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Патент USA US2137068

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Nov‘. 15, 1938.
c. E, VALENTINE ET AL
2,137,068
C ONTAC TLES S REGULATOR
Filed Jan. 29. 1958
25
_
172g. 1.
.
' 43
INVENTORS
Vincent E. Thar?bwg
2:53
V mm
2,137,068
Patented Nov. 15, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE;
2,137,068
CONTACTIEBS REGULATOR
Oarroll E. Valentine, Forest mils, and Vincent
E. Thornburg, Pittsburgh, Pa" assignors to
Westinghouse Electric 4: Manufacturing Com-
pany, East Pittsburgh, 2a.,’ a corporation
Pennsylvania
of
.
Application January 29, 1938, Serial No. 187,692
10 Claims. (Cl. 1'l1—119)
Our invention relates to electrical regulator
systems and particularly to regulating systems
in which a primary regulating control element
is employed that does not require movable con
5 tact members or wearing parts.
In mechanical type regulators for controlling
the value of electrical quantities, it has been
common practice to use contact members that
are subject to wear for controlling a variable
10 resistor or similar element. The contact oper
ating mechanism also employs movable parts
such as pivot pins that are subject to wear and
which, therefore, periodically or ultimately re
quire readjustment or replacement. In a num
ber of such applications, if periodic servicing and
readjustment of the parts is not properly made,
improper operation of the mechanism results.
It is an object of our invention to provide an
electrical regulator‘ without contacts and essen
20 tially without parts subject to wear or deteriora
tion, thus avoiding the necessity for servicing at
frequent intervals.
It is a further object of our invention to pro
vide a regulator of the above-indicated charac
25 ter having a control element consisting of a
spring mounted movable member actuated by an
electromagnet and restrained by a spring.
Qthe‘r objects and advantages of our inven
tion will be apparent from the following de
30 scription of a preferred embodiment thereof
taken together with the accompanying drawing,
in which:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of circuits
and apparatus illustrating a preferred embodi
35
ment of the invention;
Figs. 2i-xand 3 are plan and elevational views,
respectively, of a‘ preferred embodiment of the
primary control element; and,
Figs. 4 and 5 are diagrammatic views of modi
40 fled portions of the circuits shown in Fig. l. '
Referring particularly to Figs. 2 and 3, the
operating mechanism of the primary regulator
control element employed corresponds to that
described and claimed in application Serial No.
45 118,554 of C. R. Hanna for Voltage regulator, ?led
December 31, 1936, and assigned to the same
assignee as this application.
In the above-named application, the primary
element employs a movable armature to operate
50 contact members to control a variable resistor,
while in the present construction, the primary
element is employed for actuating a vane of
magnetic material in an air gap. The primary
element comprises a supporting panel I upon
55 which is suitably mounted a core structure 2
having two outer winding legs 4 and 5 which ter
minate with an air gap between each other and
also between a central leg 3. The outer wind
ing legs 4 and 8 support windings ‘l and 8, re
spectively, that are connected in series with each
other to a source of alternating-current supply.
A movable vane 3 is provided and positioned to
move in the air gap between the end of the cen~
tral leg 3 of the core structure and the ends of
the winding legs 4 and 5 to vary the reluctance of 10
the magnetic circuits associated with the wind
ings ‘l and 3. Means is provided for actuating
the vane 8 comprising a core structure 3 of mag
netic material having a winding leg for accom
modating an energizing winding H and provid 15
ing a space in the magnetic circuit for accom
modating an armature i2 attached to a lever i3
that is pivotally mounted to the core structure
to form a pivot line indicated at i4 and deter—
mined by the line of intersection of ?at vertical 20
and horizontal spring members 15 and I6 ex
tending between a block i'l carried by the lever
l3 and the upper portion of the core structure 9.
One end of a spring II is attached to a stud
l9 carried by the lever i 3, the other end of the 25
spring being attached to a stud 2| carried by the
supporting bracket 22 mounted on the panel i.
The arrangement oi‘- the apparatus and the cir
cuits connecting. the various parts thereof is
best shown in Fig.1, in which an alternating 30
current generator 25 is illustrated as supplying
circuit conductors 23, the voltage of which it is
desired to maintain at some desired value.
The
generator 25 is provided with a ?eld winding 21
connected to be supplied with energy from an 35
exciter generator having an armature 28 con
nected to the ?eld winding 21 through an adjust
ing resistor 29 and conductors 32 and 33. An
exciter ?eld winding 34 is provided for control
ling the excitation of the armature 28, and con 40
sequently the output voltage thereof. This ?eld
winding is supplied with energy from three sepa
rate sources consisting of the armature 28 as a
self-exciting source, a corrective recti?er 35, and
a compounding recti?er 36. The self-exciting 45
circuit or the exciter extends from the positive
terminal of the armature 23 through an adjust
able resistor ", a blocking recti?er 33, conductor
33, a saturating winding 42 on a multiple-legged
reactor 43. conductor 44, through the ?eld wind 50
ing 34 to the negative terminal of the exciter
armature 23. The alternating-current side of
the corrective recti?er 35 is connected to the
secondary winding of a potential transformer 45
through a circuit extending through conductor
2
9,187,068
46,'the recti?er l6, alternating-current wind
ings 41 and 48 of the multiple-legged reactor 46,
conductor 46 to the opposite terminal of the
secondary winding of the transformer 46. The
output circuit from the corrective recti?er 66
ing 34, all three circuits provide for the now of
current in the same direction through the ?eld
winding 34. The circuits are initially so ad
justed that the ?eld current supplied to the wind
ing I4 from the exciter armature 26, together
extends through conductor 62, ?eld winding 64
and conductor 53 to the negative terminal of the
recti?er. The alternating-current side of the
tive recti?er II, when the magnetomotive force
produced by the windings 66 and 61 are of equal
compounding recti?er I6 is connected to a cur
10 rent transformer 54 that is responsive to the out
put current from the generator 26 and therefore
the recti?er 36 supplies direct current that is a
measure of the generator current from the posi
tive terminal of the recti?er 36 through con
with the ?eld current supplied from the correc
intensity and neutralize each other, and the cur
rent supplied from the recti?er I6 is substantially 10
zero, is just enough to supply the minimum ex
citation required for the generator 16. In this
condition of the system, the reactor 43 is partially
saturated by the current ?owing through the
15 ductor 56, conductor 36, saturating winding 42,
winding 42, thereby decreasing the voltage drop
conductor 44, ?eld winding 34 to the negative
terminal of the rectifier 86.
across the alternating-current windings 41 and
The reactor 43 is shown as having three wind
ing legs, the two outer legs accommodating the
corrective recti?er 36 above the minimum value
20 alternating-current windings 41 and 46, and the
inner leg accommodating the aforenamed sat
urating winding 42 and two additional saturating
windings 56 and 61. The winding 66 is connect
ed by conductors 56 and 66 to the output termi
25 nals of a full-wave recti?er L, and the saturating
winding 61 is connected by conductors 62 and
63 to the output terminals of a full-waverecti
?er R.
The recti?ers are so connected to the
windings 56 and 51 that the magnetomotive force
30 produced by the winding 64 opposes the magneto
motive force produced by the winding 42, and the
magnetomotive force produced by the winding
5‘! adds to that produced by the winding 42. The
alternating-current terminals 64 and 66 of the
35 recti?er L are connected to the terminals of the
winding 1 so that the voltage applied to the recti
?er L is a measure of the voltage drop across the
winding 1, and the alternating-current terminal
66 and 61 of the recti?er R are connected to the
40 terminals of the winding 6 so that the voltage
applied thereto is a measure of the voltage drop
across the winding 6. The windings ‘I and 6 are
connected in series circuit relation with each
other to the secondary winding of the voltage
45 transformer 45 through conductors 49 and 66.
The energizing winding i i of the primary con
trol element is energized in accordance with the
voltage of the generator 25 through a voltage
transformer 45, the primary winding of which is
50 connected to the conductors 26, and theses
ondary winding of which is connected to supply
alternating current to the terminals 14 and 15
of the control recti?er 13. The output circuit of
the rectifier supplies undirectional current
55 through conductors 69 and 12 to the winding II.
The sources for energizing the circuit including
the series connected windings 'l and 6 and also
the source for energizing the corrective recti?er
35 and including the windings 41 and 46 may be
60 any suitable alternating-current source other
than the transformer 45, if desired.
A feed-back transformer 16 is provided having
a secondary winding 11 connected in conductor
69 between the recti?er ‘l3 and the energizing
65 winding II, and a primary winding 16 connected
by conductors 53 and 19 to be energized in ac
cordance with the voltage of the exciter arma
ture 28. The feed-back transformer 16 acts as
an anti-hunting or stabilizing transformer to
70 prevent over-shooting of the regulated voltage
beyond the desired value.
It will be noted that, in tracing the circuits
from the three sources, namely, the armature
winding 28, the corrective recti?er 66, and the
75 compounding recti?er 66, through the ?eld wind
46 and increasing the voltage supplied to the
that would be supplied if the core were complete
ly unsaturated.
The tension of the spring I6 is so adjusted
that when the value of the regulated voltage
between conductors 26 is at its desired value, the
pull of the core 9 on the armature I2 is just bal
anced by the tension of the spring l6, so that
the vane 6 is held in substantially its mid-posi
tion, and the reluctance of the two magnetic
paths through the core legs 3 and 4 and the core
legs 3 and 6, respectively, is substantially the
same. Under these conditions the voltage 30
drops across the windings ‘I and 6 are substan
tially equal and the undirectional potentials sup
plied from the recti?ers L and R to the windings
66 and 51, respectively, are substantially equal
and neutralize each other, since they are applied 35
to the saturating leg of the reactor 43 in mag
netic opposition.
If the voltage between the conductors 26 drops
the energization of the winding ll correspond
ingly drops, thus decreasing the pull on the ar 40
mature I2 and permitting the spring it to move
the vane 6 slightly toward the right, as viewed in
each other of the ?gures of the drawing, there
by decreasing the reluctance of the path through
the core legs 5 and 3 and increasing the reluc 45
tance of the path through the core legs 4 and 3.
The voltage drop acrossthe winding 6 is thereby
increased and the voltage drop across the wind
ing 1 is thereby decreased, thus increasing the
energization of the saturating winding 61 and 50
decreasing the energization of the saturating
winding 56 so that the reactor 43 is further sat
urated, and the voltage drop across the windings
41 and 48 decreased to correspondingly increase
the altemating-curreni voltage at the potentials
55
of the recti?er 35, and the unidirectional output
therefrom through the ?eld winding 34 to in
crease the excitation thereof, and corresponding
ly increase the output voltage of the exciter gen
grs'ator armature 28, and of the main generator
As the output voltage of the armature 26 in
creases, the current ?owing in the primary
winding 16 of the feed-back transformer 16 in
creases correspondingly and induces a transient 65
electromotive force in the secondary winding 11
to increase the energization of the winding Ii
sooner than it would be increased by the change
in the potential across conductors 26 alone,
thereby moving the vane 6 towards its mid-posi 70
tion before the increase in excitation of the
generator 25 has been fully realized by a cor
responding increase in the voltage between con
ductors 26.
In a similar manner, if the voltage between con~ 75
i__
3
9,187,088
ductors 28 increases above the desired value, the
energization of the winding ii is correspondingly
increased, thus moving the armature l2 toward
the right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 3, and moving
the vane 8. toward the left, as viewed in each of
the three ?gures, to decrease the reluctance of the
magnetic circuit including the core parts 8 and 4,
and to increase the reluctanceof the magnetic
circuit including the core parts 5 and 8, corre
10 spondingly increasing the voltage drop across
winding ‘I and decreasing the voltage drop across
the winding 8 to increase the energization of the
saturating winding 88 and decrease the energiza
tion of the saturating winding 81. Thus the total
15 saturating e?fect is decreased, since the magne
tomotive force from the winding 88 opposes the
magnetomotive force from the winding 42, and
the magnetomotive force from the winding 51 adds
to the magnetomotive force from the winding 42.
20 The voltage drop across-windings 41 and 48 is
thus increased so that the alternating voltage
impressed on the rectifier 35 is decreased and the
unidirectional output voltage therefrom is corre
spondingly decreased to decrease the total ener
25 gization of the exciter generator ?eld winding
84, and correspondingly decreases the voltage of
the exciter generator armature 28 and of the main
generator 25. During the changing voltage of the
exciter ‘generator armature 28, any feed-back
30 current supplied into the circuit of the winding
Ii by means of the transformer 16 is in a direc
tion to decrease the energization of the winding
II and return the armature i2 and the vane 6
towards their normal or mid-position prior to a
35
completion in the correction of the voltage be
tween conductors 26 to thus stabilize the regu
lator system.
I
,,
If the generator load changes, a corresponding
change in the excitation thereof is required to
40 maintain a-constant terminal voltage. The com—
pounding recti?er 36 is caused to increase its uni
directional output current which fiows through
the saturating winding 42 of the reactor 43 and
through the ?eld winding 34 to give a normal
45 increase in excitation of the generator 25 apart
from that effected by the primary element that
controls the recti?ers L and R in response to the
line circuit voltage, thus decreasing the range of
activity required by the primary element to main
50 tain the desired voltage.
I
In Fig. 4 a modi?cation of a portion of the
circuits shown in Fig. 1 is illustrated in which the
reactor windings ‘I and 8 are connected in parallel
intead of in series circuit relation. With this
55 circuit arrangement condensers 82 and 83 may be
connected in shunt to windings 1 and 8 re
spectively and tuned to give sharp voltage out
put changes from the recti?ers L and R upon
slight movement of the vane 6. The circuits are
60 otherwise as shown in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 5 another modification of the circuit
shown in Fig. l is illustrated, in which the recti
?ers L and R are connected through insulating
transformers 84 and 85 respectively to the sec-_
In this
modi?cation of the circuit resistors 88 and 81
65 ondary winding of the transformer 45.
are connected across the output terminals of rec
tifiers L and R respectively, and a single saturat
ing winding 82 is substituted for the two windings
70 58 and 51 shown in Fig. 1. The winding 92 is
connected between the positive terminals of the
recti?ers L and R by conductors 89 and 98, the
negative terminals being connected together by
conductor 88. The winding 92 is energized in
75 either direction depending upon the differential
values of the output voltage from the recti?ers L
and R.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art
that many modifications may be made in the cir
cuits and apparatus illustrated and described
without departing from the spirit of our inven
tion, and we do not wish to be limited otherwise
than by the scope of the appended claims.
We claim as our invention:
1. In a regular system, an electric circuit, a 10
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld wind
ing and connected for controlling a desired char
acteristic of the circuit, means for controlling
the excitation of said ?eld winding including a
saturable reactor, an alternating current winding
on said reactor and a recti?er having its alter
nating current side connected in series circuit
relation with said reactor for supplying uni
directional current to control the excitation of
said ?eld winding, said reactor having two satu 20
rating windings connected in magnetic opposition,
separate recti?ers for supplying current to said
saturating windings, and means for oppositely
varying the alternating voltage supplied to said
recti?ers comprising a core having two magnetic 25
circuits with a variable air gap in each circuit,
windings provided about portions of each of said
magnetic circuits and connected to a source of
alternating current, and means controlled by the
regulated quantity for oppositely varying said 30,
air gaps.
'
2. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld winding
and connected for controllingea desired charac
teristic of the circuit, means for controlling the 35
excitation of said ?eld winding including a sat
urable reactor, an alternating current winding
on said reactor and a recti?er having its alter
nating current side connected in series circuit
relation with said reactor for supplying unidi 40
rectional current to control the excitation of said
?eld winding, said reactor having two saturating
windings connected in magnetic opposition, sep
arate recti?ers for supplying current to said sat
urating windings, and means for oppositely vary 45
ing the alternating voltage supplied to said rec
ti?ers comprising a core structure providing two
magnetic circuits each having an air gap, a vane
of magnetic material movably mounted to oppo
sitely vary said air gaps, separate windings about 50
the cores of the two magnetic circuits, and means
controlled by the regulated quantity for moving
said vane.
3. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld winding 55
and connected for controlling a desired charac
teristic of the circuit, means for controlling the
excitation of said ?eld winding including a sat
urable reactor, an alternating current winding on
said reactor and a recti?er having its alternat 60
ing current side connected in series circuit rela
tion with said reactor for supplying unidirectional
current to control the excitation of said ?eld
winding, said reactor having three saturating
windings, one of said saturating windings being 65
connected in series between said ?eld winding
and a source of unidirectional energy therefor,
alternating current recti?ers connected to the
other two saturating windings for supplying uni
directional current thereto in magnetic opposi
tion, means for supplying alternating current to
said recti?ers comprising a circuit including a
pair of reactor windings connected in series cir
cuit relation, and means controlled by the reg 75
4
2,187,068
ulated quantity for oppositely varying the re
actances oi’ said reactor windings.
windings thereon and saturating windings there
4. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld winding
and connected for controlling a desired charac
teristic of the circuit, means for controlling the
excitation of said ?eld winding including a sat
cuit including said alternating current windings,
two separate recti?ers for supplying unidirec
urable reactor, an alternating current winding
on said reactor and a recti?er having its alter
10 nating current side connected in series circuit
relation with said reactor for supplying unidirec
tional current to control the excitation oi’ said
?eld winding, said reactor having three saturat
ing windings, one of said saturating windings
15 being connected in series between said ?eld wind
ing and a source of unidirectional energy there
for, alternating current recti?ers connected to
supply unidirectional current to the other two
saturating windings in magnetic opposition,
20 means for supplying alternating current to said
recti?ers comprising a circuit including a pair
of reactor windings connected in series circuit re
lation, a separate magnetic circuit associated with
each of said reactor windings, and means includ
25 ing a movable armature for oppositely varying
the reluctances of said two magnetic circuits in
accordance with variations in the regulated quan
tity.
5. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
30 dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld winding
and connected for controlling a desired charac
teristic of the circuit, means for controlling the
excitation of said ?eld winding including a sat
urable reactor, an alternating current winding
35 on said reactor and a recti?er having its alter
nating current side connected in series circuit
relation with said reactor for supplying unidirec~
tional current to control the excitation of said
?eld winding, said reactor having three saturat
40 ing windings, one of said saturating windings
being connected in series between said ?eld wind
ing and a source of unidirectional energy there
for, alternating current recti?ers connected to
supply unidirectional current to the other two
45 saturating windings in magnetic opposition,
means for supplying alternating current to said
recti?ers comprising a circuit including a pair of
reactor windings connected in series circuit re
lation, a separate magnetic circuit associated with
50 each of said reactor windings and each provided
with a variable air gap, means movable for op
positely varying the said air gaps, and an arma
ture actuated in accordance with variations in the
regulated quantity for actuating said last named
65 means.
6. In a regulator system, a quantity to be reg
ulated, means for governing said quantity in
cluding a multiple leg reactor having two sat
urating windings thereon connected in magnetic
opposition, two recti?ers for supplying unidirec
tional current to said two windings, respectively,
said two recti?ers being connected, respectively,
across two series connected windings wound on
separate magnetic circuit cores and each having
an air gap, said cores being provided with means
for oppositely varying the air gaps in the two core
circuits, an armature for actuating said means,
and means energized in accordance with the reg
ulated quantity for actuating said armature.
70
7. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld winding
and connected for controlling a regulated char
acteristic of said machine, means for governing
the excitation of said ?eld winding including a
75 multiple leg reactor having alternating current
on, a ?eld energizing recti?er supplied by a cir
tional current to two of said saturating wind
ings connected in magnetic opposition, said two
recti?ers being connected across two series con
nected windings wound on separate magnetic
circuit cores each having an air gap, said cores
being provided with means for oppositely varying
the air gaps in the two core circuits, an arms--~
ture for actuating said means, an energizing
winding and circuit energized in accordance with
the regulated quantity, and a feed back trans
former having a winding included in said ener 15
gizing circuit and a winding subject to the volt
age of said ?eld winding for introducing a sta
bilizing influence into the control circuit.
8. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld winding
and connected for controlling a desired charac
teristic of the circuit, means for controlling the
excitation of said ?eld winding including a sat
urable reactor, an alternating current winding on
said reactor and a recti?er having its alternating
current side connected in series circuit relation
with said reactor for supplying unidirectional
current to control the excitation of said ?eld
winding, said reactor having a plurality of sat
urating winding means, one of said saturating 30
windings being connected in series between said
field winding and a source of unidirectional en
ergy, means for supplying unidirectional current
to the remaining saturating winding, means com
prising two alternating current recti?ers and
means for supplying alternating current to said
recti?ers comprising a pair of reactor windings,
a separate magnetic circuit associated with
each of said reactor windings, and means in
cluding a movable armature for oppositely vary 40
ing the reluctances of said two magnetic cir
cuits in accordance with variations in the regu
lated quantity.
9. In a regulator system, an electric circuit, a
dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld wind
ing and connected for controlling a desired char
45
acteristic of the circuit, means for controlling
the excitation of said ?eld winding including a
saturable reactor, an alternating current wind
ing on said reactor and a recti?er having its al
ternating current side connected in series cir
cuit relation with said reactor for supplying uni
directional current to control the excitation oi
said ?eld winding, said reactor having three sat
urating windings, one of said saturating wind
ings being connected in series between said ?eld 65
winding and a source of unidirectional energy
therefor, alternating current recti?ers connected
to supply unidirectional current to the other two
saturating windings in magnetic opposition,
means for supplying alternating current to said
recti?ers comprising a pair of reactor windings
connected in parallel circuit relation to an alter
nating current source and tuned to magnify volt
age output with critical changes in the conditions
of the magnetic circuits, as separate magnetic cir
cuit associated with each of said reactor wind
ings, and means including a movable armature
for oppositely varying the reluctance of said two
magnetic circuits in accordance with variations 70
in the regulated quantity.
10. In a regulator system, an electric circuit,
a dynamo-electric machine having a ?eld wind
ing and connected for controlling a desired char
acteristic of the circuit, means for controlling 75
5
the excitation of said ?eld winding including a
saturable reactor, an alternating current winding
one or the other direction to the other saturating
winding, means for supplying alternating cur
on said reactor and a recti?er having its alter
nating current side connected in series circuit
relation with said reactor vfor supplying uni
directional current to control the excitation of
said ?eld winding, said reactor having two sat
urating windings, one of said saturating windings
with each of said reactor windings, and means
including a movable armature for oppositely
varying the reluctances of said two magnetic cir
cuits in accordance with variations in the regu
being connected in series between said ?eld wind
lated quantity.
ing and a source or unidirectional energy there
for, alternating current recti?ers di?erentially
connected to supply unidirectional current in the
rent to said recti?ers comprising two reactor ,
windings, a separate magnetic circuit associated
CARROLL E. VALENTINE.
VINCENT E. THORNBURG.
10
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