixture:
Fulminate of mercury___ From 27-33 %—preferably 30 %
50 Potassium dinitrophenyl
,
azide ____ -1 _______ __
Double
salt
of
From 4—~ 7 %—preferably- 5 %
barium
and, potassium nitrate_ From 32—38%——preferably 35 %
Antimony sulphide_____ From 22—28%~—preferably 25%
Lead hypophosphite ____ From 4- 7 %—preferably 5%
Fulminate of mercury__._ From 32—38%—-preferably 35%
on
'
01 Basic lead styphnate____ From 5— 9%-—preferably 7%
Barium nitrate _______ __ From 28—32%-—preferably 30%
Calcium - silicide ______ __ From
4— 8%—-preferably
6%
Antimony sulphide _____ From 15-20 %—preferably 17%
Lead hypophosphite __ From 4- 7 %—preferably 5%
Lead styphnate _______ __ From 37—43%——preferably 40%
Lead nitrate _________ __ From 28-32 %——preferably 30%
, Ground glass ____ _ _'___ From 20-25 %—preferably 23%
Lead hypophosphite---“ From 5- 9%-—preferably 7%
decomposable oxidizers.
I claim:
.
.
1. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro- .
pellent charge comprising an initiator, a fuel, an
oxidizing agent and lead hypophosphite.
2. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising an initiator, a fuel, an
oxidizer from the group consisting of barium ni
trate, lead nitrate and the double salt of barium
and potassium nitrate and lead hypophosphite.
3. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising mercury fulminate, po
tassium dinitrophenylazide, the double salt of 60
barium 'and potassium nitrate, antimony sulphide
and lead hypophosphite.
'
4. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising from 27 to 33 percent
mercury fulminate, from 4 to 7 percent potassium 55
dinitrophenylazide, from 32 to 38 percent of the I
double salt of barium and potassium nitrate,
from 22 to 28 percent antimony sulphide, and
‘from 4 to 7 percent lead hypophosphite.
’ 5. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro- "1
l
2
93,138,801
pellent charge comprising substantially 30 per
cent mercury fulminate, substantially 5 percent
potassium dinitrophenylazide, substantially 35
percent of the double salt of barium and potas
sium nitrate, substantially 25 percent antimony
sulphide and substantially 5 percent lead hypo
phosphite.
-
6. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising mercury fulminate,
basic lead styphnate, barium nitrate, calcium sil
icide, antimony sulphide and lead hypophosphite.
7. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising from 32 to 38 percent
mercury fulminate, from 5 to 9 percent basic lead
1 styphnate, from 28 to 32 percent barium nitrate,
from 4 to 8 percent calcium silicide, from 15 to
20 percent antimony sulphide and from 4 to 7 per
cent lead hypophosphite.
8. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
~ pcllent charge comprising substantially 35 per
cent mercury fulminate, substantially '7 percent
basic lead styphnate, substantially 30 percent
barium nitrate, substantially 6 percent calcium
silicide, substantially 17 percent antimony sul
phide and substantially 5 percent lead hypophos
phite.
9. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising lead styphnate, lead
nitrate, ground glass and lead hypophosphite.
10. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro 10
pellent charge comprising from 37 to 43 percent
lead styphnate, from 28 to 32 percent lead ni
trate, from 20 to 25 percent ground glass and from
5 to 9 percent lead hypophosphite.
11. A priming mixture adapted to ignite a pro
pellent charge comprising substantially 40 percent
lead styphnate, substantially 30 percent lead ni
trate, substantially 23 percent ground glass and
substantially 7 percent lead hypophosphite.
JOSEPH D. Mo. 20
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