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Патент USA US2136841

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-Nov. 15, 1938. .
› Filed Nov. 23, 1957
?7/W / .
Patenta& Nov. 15, 1938
ANTIPANIC 'manas AND 'rus mms
August B. Christensen, Hellertown, Pa.
Application November 23, 1937, Seriali No. 1%,115
` z Claims.
(CI. {to-11112)
The invention relates to the design and con
struction of theaters, auditoriuins, and :other
places of public assemblage, and has :for an ob
ject to provide for the safety of audiences in
s emergencies which require an audience to vacate
{the building quickly, as, in case of ?re, explo
sion, earthquake, and other serious occurrences
which would threaten the safety of an audience
remaining in the building.
An important aim of the invention is to ob
viate the need for the persons in an audience to
make their own ways from the building in such
emergencies, and particularly to avoid the reL
quirement for the _audience to reach the doors'
'115 and other usual exists in order to leave the build
ing, so that the possibility of jamming of a crowd
at such exits is avoided, as well as similar dislrs
ou stairways within or without the building.
It is an object of the invention to prevent an
W audience from in?icting injury upon its members
in the hysterical panie which accompanies fear
as has often occurred in the past among crowds
oi usually normal individuals.
To› these ends it is au aim of the invention to
ar present means whereby: an audience may be
moved translationally while seated in its chairs,
and as a unit, from the building to a place of
safety, all being evacuated simuitaneously.
.tt invention reside in the construction, arrange
ment and combination of parts involved in the
erally and downwardly to the right and carried
on piliars i5 or otherwise. The building also
includes a permanent fixed wall portion Ni at the ?
side of the auditorium, having an opening I'll
therein the top of which is at a height_ of a stand- m›
ing person, for purposes to be indicated. The
rails M are continued through this opening with
uniform inclinations, downwardiy onto a lower
area lt without the building. The rails lt over
the area Is may also be supported on pillars It, sis
it required. It this area is within an excava
tion. the sides of the letter should be suitabiy
walled, and proper drainage and access and egress
provided, these details not being illustrated, since
they are well underst
details of architecture. am
in the event that the building is built in a sit
nation where the grade corresponds to the slope
required or may be made so, and at the right
level, the pillars ili may be omitted as expedient,
and the rails laid upona properly adjusted grade 35
with any approved ioctings suitable for the pur
there is a carriage u consisting oi' a iframe sup
porting the decit u, and having wheels ?s at W
the following description and accompanying
drawing. whereiu
'the other„ except in height, and that these un'iw
Figure 1 is a vertical section oi' a Construction
of building and apparatus embodying my inven
tion, the section being parallel to one one row
oi' seats, the structure being shown in condition
tor normal use.
distance below the declt l2 and having mounted
thereover a series of parallel rails M inclined lat-
suitable intervals on each of the rails lt.
It should be noted that this carriage :rame
work is constructed _in units each identical with
embodin?ent oi the invention as will appear from
ture may include a bed ?oor !3 set a considerable `
Movable upon the rails and carrying the decir
' Additional objects, advantages and features of
stage than it is at the back part which is at the
right in Figura 2. The main ?xed building struc
b'igure 2 is a vertical section at right angles
to Figura 1 from the direction of the stage.
are assembied and secured together to form the '35
' complete supporting structure for the deck ?z, so
that each respective section of deck is supported
independently of the rcmainder, and the liability
oi a general collapse by i'ailure of the frame work *40
at one point only is minimized; The wheels .
it are arranged at front and rearsides of the
i'rame sections, so that at mutually adjacent
`'sidcs of respective sections two' sets of wheels are 1
- right of Figura i.
There is iliustrated- a portion of a building close to each other. While these might be ar- 45
structure ?o, which maybe of any conventional ranged to run on a single rail, in the present
architectural detaii?as to parts not shown, in instance they are on spaced closely parallel
tracks, and consequently; the rails |4 are ar
which a platform or stage ll of any usual con
struction may be provided, the details ot this ranged in pairs clo'sely spaced, each pair receiv
50 being formaliy indicat?d without'detaíl since they ing thereon wheels of respective i'rame sections. 50
Seats 2l of standard structure are set upon
form no essential part of the present invention.
screen or proscenium.
Figura 3 is a Iragmentary elevation :from the
The ?oor l2 oi the auditorium'is a movable deck
the deck, and if desired, these may bearranged V
4 - construction practices for such a structure as
in groups 22 positioned within the vertical
boundaries of respective name sections, so that
55 hereinafte?' indicated.
transverse aisles 23 are !ormed in the auditorium, 55
structure stepped or not, conforming to approved
It is lower toward the
located over the two rails of mutually adjacent
paratus for releasing the carriage from initial
position, and for stopping it at the lower ends
The carriage sections are preferably secured to
of the inclined tracks may be employed, as dis
cretion dictates. The release device may com
prise a part of the brake unit 36. Other means
for braking or controlling movement of the car:
gether so as to form a unitary structure movable
without relative displacement of any of the parts?
of the carriage structure or of the deck areas.
The carriage work is extended as at E& at its
lower part under the wall ?s and be; ;nd the
vertical boundary of the chairs and a side aisle
rlage from normal position to emergency position
maybe employed without depa'rting from the
between the chairs and wall !3 or its continuation,
as well as various other modi?cations made 10
spirit of the invention as hereinafter claimed,
and on this lower extension part an entrance
within the „scope of the said claims, and I do not
platform 25 is constructed, having a parapet 26
at its outer edge parallel to the plane of the wall
IC and spaced outwardly of that -plane to aiford
regard the invention as limited to the speci?c
construction herein illustrated.
I- claim:
16 standing room for a proper number of people
outside of that plane when the deck is in normal
position. This extension 24 carries a false wall
section 21, which when the deck |2 is in normal
position alines with the wall IS and ?ts within
20 the opening ll in the wall IS, closing the same.
In the false wall 21 there are incorporated wall
!rame sections 23 alined with respective car
1. A structure of the character described com 15'
prising a building structure having a space there
within to accommoda'te a ?oor deck and including
a wall having an opening therethrough extend
ing above and below the deck, a pit exteriorly of
the building, an inclined trackway mounted with 20
in thebuilding below the deck space inclined
downwardly from the side of said space opposite
riage sections, and in each of the wall sections
23 respective sets of doors 29 are provided ap
25 propriate to the uses contemplated, and adapted
the' said opening and extending through the
opening into the pit, said pit being of a width
equal at least to the width of the deck space, a
carriage on the trackway, said carriage includ
ing support means decreasing in height progres
to use as entrances to the building when the car
riage structure is in normal position, or they may
be used exclusively for access to and from the
carriage element and its deck when in emergency
sively in the direction of the pit, a ?oor deck car
ried by the support means at a level to register
with the upper edge of the pit when the carriage 30
The carriage structure and its deck and deck
load, as well as theifalse wall structure 21, and
is moved thereinto, means to control movement
of the carriage on the trackway, and means to
move the carriage, from without the building on
platform 25, are held in normal position as a
stationary part of the building in which they are
lncorporated, by means of a series of cables 30,
attached to the inner lateral edge of the deck
said trackway to normal operative position.
2. A structure of the character described com
prislng a building structure having a space there
within to accommodate a ?oor deck, and includ
ing a wall beside said space having an opening
therethrough beside the space for the deck, and
extending therebelow and thereabove; an in 40
clined trackway mounted within the building be
low the deck space inclined downwardly from the
side of said space opposite the said opening ex
and carriage structure, where it is very 'close to
the rails Il since the latter are spaced just enough
below the deck at this side of the carriage and
deck structure to accommodate the minimum
truck or skid structure.
The cables are wound on drums 3| ?xed on a
common shaft 32 mounted below the rails and
operated conventidnally from a motor 33 located
tending through said opening without the build
45 on the ?oor i3, the shaft 32 being journalled in
suitable journal brackets 34 mounted on the same
?oor. The shaft is located below all parts ot the
deck, and the cables are carried upward from
the drums over respective idler pulleys 35 so as to
bring the cable ends properly into a plane with
the deck part to which they are connected par
ing a distance equal at least to the width of said
deck space, a carriage on said tra'ckway,'a ?oor
deck carried thereby, means to anchor the car
riage and deck in normal operative position,
means to control movement of the carriage and
deck on said trackway, means to control move
ment of the carriage from without the building
on said trackway to normal operative position,
means to secure the carriage releasably in initial
` allel to the rails N.
The shaft 32 is also provided with a brake drum
and brake device 36 controlled in any preferred
n?anner, a brake wheel 31 being shown.
There is indicated an unloading platform 33
without the building beside the emergency posi
tion of the'carriage and deck structure, so that
when the latter is in emergency position the
audience may leave their seats and ?le down the
aisles leading to the front of the deck and step
onto the platform 38. Any desired auxiliary ap
position, a platform on the lower part of the car
riage projected beyond and without the plane
of said wall when the carriage is in normal posi
tion, and a wall section on said carriage con
structed and arranged to close said opening when
the carriage is in normal position, and doors in
said wall section to form communication with
the interior of the building from said platform.
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