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Патент USA US2137001

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Nov. 15, 1938.
‘v
.
‘
G. A. HEALIS
2,137,001
CIRCUIT BREAKER AND ENERGY ABSORBER THEREFOR
Filed Aug. 29, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet
INVEN TOR.
BY
A TTORNE Y.
l
‘Nov. 15; 1938.
V
G, A__HEAL|$ ’
4
‘
2,137,001
CIRCUIT BREAKER ‘AND ENERGY ABSORBER THEREFOR
Filed Aug. 29, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheeiv
@E
.INVENTOYR.
BY
‘@“wa'M
ATTORNEY. ’
Patented Nov. 15, 1938
2,131,001
‘ UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,137,001
CIRCUIT BREAKER sun ENERGY
ABSORBER THEREFOR
George A. Healis, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to
I-T-E Circuit Breaker Company, Philadelphia,
‘ Pa., a corporation of New Jersey
Application August 29, ‘1936, Serial No. 98,582
21 Claims. (Cl. 200-166)
My invention relates, to circuit interrupters, , double‘ function of displacing one friction mem~
circuit
‘ ber with‘respect to the other and of developing
“ breakers, ‘and has for an object the provision of
a simple, reliable and inexpensive means operable
5 in accordance withrthe amount of kinetic energy
of the circuit breaker parts ‘for absorbing their
energy to prevent rebound of the contact struc
ture and deformation of the parts.
My invention is an improvement upon the
10 arrangement described in co-pending application
"particularly , to automatic _ high speed
a substantial force which presses them against
each other to increase the friction between them.
,
the opposition offered by the friction members.
In one form of my invention the crank arm 10
supports one end of a spring which serves to
Deans and assigned to the assignee of the present
transmit and to apply to the friction members
invention.
,
15 stored in the movable parts of the circuit breaker
is absorbed by friction developed between mem
bers movable relatively to each other. By ab
‘sorbing their energy, the movable parts are rap
idly decelerated and brought to standstill. The
20 time required to open the circuit is not decreased
since‘ the deceleration of the parts occurs only
after the movable contact structure has moved
substantially to its open circuit position.
My invention is particularly useful in connec- ‘
25 tion with circuit breakers of relatively large cur
rent-carrying capacity where the parts, because
of the masses of metal necessary to carry the
normal, and to withstand overload, currents, are
necessarily heavy, and the opening speed is high.
30 Accordingly, with relatively heavy parts moving
at high speed, the energy dissipated by suddenly
, arresting movement of the parts, as by striking
a fixed stop, which may be a part of the frame
or one of the pivot pins of the circuit breaker,
produces an impact force whose magnitude is
many times that developed by a graduated but
rapid deceleration of the members to standstill.
As a result of the foregoing phenomena, exempli
?ed by the use of . the ordinary hammer, the
40 repeated hammer-blows on the stopping member
not only caused its deformation but also transmit
ted the hammer blows to the other parts of the
circuit breaker, causing rapid deformation and
excessive wear of their pivot pins and associated
45
is operativeiy associated with a friction surface
in such manner as to increase with displacement
Serial No. 98,276, ?led August 28, 1936, by William
In accordance with ‘my invention, the energy
35
My invention is particularly characterized by 5
the provision of a crank arm one end of which
parts.
Further in accordance with my invention,
hammeryblows or impact forces are eliminated
by securing to one of the switch members suit
able friction material and arranging a second
member provided with friction material for slid
ing movement thereover as the circuit breaker is
the force of the spring developed in part by their
relative displacement so that the opposition to
movement increases with increase of displace 15
ment and with increase in the kinetic energy of
the parts.
For a more complete understanding of my in
vention reference may now be had to the accom
panying drawings in which:
‘
20
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of'a circuit
breaker embodying my invention with certain
parts in section and certain partsomitted;
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of a three-pole circuit
breaker formed by three units of the type shown 25
in Fig. 1;'
i
i
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the actuating
member of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a fractional side elevational view of
the circuit breaker of Fig. 1 with some of the
parts omitted and illustrates the position of the
energy absorbing means after opening movement
of the circuit breaker has been completed;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the brake blocks
of Figs. 1 and 4;
35
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a modified form of
the brake block.
Referring to Fig. 1, I have shown my invention
in one form as applied to a circuit breaker
mounted upon an insulated base or panel Ill 40
through which extend studs or‘ terminal con
,nectors II and I2 ‘respectively connected to sta
tionary contacts I! and II. To complete a cir
cuit between contacts II and H, a bridging mem
ber l5, consisting of a plurality of resilient or 45
spring laminations, preferably of copper, is sup
ported on a movable arm l6, itself pivotally
mounted on a pivot pin H for movement between
open and closed circuit positions. ‘The pin I1
is supported by a pair of side plates i8, only one
of which is shown.
To relieve the bridging mem- -
ber l5 from the duty of interrupting the circuit,
opened. A spring normally biases one member
in a position to'be engaged by a movable part
of the circuit breaker, the engagement taking
the upper end of the arm i8 is provided with an
arcing contact l9 formed of arc resistance ma
place along an inclined‘surface which serves the
terial arranged to cooperate with an arcing con— 66
2
2,137,001
tact 20 electrically connected to the stationary
22, acting directly upon the knee-pivot pin 23 of
contact i3. The arrangement is such that the
contacts I9 and 20 are separated after separa
tion of bridging member I! from its associated
the toggle comprising link 24 and member 29
moves‘ the pin 23 toward the panel i0 and a strong
contacts 13 and I4.
clockwise direction. to move the arm I! in a
The switch or circuit breaker operating mech
anism may be of the type described in U. S.
Letters Patent No. 2,025,781, granted December
31, 1935, upon application of W. M. Scott, Jr.
10
More speci?cally, the arm i6 is biased for move
ment from a closed circuit position to an open
circuit position by means of a powerful spring 22
connected at one end to a pivot pin 23 and at its
other end to a suitable ?xed point, as shown, to
15 the pivot pin H.
A double system of toggles,
comprising toggle links 24, 25 and 23 pivotally
connected together at corresponding ends by a
pivot pin 21, cooperate to hold the switch mem
ber It in its closed circuit position and also serve
20 to operate it from its open to its closed circuit
position. The ends of toggle links 24 and 25 re
mote fromthe pin 21 are, respectively, pivotally
connected at 23 and 23 to an actuating member
29 and to the arm I‘. The ends of the links 26
25 remote from the pin 21 are supported from ?xed
pivot pins 30 supported by the side plates i8. '
With the parts in their closedv circuit positions,
as illustrated in Fig. 1, the pivot pins 21, 28 and
30 are in substantial alignment; the spring 22
30 tends to rotate the links 26 in a clockwise direc
tion but their movement is prevented by the link
component of its force rotates the links 23 in a
clockwise direction and towards its open circuit
- position.v Combined with the opening force of
the spring 22, to produce extremely high speed
movement of arm i6 and contacts I! and is to
‘open circuit position, are the forces due to the 10
resilience of the movable contacts and/or their
supports.
'
I
'
,
' Circuit breakers of the type here under con
sideration may be designed to carry current of
magnitudes upwardly of 8000 amperes at 600 15
volts and to interrupt a possible short-circuit
current of 400,000 amperes. ‘Consequently the
parts are relatively heavy to provide sufficient
mechanical strength and to carry or withstand
large values of current.
.
20
Because of the relatively heavy mass of the
arm l6 and its associated movable parts, it will
be readily understood the kinetic energy of those
parts during opening of the switch is propor
tional to the square of their respective speeds. 25
Moreover, since the maximum speed occurs as
the movable contact structure l5, l6, l9 reaches
its fully open position, the kinetic energy of the
movable structure is greatest as it reaches its
limit of movement. Heretofore the impacts, or 30
blows, delivered to stationary stops, in arresting
24, the actuating member 23 pivoted at 32, and by 'movement of the ‘contact structure, have caused
v a latch 33 pivotally connected at 34' to member deformation of the stop members as well as defor
‘ 29 and engaging a stop 35 carried by a switch mation or excessive wear'of the pivoted portions
35 operating member 33. The pivot pin 23 occupies of the movable parts. The ‘result, was a short
aposition just short of alignment with pivot pins ened life of the mechanism. There was also a 35
21 and 32.
_
tendency of the parts to rebound,>in' some cases
The force directly applied by the spring 22 to su?iciently to return the contact structure sub
the actuating member 23 is resisted by the latch stantially to its closed circuit position. The re
33 but a component thereof tends to rotate the a suit was rapid burning of the contact surfaces
and a failure of the circuit breaker to interrupt
the overload or short circuit current in a time
short enough to prevent damage to the conduc
tors or to devices connected in the circuit.
45 by operating member 33, to prevent release of
In accordance with the present invention, the
the main latch. A second relatively light spring energy of the moving parts of the circuit-breaker
31a tends toretain the auxiliary latch 31 in its as they approach their limit of movement towards
latch 33 to its unlatchedposition against the'bias
of a relatively weak spring 33a. An auxiliary
latch 31 pivotally mounted at" to the main latch
33 has a shoulder 33 engaging a stop 40, carried
latching position.
'
The operating member 33, biased by spring 22
50 through member 23 and latch 33 for rotation in'
a counterclockwise direction, is latched into the
position shown in-Fig. 1 by a latching member
‘I pivoted thereto at “a and engaging the hook
shaped end of a member 42 secured to one of the
55 side plates i3.
.
To open the circuit breaker, a tripping mem
ber 43 may be manually rotated about its pivot
, circuit opening position is'rapidly dissipated as
work required to move friction surfaces relative
to‘each other. In this manner the moving parts
are rapidly decelerated and brought to standstill
without decreasing the opening speed of the cir
cuit breaker. Deformation of parts, excessive
wear, and tendency of the parts to rebound are
substantially and effectively ' eliminated.v The
latter feature, as pointed out above, becomes im
portant when short circuit currents are inter- .
43a to release the latch 31 or it may be operated rupted because any return movement ‘of the con
automatically in response to an electrical con- ;., tact members toward closed position decreases j
60 dition of the circuit.
If the circuit breaker is to
be opened in response to overload current of pre
detemiined magnitude, an arm 44 pivoted at 45
may be attracted by a U-shaped magnetic struc
ture, l3 ‘surrounding the stationary contact ll.
65 Accordingly, when su?lcient magnetic flux is
produced by the ?ow of current through the cir
cuit breaker, the arm 44 is rotated in a clockwise
direction to move the tripping member. 43 against
the auxiliary latch 31. Upon exertion of the
70 slight amount of force'necessary to release the
- 1 auxiliary latch, the main latch 33, already biased
to a releasing position, frees the movable contact
structure for movement to its open circuit posi
tion.
'
>
‘
1
-
'
Upon release of the latch 33 the powerful spring
the air gap between the contact structures and
may delay extinguishment of an are drawn be
60
tween the contacts, or may result in re-ignition ‘
of an arc.
.
.
As shown, the energy absorber and dlssipater
comprises a brake block or friction member I]
having secured to its upper and lower surfaces 65
friction elements 5| and 52 formed of woven fabric
impregnated with a phenolic condensation prod
uct though a good grade of automobile, or other
type of, brake lining material may be used. The
block‘ 50 is arrangedfor sliding movement be 70
tween two upstanding armsgll and I‘, Fig. 3,
formed integrally with the actuating member 20,
the surface 29a between the upstanding arms be
ing machined to provide a smooth surface with 75
3
which“, the friction element II ‘cooperates. If
desired, however, the surface Ila may be rough
‘ or otherwise formed to increase the frictional
resistance.
is
a
‘
.
a
One end of the block . ll is wedge-shaped,
V that is to say, it has an inclined face 80a while
its opposite end is recessed to form a spring-seat
for one end of the‘compression spring ll. The
opposite end of the compression spring is, mount
ed upon a spring seat carried by the lower end '
by an increased force applied by surfaceils to
surface‘ lla.
Energy absorbing and dissipating devices con
structed as aforesaid have proved to be entirely
satisfactory to bring the moving parts of a cir
‘ cuit breaker to a‘standstill with minimum shock.
Impact forces or hammer-blows upon the piv
otal connections were substantially entirely elimi-'
nated.
‘
‘
Continuing. with the operation of the circuit 10
51a of a crank arm 51 pivotally‘securedatjl breaker, as the switch arm Il reachm its fully
to the arms 54 and 55. The opposite end, 51b of opened position, the brake block ll, by reason
the crank arm nests within. a notch provided ‘of its displacement, has so greatly increased the
in a plate 59 which slidably“ engages the fric
pressure upon‘the friction surfaces, it is den-u
tion element 52. It will be observed the spring nitely brought to standstill; ‘that is to say, the 15
.il normally biases the block 50 to a position in
spaced relation ‘from the end 51a of the crank
arm, or to 'a position near one, the forward, end
of the surface 29a.
‘
I ._
_
The surface We is preferably inclined at an
angle of approximately 52° with respect to the
plane friction surfaces of elements 5i and 52,
although the angle of surface liia may‘ vary sub
stantially; for example, it may have a value
. between 40°‘ and 770°,‘though‘ for special ‘cases
.it may be selected either above or below these
limits. As shown in Fig. 6, the block 50 may be
‘provided with a curved surface 500 formed so
that lines tangent thereto form angles with the
friction surfaces which vary‘ from about 70° to
about, 40° as ,they approach ‘the lower part of
‘member 50.
Again referring to ‘the operation‘ of the circuit
friction forces after substantial displacement‘ of
the block ll become so great. the block ll itself
acts as a rigid stop, but since the 'major portion
of the kinetic energy has already been absorbed,
it is not, when acting as a stop, subject to blows 20
of a deforming or damaging magnitude. If some
deformation of the inclined face or. surface lla
occurs, operation of the circuit breaker is in .no
‘way affected. Moreover, when necessary, the
block ‘ll may be readily and economically re 25
placed, although such replacement‘ is seldom
‘ necessary.
I
I
i
As shown in Fig. 6, the inclined surface lle
is to advantage curved somewhat at its upper
end so that the surface Ila initially‘causes a'
relatively small displacement of block ll. The
same result may be approximated by selecting
_ the spring ll with characteristics such that sub
breaker “to the openposition, it will be remem
stantial initial compression of the spring does
bered that as pivotpins 23 and 21 move inwardly . not transmit forces to the. crank arm as large as
"toward the panel III, the actuating member ll for ‘later compression of the spring.‘ For ex
".‘rotates in a counterclockwise‘direction, ‘and the
ample, several turns of the spring. particularly
switch arm I6 moves rapidly in a clockwise di
" rection towards its open circuit position. As the
‘may be ofless diameter thanthe remaining turns ‘
140 rounded. surface Ila approaches the brake‘ block
or friction member 50, the parts are arranged so
‘ that engagement between ‘the two‘surfaces Ila
and 50a occurs at the upper. or rearward portion
a
f‘of inclined faceor surface
"a. ‘ Subsequent
movement of surface. Ila; upon the inclined face
We displaces the brake“ block 50 and, applies to
it a substantial force in ,a direction topress it
‘against the plane surface 29a‘ of ‘the actuating
member. ‘The drag exerted upon plate 59 by
movement of friction‘ material 52 is in a direc
tion to rotate the crank arm I] in a direction
to ‘increase the‘ pressure on the block 50. As
shown in Fig. 4, as, the crank rotates in a counter
clockwise direction, the for‘ce due to this effect
becomes very great. The crank,due to the pro
portioning of its parts, has a toggle-like or wedg
ing action; that is to say, the braking force ap
plied to the block. is many times greater than
the force of the drag whichfenergizes the crank.
(30
The spring 58, by displacement of the brake
‘block W, is compressed. and by means of crank
arm l1 applies a pressure to the plate 59 simul
taneously to increase the frictional resistance
offered by the energy dissipater. Accordingly,
the block is self-energized; that is, large friction
forcesnare produced which do not depend upon
the inclinationof surfaceliia. Moreover, when
the parts are moving at greater speed, greater
forces are exerted between the friction surfaces
to increase the amount of energy absorbed. Spe
those within the recessed end of the .block ll,
of the‘ spring. With‘such an arrangement the 40
initial force transmitted would be much less per
unit of change of displacement than after the
time thersmaller turns of the spring engage each
other to start compression of the turns of the
spring having the larger diameter.
The aforesaid selection of the angle of. the in
clined surface lls rests upon the assumption the
surface Ila' moves in a substantially straight line
across and normal to the surface 500. . If the co
operating surface, as surface Ila, approaches
through a different path, the angle of ‘surface
No is selected to produce the desired displace
ment.
‘
‘
‘
Preparatory to reclosure of the circuit breaker‘
the latch ‘ll of the operating member ll is re- l
leased.‘ during opening of the circuit breaker,‘ by
movement‘ of a projection or roller 8!,‘ carried by
member", over a cam surface lib.
‘
In order to reclose the circuit breaker an cper-.
ating handlell, secured to the operating mem 60
ber ll,‘ is rotated in a counterclockwise direction
until the stop ll is moved into a position ‘again
to be engaged, by the main latch ll. this engage
ment being ‘effected by the bias of the spring
Ila. At the same time the auxiliary ‘latch 81 and
the operating member ll are effectively‘ secured
to the actuating member I! so that by returning
the handle ll and member ll to their original
positions, the circuit breaker is reclosed.
Upon initial movement of the actuating mem
ber" in a clockwise direction, the spring ll is
effective to move the. friction member of brake
block ll towards its original or normal position.
cifically, the component of force, due to the in
lined surface lilo, which presses block 50 against
member" increases with increase in kinetic en
ergy. Thus higher speeds of the parts result in
In this connection, movement of block ll towards
greater rates of acceleration of block ll caused
its original position exerts a drag on the crank
2,137,001
II in a direction tending to decrease the pressure
mechanical means operable in accordance with
by the crank applied to the' block.
the displacement of said one member for press
ing said surfaces against each other with a pres
‘
>
If the spring 56 is sufficiently strong; it may,
vafter opening‘of the circuit breaker, rotate the
actuating member 29in a clockwise direction to
return thelbrake block 50 to its original position.
At any rate the brake block W is returned tofits
original position prior to reclosure of the circuit
- breaker. . Thus thelenergy absorber and, dissi
10 pater is effective, should the circuit breaker be
tripped during the reclosingvoperation, to pre
sure which rises with the extent of displacement
I of said one member.
f 4. Means for absorbing‘ the energy of the mov
able parts'of a_circuit‘ breaker incident to their
movement from‘a closed to'an open circuit posi
tion comprising relatively movable members, one
of which is provided with a friction surface slid 10
able over a surface of the other member, means
vent shock and injury to the parts.‘
'
operable by one of the parts of said circuit-breaker
-The circuit-closing operation is complete as _ for displacing one of said members with respect
soon as the latch‘ 4i engages the member‘ 42, al
to the other, means operable ‘with a wedging
though, as indicated, the circuit breaker is trip
free; that is, it may be automatically opened
. irrespective of, and without interference from,
the operating member 36 and its associated
handle
62.
v
,
'
tween said members.
‘ From the foregoing it will be readily apparent
that my invention‘ls applicable to circuit break
ers of any number of poles. For" example, in
Fig. 2 I have shown 'a three-pole circuit breaker,
> each pole being identical with the one shown in
Fig. 1. The actuating members 29 of each pole
are connected together by a common cross
member 65. Similarly the trip members N are
secured together by a cross-member 66. ' The
foregoing arrangement insures that an overload
30, upon one of the‘ poles of the circuit breaker is
effective to trip all of the poles thereof to open
circuit ‘position.
...The circuit breaker may be manually opened
by means of a tripping member 61 secured to the
cross~member 66.
,
action by one of'said ‘members to press said fric 15
tion surfaces against each other, and means for
further increasing the pressure upon said sur
faces in accordance with the displacement be
-
_
'
5. Means for absorbing the energy of the mov 20
able parts of a circuit breaker incident to their
movement from a closed to an open circuit position
comprising ‘a pair of switch members having fric
tion surfaces, one of which is slidable with respect
to the other, and mechanical means energized 25
‘ from one of said members for applying a pressure
on said friction surfaces which increases in ac
cordance with the extent of displacement between
' said members.
6. Means for absorbing the energy of the mov 30
able parts of a circuit breaker incident to their
movement from one position to another compris
ing a member provided‘ with a friction surface,
means slidably vmounting said member upon one
of the partsof said circuit breaker, said member
While I have shown a particular embodiment , being provided with an inclined surface arranged
of my invention, itwill be:understood, of course, to ‘be engaged by another part of said circuit
that I do not wish to be limited thereto, since breaker for displacement ofsaid member as the
many modifications may be made, and I there
movable parts approach one of their limits of
fore contemplate by the appended claims to cover movement, a crank arm, one portion of which co 40
' any suchv modi?cations as fall within the spirit
and scope‘ of my invention.
What I claim is:
‘
operatively engages "said member to ,press said
friction member against said cooperating surface,
. >
and a spring, associated‘ withpthe other end of
1. In a circuit breaker having contact struc
said crank arm, operable on displacement of said
45 tures one of which is-moved relative to the other memberfor pressing said ?rst-named end of said
from a closed to an‘ open circuit position, the , crank arm against said member to increase the
combination of friction means comprising solid pressure between said surfaces.
bodies in- sliding contact with each other for
7. I Means for absorbing the energy of the mov
opposing opening - movement of said movable _ able parts of a circuit breaker incidenttotheir
50 structure, and mechanical means for increasing movement from one position to another compris
, as a function of the speed and ‘displacement of ing a memberprovided with friction surfaces on
said movable~ structure the opposition offered by opposite sides thereof, means having‘ a cooperat
thefriction produced by the sliding contact be
tween said solid bodies to said opening move
ment of vsaid movable structure.
2. In a circuit breaker ‘having contact'struc
tures one of whichis moved relative to the other
from a closed to an open circuit position, the
combination of friction‘ means comprising solid
bodies in sliding contact with each other for op
posing openingv movement of said movable struc
ture, and mechanical means operable by‘ said
movable structure for continuously increasing
the opposition to said opening movement of said
65 movable structure by the friction produced bythe
sliding contact between said solid bodies.
3. Means for absorbihg the energy of the mov
able partsv of a circuit breaker incident to their
movement from'a closed to an open circuit posi
70 tion compris..1g a‘ pair of relatively movable
members one of which is provided with a friction
surface slidable with respect to the surface of the
other member, means operable by onelof the
parts of said circuit breaker for displacing one
75 ‘ofsaid members with'respect to the other, and
ing surface overwhich one of said friction sur
faces is slidable, a brake block engaging the
otheri‘of said friction surfaces, a crank arm, one
end of which cooperates with said block, a spring
associated with: the opposite end of said crank
arm and operable by displacement of said. mem
ber for simultaneously pressing said brake block
and said adjoining friction surfaces against each 60
other.
‘
s,
,I
.
‘ 8.‘In a circuit breaker provided with a mov
able swltch member, actuating means therefor,
the combination of means for absorbing the en
ergy of the movable parts of the circuit breaker 65
incident to their movement from a closed to an
open circuit position, comprising a member hav
ing a surface slidable along a surface of said
actuating member, at least one of said surfaces
comprising friction material, means operable by 70
one of the partsof said circuit breaker for dis
placing ,said member with respect to said actu
ating member, and mechanical means for press
ing said surfaces against each other with a pres
sure which increases during displacement of said 75
,
2,187,001
member and which is substantially reduced upon
one end of said block having an inclined surface,
disengagement of said member and said dis- ‘ means biasing said block to a position where an
placing means.
upper‘ portion of said inclined surface is engaged
9. Means for absorbing the energy of the mov- . by said contact structure as the latter approaches
. able parts of a circuit breaker incident, to their ‘its open circuit, position, further movement of
movement from one switching position to ‘an
other comprising a switch member having a fric
tion surface, a second switch member having a
cooperating friction surface and‘an inclined face
adjacent one end thereof engageable by one of
“said parts of said circuit breaker for displacement
of said friction surfaces, and means for pressing
said surfaces against each other with a pressure
which increases with relative displacement of
15
said‘ surfaces.
'
,
10. Means for absorbing the energy of the mov
able‘ parts of a circuit breaker incident to their
movement from one switching position to an
other comprising a switch member having a fric
tion surface, a second switch member, having a
‘said structure displacing one of said friction sur
faces relative to the other, and a crank arm piv
oted to said operating member, one end of said
arm cooperatively engaging said brake block and
the other end of said arm disposed adjacent the
end of said brake block opposite its inclined sur
face, said biasing means including a compression
spring interposed between said brake block and
vsaid last-named end of said crank arm.
‘14. In a circuit breaker having contact struc 15
ture movable at high speed from one position to
another and an operating member for operating
said contact structure to said one position, the
combination of means for absorbing the energy
of the movable parts of said circuit breaker dur
cooperating friction surface and an inclined face ing its high speed operation comprising a‘brake
adjacent one end thereof engageable by one of block having a pair of friction surfaces and‘ an
said parts of said circuit breaker for displace
inc‘ined surface at one end thereof and between‘
said friction surfaces, said operating member hav
ment of said friction surfaces, a crank arm hav
25 ing its respective‘ ends cooperatively associated
ing a‘ plane surface disposed between upwardly
‘ with said switch members, and a compression
spring interposed between one end of said crank
arm and said second switch member for increas
ing the pressure between said surfaces in accord
30 ance‘with the‘ extent of displacement of said sec~
ond switch member relative to said first-named
switch member.
11. Means for absorbing the energy of the mov
able parts of a circuit breaker incident to their
35 movement from one switch position to another
comprising a switch member having a friction
surface, and an inclined face adjacent one end
thereof engageable by one of said parts of said
circuit breaker for displacement of said friction
40 surfaces, a crank arm having its respective ends
cooperatively associated with said switch mem
bers, and a compression spring‘interposed be
tween one end of said crank arm and said sec
ond switch member for increasing the pressure
between said surfaces in accordance with the ex
tent of displacement ‘of said second switch mem
ber relative to said first-named switch member,
said spring. upon disengagement of said inclined
face from said part of said circuit breaker re
turning said second switch member to its original
position.
12. In a circuit breaker, an operating member
for closing the circuit breaker, a means for open
ing the circuit breaker, said operating member
having a friction surface, a brake block having
55 a cooperating friction surface, a crank arm, one
end of which cooperates with said block to press
said surfaces against each other, one end of said
block having an inclined face engageable by a
movable part of said circuit breaker for displac
60 ing one of said surfaces relative to the other, and
a compression spring supported between the op
posite end of said block and the opposite end of
said crank arm.
‘
‘
13. In a circuit breaker having movable con
65 tact structure movable to an open circuit, posi
extending arms thereof and cooperating with one
‘of said friction surfaces, a‘ crank arm pivoted
between said arms, a compression spring inter
posed between one‘ end of said crank arm and
said brake‘ block, and a pressure plate interposed
between the‘other end of said crank arm and the
other of said friction surfaces, one of said mov
able parts engaging said inclined surface during
said high speed operation to displace said block
and to compress said spring.
15. Energy absorbing means for a circuit break
e‘rcomprising a brake block, opposite surfaces of
‘which are lined with friction material, one end
portion of which is wedge-shaped and a spring
seat at the opposite end thereof, a movable part 40
of said circuit breaker having at least one sur
face over which said brake block is slidable, a
crank arm pivoted to said movable part, a spring
supported between said spring-seat and one end
‘of said‘ crank arm for biasing the opposite end
45
of said crank arm against said block, and means
engaging said‘wedge-shaped end to move said
friction ‘surfaces relative to said movable part and
to compress said spring, said crank arm trans
‘ mitting the force of said spring to said block to
increase the pressure upon said surfaces in ac- ‘
cordance with the extent of relative movement
of said surfaces.
16, A circuit breaker comprising fixed contact
structure, a movable system including cooperat
ing ‘contact structure movable to open circuit po
sition, means for braking said movable contact
structure comprising a braking member friction
ally engaging and movable with respect to a co
operating member, brake-actuating means in
cluded in said movable system engaging and actu
ating said first-named braking member with ap
' plication‘ thereto of a force having a component
acting upon said first-named braking member in
direction substantially corresponding with the di
tion, an operating member, a toggle interposed , rection of its movement with respect to its said
cooperating member, and mechanical means ac
movable to, a collapsed position, means operable, tuated by said ?rst-named braking member for
upon movement of said contact structure to open transmitting said force component and redi
position, to move said operating member towards ; recting application thereof to said first-named
between said member and said structureand
, circuit breaker comprising a brake block having
braking member to increase its pressure upon its 70
said cooperating member.
17. A circuit breaker comprising fixed contact
a friction surface slidably movable over a coop
75 crating friction surface of said operating member,
contact structure movable to open circuit position, 7;
said structure, the combination of means for
absorbing the energy of the moving parts of said
structure, a movable system including cooperating
6
2,137,001
'means‘for braking said movable contact structure
open circuit position and having components, one
comprising a braking member frictionally engag
of which acts upon said ?rst-named braking mem
ber in direction to increase its pressure upon its
ing and movable with respect to a cooperating
member, brake-actuating vmeans included in said ‘said cooperating member, and another of which
acts upon said ?rst-named braking member in
movable system engaging and actuating said first
named braking member with application thereto
or avforce having components, one of which acts
upon said ?rst-named braking member in direc
tion to increase its pressure uponwits said cooper
10 ating member, and another of'which acts vupon
said ?rst-named braking v‘member in, direction
substantially corresponding with the direction of
' its'movement with. respect to its said cooperating
member, and'mechanical means actuated by said
"15
?rst-named braking member for transmitting said
second~named force component and redirecting
application thereof to said ?rst'named‘ braking
member to increase its pressure upon its said co
operating member.
20'
.
18. A circuit breaker comprising ?xed contact
structure, a movable system including cooperating
contact structuremovable to open circuit posi
tion, means for braking said movable contact
‘structure comprising arbraking member friction
25 ally engaging and, movable with respect to a
direction substantially corresponding with the
direction of its movement with respect to its said
cooperating member, and mechanical means ac
tuated by said ?rst-named braking member for
transmitting said second-named force component 10
and redirecting application thereof to said ?rst
named braking member to increase its pressure
upon its said cooperatingmember.
20.’ In a ‘circuit breaker having ?xed contact
structure and a movable system including coop
erating contact structure movable to open cir
cuit position, the combination of a braking mem
ber frictionally engaging and movable with re
spect to a cooperating member, brake-actuating
means included in said movable system engaging
and displacing said ?rst-named member relative
to its cooperating member after substantial cir
cuit-opening movement of said system, and means
including a pivoted arm operable by said displace
ment 'for increasing the pressure between said
members rapidly to increase the braking effort
cooperating member, brake-actuating means in
cluded in said movable system engaging and ac ' opposing opening movement of said system, and
tuating said ?rst-named braking member with means operable during circuit-closing movement
application thereto of a force whose magnitude of said system for producingra return movement
of said ?rst-named member, said means includ 30
30 is dependent upon the speed at which said mov
able system moves to open circuit position and ing said pivoted arm upon initiation of said re
having a component acting upon'said ?rst-named turn movement being effective greatly to reduce
the braking e?ort opposing said return movement.
braking member indirection substantially corre
21. In a circuit breaker having a movable sys
sponding with the direction of its movement with
tem including contact structure biased to open
35 respect to its said cooperating member, and me
chanical means actuated byv said ?rst-named circuit position, the combination of cooperating
braking members at least one of which is dis
, braking member’for transmitting said’ force com
ponent and redirecting application thereof to said placeable with respect to the other member,
?rst-named braking member to increase its pres~ brake-actuating means included in said system
sure upon its said cooperating member.
'
19. A circuit breaker having ?xed contact struc
ture, a movable system including cooperating con
tact structure movable to open circuit position,
means for braking saidmovable contact‘ structure
45 comprising a braking member frictionally engag
ing and movable with respect to a cooperating
member, brake-actuating means included in said
movable system engaging and actuating said ?rst
named braking member with application thereto
engaging and producing said displacement of said 40
one member, and means for increasing the brak
ing effort quickly to bring said system to stand
still comprising a pivoted arm for pressing said
members against each other, means exerting a
frictional drag upon one end of said arm to pro
duce with respect to its pivot altoggle-like or
wedging action greatly to increase with said dis
placement the pressure of said members, one
against the other.
or a force whose magnitude is dependent upon
the speed at which said movable system moves to
GEORGE A. HEALIS.
' CERTIFICATE or CORRECTION.
-
I, November l5, 1958.
Patent No. 2,157,001.v
GEORGE: A. HEALIS .
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first
column, line 57, claim 11, afterthe comma and before the word "and" in
sort --'a second switchinemberhavingacooperatingfriction surf'ace-—; page
‘6, second column, line 58‘, claim 21, for "member" read “members-e;
and
that the said Letters Patent‘ should be read with this correction therein
that ‘the s'amevmay conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 28th day of January, A_ D, 191,1.
_
(Seal)
Henry Van Arsdale,
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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