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Патент USA US2136885

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Patented Nov. 15, 1938
“UNITED STATES‘ PATENT» OFFICE
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EXTREMEBPRESSURE LUBRICANT
, Franz Rudolf Moser, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1
‘
andv Marinus Cornelis‘Tuyn, Pladjoe, Nether-7
lands‘East'Indies, assignors to Shell Develop
.ment Company, San Francisco, Calif., a. cor
,
Y
‘poration
of
Delaware
‘
‘
No‘Drawin'g‘. Application March 16, 1936; Serial
69,162.‘ I‘n'v'vthe Netherlands March 19, ‘
‘1 Claim. (01. 87-9)
“ ‘ This invention relates ‘to lubricants suitable for even at high temperatures andunder conditions,
~
_
‘ lubrication under extreme pressure conditions.
‘It is well known that‘ the‘ high‘ pressures oc
‘ curring in certain types of gears andnb‘earings
5 may‘ cause a ?lm of lubricantto rupture with con
scqucnt'damage to the,machinery;v ‘It hasbeen
'_ shown that mineral lubricating oils can be‘ im
' ‘prov‘ed with regard to their load carrying capacity
by, the addition ofcertain substances to a‘degree,
1" “which enables them to successfully resist being
' Completely forced out from between rubbingfs?r
faces under extreme pressures. Excessive wear,
‘scu?ing and seizure, “which jnerr‘nally’ ‘follow a
break in the ?lmpi lubricant‘can“ thus be pre
15 “vented even undertthel most ‘unfavourable pres
wsurevand‘speed conditions. Oils. possessing this
encountered in‘ crankcases of internal combus
tion engines while in" operation, can be safely in
corporated into lubricants used. in internal com~
bustion engines, so that the preparation of safe
crankcase oils possessing "extreme pressure prop-:= _,
erties has now ‘been ‘made‘possible. The quantitles of our compounds‘ required to impart ex
treme pressure properties usually vary from about
0.1 to 10%.by ‘weight; and must ‘be in excess of 10
the solubility limit of the compounds in the lubri- .5
eating oils.
Particular substances which are useful for our
invention are‘:
i
-
Anthraquinone derivatives. such as: I
Indsnthmne
, highly resistive property are called extreme pres
sure
lubricants.
a .'
'
r
‘
15
"
'_‘ Among the substancestthat have been proposed
20 for incorporation intowthe lubricating oils‘ 'for
20
the purpose of improving their extreme pressure
properties, there is a class of oil-insoluble-Ts'olid
compounds which by themselves can be used as
‘ lubricants in a limited way.
2
Examples of‘ this
25
class-of compounds are graphite, zinc oxide, lead
sul?de, talc, clay; etc., all of which are being used
in suspension of lubricating oils.
‘
_
We have now discovered another useful class
of, substantially oil insoluble compounds, which
3
bythemselv‘es have little or no lubricating‘ pow~
ers, ‘but which are capable of improving the‘ ex
treme pressure properties of mineral'lubricating
‘,oils. - This class consists essentially of fairly high
molecular, weight ‘organic substances I possessing
35, several, polar?radicals such as ‘-OH,\ -—‘COOH,
Hydroxy derivatives or indanthrene
'
30
Flavanth‘rene
35
-—-NH2, .=NH,-‘—SH, :yS, v=C=‘, etc., and avhigh
‘thermalfstability at least. equal. to. that of the
' mineral‘lubricating oil to ‘whichlthe dope is
added.‘ ‘Molecular weights range from about 200
40 to an upper unknown limit. I The com‘pounds‘are
40
cyclic in structure‘, containing several ‘rings, at
leastpne of ‘which is ‘aromatic, ‘In addition
they“contain nitrogen usually in} the-form of a
derivative of an aromatic amino compound, and
45 most of them have the properties of dyes substan
45
tially insoluble in mineral’ oils, While some of
these dyes are"‘soluble‘in mineral oils to the ex
tent of imparting color to the oil, their solubility
is well below 0.1%.
50
The compounds of our invention have several
'
advantages over other oil insoluble compounds
used heretofore to impart extreme pressure prop
erties to lubricating oils.
Not only have our
compounds a much greater effect than, for in
U! in stance, the widely used graphite, but being of
organic nature they produce no ash, and are
therefore often preferable to some otherwise
very useful substance, such as lead sul?de. Many
of our compounds, being free from a tendency to
60 be corrosive or to liberate corrosive substances
50
8,188,888
many of the anthraquinone derivatives are of
particular value.
.
Most commercially available dyes contain con
siderable proportions of inorganic impurities,
usually sodium chloride, which of course is ex
tremely harmful in lubricating oils and must be
removed. for instance by washing with water,
prior to blending with the oil.
The process oi’ admixing the compounds of
our invention to lubricating oils may be carried
out according to known principles. The pow
dered compounds may simply be stirred into the
oil, or a stock suspension may be prepared by
running a rich mixture of compounds in oil
through a colloid mill, and then admixing some of
the stock suspension to lubricating oils.
' Sometimes it may be desirable to introduce
peptizing agents to prevent the compounds from
settling; anticorrosion agents may be 01' advan
tage in combinations with certain compounds 20
which have a corrosive tendency, for instance
tetraao m-phenylene dlamine chlorhydrate, or
mercaptobenzthlazol. Antioxidants may be used
to prevent the premature oxidation of some of the
additions.
‘ In the following illustrative examples the
eil'ects on the illm strength of a lubricating oil
due to the addition of some of the above de;
scribed compound is shown. The four-ball ap
paratus by Boerlage, which was described in 30
“Engineer-mg" vol. 136 (1933) page 46 was used
for testing; this apparatus is capable of measur
ing the comparative metal wear at various pres
sures, as well as the pressures at which the test
metals weld in the presence of the test lubricant. 35
The data below are typical:
Substance added
Percent Welding Diameter of
by
pressure
wearing sur
face in mm.
40
2.2 at 100 kg.
2.63 at 600 kg.
2.10 at 260 kg.
2.2 at 350 kg
11) at 600 kg.
on-o
/'\0-0 /'\00
1.86 at 400 kg.
2.07 at 250 kg.
Am and diaae compounds
5°
mm-mdhmmmumxnm)
Newma
c
/
“Naomi.
"mile, W by one-an OI aniline
ONION-OM80“: - . . NHCIH‘NHI
eo
I'remthepointotviewoi'thermalstability
vary considerably with the individual substance,
the improvement in the lubricating property 01
the oil is- quite great. '
We claim as our invention:
An extreme pressure lubricant consisting es
sentially of a mineral lubricating oil containing
not less than 0.1% ?nely divided nigraniline.
I mm armour mosaic.
mums coams Tom.
45
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