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Патент USA US2136946

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2,136,946
Patented Nov. 15', 1938
PATIENT OFFICE
‘ UNITED STATES
2,136,946
METHOD or MAKING BEARING
STRUCTURES
,
‘
Frederick T. McCurdy, Kokomo, ImL, assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Union Carbide and Car
bon Corporation, a corporation of New York
No Drawing.
Application June 18. 1935,
4
Serial No. 27,160
.
l
l
5 Claims.
(01. 29-1495)
' The invention relates, to bushings, bearings,
and the like, the wearing surfaces of which are
composed of a wear-resistant alloy. More spe
cifically, the invention pertains to such structures
5 wherein the wearing surface is composed of a
dif?cultly deformable wear-resistant alloy com
prising one or more metals of the chromium‘
group with one. or more metals of the iron group?
The term “bearings” as used hereinafter will
10 be understood to mean any structure of the gen
eral class comprising bushings and bearings.
Wear-resistant alloys of the type herein re
, ferred to are described, for example, in Patent
-.
Number 1,057,423 issued to Ellwood Haynes.
15 Although the extremely great resistance of such
alloys to wear makes their use desirable for
certain types of bearings, they_ are relatively
expensive materials, and the cost of making and
grinding to shape an entire bearing cast from
20 them is ordinarily prohibitive, Moreover such
alloys are difficult to roll or machine, which
makes the problem of fabricating them into
bearings very difficult. Consequently a cheap
and effective method of manufacturing bearings
having a wearing surface composed of such al
loys would be very useful.
I have found by experimentation that excellent
bearings combining the advantages of a wearing
surface composed of a hard wear-resistant alloy
3 O with the advantages of a body or backing ele
ment composed of a relatively soft metal having
high physical strength and toughness, can be
manufactured by a simple and inexpensive proc
ess wherein one face of a relatively thick and
35 substantially ?at plate of steel or other suitable
backing metal is surfaced by fusion welding with
a relatively thin and substantially uniform layer
of the wear-resistant alloy. The wear-resistant
surface thus formed may then be ground to give
4O a smooth ?at surface, after which the composite
plate so produced may be heated to a softening
temperature, and formed to the desired shape by
plastic deformation in a press or other suitable
45 device. The structure thus formed may then be
ground accurately to shape with a minimum of
effort.
'
The procedure outlined is preferred, because
r
‘following approximate range of, usual constitu
ents:
'
Percent
Cr ________________ .__; ______ __'___._. 15 to 35'
W, Mo _________________________ __ Up to 20
5
Mn____'_ ________ _; ______________ __ Upto3
Si _____ -l ______________________ __ Up to 3
C ______________ __ ______________ __
Up to3
Co,Ni,Fe _______________________ __ Remainder. lo
the combined content'of nickel and iron being
not over about 20%, but the invention is not to
be understood as restricted in scope to alloys of
this particular composition, for the use of any
allow comprising one or more metals of the 15
chromium group and one of more metals of the
iron group, which has suitable physical prop
erties, is within the scope of the invention.
Steel is in general a satisfactory‘ metal for the
backing plate used in the manufacture of bear- 20
ings according to the practice of the invention,
but it will be apparent that other metals possess
ing the required physical and welding properties,
as for example “Monel” metal, may likewise be
. used.
25
While I prefer to weld theylayer of wear
‘resistant metal onto the backing plate by usual
gas 1or electric welding procedure, I have also
found it possible to obtain satisfactory results by
placing a sheet of the wear-resistant metal of the 30‘
desired thickness on the metal backing plate, and
causing the two to weld together by simple heat
ing in a muiile furnace, in the presence of a,
?ux, and such method of producing the com
posite plate is within my invention.
35
Bearings, bushings and the like, produced in
the manner described, hold their shape well, are
light in weight, are easily installed, have excel
lent wearing properties, and can be manufactured
at reasonable cost. _
I claim:
'
_
~
1. The method of‘ manufacturing bearings,
bushings and the'like having a wearing or bear
ing surface composed of a wear-resistant alloy
having substantially the hardness, limited forge- 45 '
ability, and limited machinability of ‘the cobalt
chromium-tungsten
alloys
described
herein, "
which method comprises depositing by fusion
this sequence of steps usually gives the best com
bination
of‘ overall economy and satisfactory re
O
sults, but it will be apparent that if desired some
welding a layer of such wear-resistant alloy upon
one side of a flat and relatively soft metal backing 50
plate; forming the composite plate thus pro
of the steps may be omitted without departing
from the spirit of the invention.
A wear-resistant alloy well adapted to form
55 the wearing surface of such structures has the
the desired shape; and grinding the wearing or
bearing surface to the required smoothness.
2. The method of manufacturing bearings, 55
' 5
duced, by plastic deformation, to substantially
2
2,186,946
bushings and the like having a wearing or bearing
surface composed of a relatively hard wear-re
sistant alloy that has the approximate range of
composition: 15% to 35% chromium; 2% to 20%
metal selected from the group consisting of tung
sten and molybdenum; manganese, silicon and
carbon in amounts not over about 3% each; the
remainder consisting chie?y of metal of the group
iron, nickel, cobalt; the combined content of iron
and nickel being not over about 20%; which
method comprises depositing by fusion welding
a layer of said wear-resistant alloy upon one side
of a flat and relatively soft metal backing plate,
forming by plastic deformation to substantially
'20
the desired shape the composite plate thus pro
duced; and grinding the wearing or bearing sur
face to the required smoothness.
3. The method of manufacturing bearings,
bushings and the like having a wearing or bear
ing surface composed of a relatively hard wear
resistant alloy that has the approximate range of
composition: 15% to 35% chromium; 2% to 20%
metal selected from the group consisting of tung-i
sten and molybdenum; manganese, silicon and
carbon in amounts not over about 3% each; the
remainder consisting chiefly of metal of the group
iron, nickel, cobalt; the combined content of iron
andenickel being not over about 20%; which
method comprises depositing by fusion welding
30 a layer of said wear-resistant alloy upon one
side of a ?at and relatively soft metal backing
plate, grinding the wear-resistant alloy surface
thus produced to form a flat and substantially
smooth surface, and thereafter shaping said com
posite plate, by plastic deformation, to substan
tially the desired shape.
4. The method of manufacturing bearings,
bushings and the like having a wearing or bear
ing surface composed of a relatively hard wear
40 resistant alloy that has the approxim'ate‘range
of composition: 15% to 35% chromium; 2% to
20% metal selected from the group consisting of
tungsten and molybdenum; manganese, silicon
and carbon in amounts not over about 3% each;
the remainder consisting chie?y of metal of the
group iron, nickel, cobalt; the combined content
of iron and nickel being not over about 20%;
which method comprises depositing by fusion
welding a layer of said wear-resistant alloy upon
one side of a ?at and relatively soft metal back
ing plate, grinding the wear-resistant alloy sur 10
face thus produced to form a ?at and substan
tialiy smooth surface, thereafter heating to a
softening temperature the composite plate so pro
duced, and hot forming said composite plate by
plastic deformation to substantially the desired
shape.
5. The method of manufacturing bearings,
bushings and the like having a wearing or bear
ing surface composed of a relatively hard wear
resistant alloy that has the approximate range 20
of composition: 15% to 35% chromium; 2% to
20% metal selected from the group consisting of
tungsten and molybdenum; manganese, silicon
and carbon in amounts not over about 3% each;
the remainder consisting chiefly of metal of the
group iron,‘ nickel, cobalt; the combined content
of iron and nickel being not over about 20%;
which method comprises depositing by fusion
welding a layer of said wear-resistant alloy upon
one side of a ?at and relatively soft metal back
30
ing plate, grinding the wear-resistant alloy sur
face thus produced to form a ?at and substantial—
ly smooth surface, and thereafter heating to a
softening temperature the composite plate so
produced, hot forming the said composite plate by 35
plastic deformation to substantially the desired
shape, and grinding the wearing or bearing sur
face of the structure so produced to the required
dimensions.
FREDERICK T. MCCURDY.
40
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