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Патент USA US2136963

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’ i Ll‘ GUISHING' METHOD AND
Heinrich
Chemnits,
.
a
.-
,
_
or,
ts, to Biihme Fettchemi -
I
Battling, Chem
mar 18, 1934, Se
Norial
Drawing.
kpplioalgon‘l‘ rvo-1.1,,
No
18,
No. 753,406.
1938
12 - “1 ‘Hit
(0!. 28-11)
This invention relates to ?re extinguishing
compounds, containing ‘for instance amino
groups, halogen atoms, ester groups, or ether
ducing type of fire extg medium, where-l groups in the aliphatic chain. Similarly, qua
by the combustible material may be smothered ternary ammonium compounds which are not de
by a blanket of foam. It is the principal object rived from heterocyclic nitrogen bases, but from
of the invention to provide a medium or this aliphatic, cyclo-ali'phatic, aromatic, or even mixed
character which is inexpensive to produce and tertiary amines, as well as the corresponding
which will be effective for the extinguishing of phosphonium and sulphonium compounds, may
?re in materials not readily controlled'by ?re be employed.
‘ extinguishing media heretofore developed.
While the quaternary high molecular ammoni M
Thus it is a further object of the invention um compounds and particularly those derived
to provide a medium ‘which will foam freely and A from heterocyclic nitrogen bases, such as pyridin
which will effectively blanket and smother the for example,\are of special importance by rea
combustion of alcoholic ?uids. It is a feature of son of the fact‘ that they are readily accessible, .
agents and more particularly to the foam pro
the invention that the medium forms a foam in
numerous other compounds of the character
which the gaseous agent is principally air, prior
air foam producing media being rendered ine?ec
tive by the alcohols.
It is a more speci?c object of the invention to
provide a ?re extinguishing medium comprising
hereinbefore indicated have been found effec
tive. Thus the following speci?c compounds,
a mixture of a ?uid with a quaternary high mole
cular ammonium salt or the corresponding phos
?res of an alcoholic origin:
and the fluid mixtures and aqueous solutions
thereof, 'will produce a dense blanket of foam '
suitable for the extinguishing of ?res, especially" 20
I
Tetr'adecyl, hexadecyl, andocta-decyl pyridi
phonium and sulphonium compounds. Quatern
nium sulfate, undecenyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, oc
ary high molecular ammonium salts, which con
tain long aliphatic chains or cycloaliphatic or
aromatic radicals as substituents, are found to
‘produce a dense foam ?lm, completely stable to
alcohols, and indestructible even when contacted
with the hot walls of a tank containing burning
tadecyl, octadecenyl chinolium sulfate, decyl py
ridinium bromide, ,hexadecenyi chin'olinium io 25,
alcohol, affording a positive guaranty oi’ rapid
and complete extinction of all ?res in liquids
an? particularly in liquids of an alcoholic char
ac er.
.
The extinguishing of alcoholic ?res by chemi
dide,-quaternary ammonium compounds derived
from asymmetrical o1eyl-diethyl-’-.ethvlenediamine
by addition of dimethyl sulfate or diethyl sul
fate or methyl iodide, decyl phosphonium iodide,
dodecyl phosphonium bromide, tetradecyl phos 30
phonium bromide, octadecenyl phosphonium io
dide, dodecyl fsulphonium iodide, octadecyl sul
phoniuni/br'omide, heptyl-i-urea bromide, decyl
i-thiourea iodide, hexadecyl-i-thiourea iodide,
, cal foam producing methods, “for instance by the addition products of tetradecyl bromide or 85
the development of a foam blanket in which the dodecyl iodide to hexamethylenetetramine, heptyl
gas ‘phase of the foam consists of carbon dioxide guanidine, tolyl guanidine, the quaternary am
_or otherpnoncombustible gas, are not only de
monium compound prepared by the addition of
fective and dangerous but very expensive. In the dodecyl ether of a-glycerine bromhydrine
accordance with the present invention ?res can "CnHaaCHmOSHaCHOI-LCHaBr to pyridin, the
be effectively ext 3-;
il
by means 01 air foam
produced by an ordinary foam generator or foam
D De
Emmpie I
quaternary ammonium compound formed by the ,
addition of bromine-acetic acid dodecyl ester Br
CHaCOQCHaCnI-ha to chinoline.
Example 2
A solution of 500 grams of lauryl pyridinium
sulphate in 100 liters of water is dischargedin
any convenient manner into a tank containing
burning alcohol. The ?re is promptly extin
guished without the evolution of obnoxious or
dangerous gases.
.
'
In lieu of 'lauryl pyridinium sulphate there
may be employed compounds with higher or low
er alkyl residues, preferably having from 8 to 22
carbon atoms, or ‘substitution products of these
A solution of 600 grams of hexadecyl triethyl
phosphonium bromide in 100 liters of water
mixed with 10 liters of glycerol is discharged by
a foam generator onto the burning object.
50
Example 3
- A summon ‘of: 500 grams decyl dimethyl sul
fonium iodide in 100 liters of water is discharged
by a foam pipe onto the burning object.
65
2.’
'
_
aisasea
Example 4
compounds.
500 grams of the quaternary ammonium com
pound prepared by the addition 0! the hexadecyl
ether of a-glycerine chlorhydrin to pyridin are
dissolved in 500 liters of water and this solution
5. A ?re extinguishing medium comprising a
high molecular quaternary ammonium compound
selected from the group consisting of pyridinium,
quinolinium, and isoquinolinium salts.
is mixed with 500 liters of carbon tetrachloride. ‘
6. A ?re extinguishing medium comprising a
solution of a quaternary ammonium salt of the
The mixture is discharged onto the burning ob
ject by a foam generator.
10
Other, preferably non-combustible
_
nary ammonium, phosphonium and sulphonium
general formula
liquids
'
than water can be mixed with or employed as
a solvent for the active medium, for instance
'
10
R-NER:
wherein R is an aliphatic radical containing not
less than eight carbon atoms in a continuous
carbon tetrachloride, perchlorethane and like
halogenated hydrocarbons. Additions 0! alco
chain, X is a halogen atom or —0SO:H or ——NO:
15
and NR: is a pyridine or a quinoline.
16 hols, especially of glycerol, are often suitable for
preventing freezing of the ?re-extinguishing
'7. A medium for extinguishing ?re comprising
°
Having thus described the invention, what is 4 an aqueous solution of a substance selected from
the group consisting of high molecular quater
claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let
nary ammonium, phosphonium and sulphonium
20 ters Patent is:
.
20
compounds.
1. A method of extinguishing ?re in alcoholic
8.
A
?re
extinguishing
medium
comprising
an
material which ‘comprises covering the burning
material with foam produced by a mixture of aqueous solution of a high molecular quaternary
agents at low temperatures.
liquid and a compound selected from the group
consisting of high molecular quaternary am
monium, phosphonium and sulphonium com
pounds.
2. A method of extinguishing ?re in alcoholic
material which comprises covering the burning
30 material with foam produced by a mixture of
water and lauryl pyridinium sulphate.
3. A ?re extinguishing medium comprising a
mixture of liquid and a compound selected from
the group consisting of high molecular quater—
35 nary ammonium, phosphonium and sulphonium
compounds.
-
.
4. A ?re extinguishing medium comprising a
mlxture of water and a compound selected from
' the group consisting of high molecular quarter'
ammonium compound.
‘
‘
9. A ?re extinguishing medium comprising an
aqueous solution of a pyridinium salt.
-
10. A ?re extinguishing medium comprising
an aqueous solution of lauryl Pyridinium sul
phate.
_
11. A method of extinguishing ?re which com
prises producing a combustion smothering foam 30
with a mixture of water and a. pyridinium com
pound.
12. An
<~
alcoholic combustion
'
extinguishing
mixture comprising water and a foam producing
medium including a quaternary ammonium com~. 35
pound selected from the group consisting of com
pounds derived from aliphatic, armomatic and
mixed tertiary amines.
HEINRICH BERTSCH.
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