# Патент USA US2137099

код для вставкиNov. 15, 1938. _ -H. SCHUSTER’ ‘ 2,137,099 METHOD OF MANUFACTURING CIRCULAR SHEET METAL DISKS Filed Feb. 7, 1935 “in -* 2 ' ====7=== 5 D Inventor 54.42;.) A ttomegs; _ ‘Patented ' .1 I ' UNITED‘, STATES P warrior) I orv MANUFACTURING” 2,137,099-r _ ‘’ Hans‘I Schuster; , SHEET Inimigrath-on-the-LovVer-Rhlne METAL msns __ , I. a , I I , i I i‘ " -Germany -- .1 Application ‘February 7, 1935“,,4SIefi-ia1_N‘ _ .IlnI IGermany‘December'15,“1ii34"' . '6 Claims. (01. 80-.4-416). This invention relates to a, method of manu facturing circular sheet-metal , disks 'by rolling 'li'ptical thus,aftenitjhasjtheh shape; Wh?i‘ihree “ It‘ time times" ceiv'ed'the‘eb‘ all thrqugh 45°, and each ‘time fed'ftliroug‘h ‘rolls‘wwhich pro out a thicker disk of_ smaller diameter, such as I is describedin myiformer United States patent duce a percentage reductior'i_“in-_thickness equal :-5 application Serial Number 747,239. _ The pres ‘to that produced‘ghjIthe/I?rs "rolling ‘out step. "5 \ ent, application is a continuation'ih part of The ‘Work-piece- ‘new; has a‘ circular “shape with “ , a diameter greater vtlianjthelarger‘ ‘diameter of said_formei'. and. cofpending application. 'I , I In the method described in my said former the ellipse produced in‘"‘the', ?rst" instance; fl ‘ application, the work-piece is rolled out between‘ . Theoretically,.-Itne.. angle through which‘ the 11“ cylindrical rolls‘ in directions at ‘right. angles ’ Work-piece {has to lie turnedfe‘ach‘ .time'inorder 1° ‘converted’ ‘ _ to one another, inI'succession, the“ reduction‘ in to ‘enable the Tellipt" a1‘. shape to I Ithickness_of_ each intermediate form,‘ which de viates from the, circular shape,‘ being of the same percentage, as the reduction'in thickness of [the ‘back into the circular ‘shape depends'zsolely ‘upon the‘ of "repetitions v‘o'ffthe turning-opera ,tIion'Ithrough thisiangleIwithfdf course, the cor ' ‘Only angles smallerthan i5 ‘:15 immediately preceding circular form from‘ which : responding ‘rollings‘. it was: produced. According to my said former 90°, ‘however, are of practical importance‘ and. > are ‘so, chosen‘ that‘ refformationv into the; circular , application, the thickjcircular work-piece isre mducedand expanded into an‘ elliptically shaped ,I shape is completedfafteronly a'few repetitions. intermediate form by the ?rst'pa'ss, then turned If in ‘the "example just; referred to, an angle ‘of 20 I .20 through 90°_,..and rolled again, the rolls’ on the 30° hadbeen taken," then the work) piece would second. pass, however, having a suitably narrower have to be‘ turned ?ve 'times',“i. e.__=altogether> :Ipas'sa'ge. between them so that the same'per through an angle M1509, while withf-theassumed centage reduction will bev produced as in the angle of 45° it ‘would'onlyjhave to‘be‘ turned three ‘previous rolling. In this 'mann'er'the ellipse is ,25 again converted into a 'disk of exact circular . times through‘a ‘total angle{of-w135°.l~ I shape. The procedure can be, repeated as often as desired. I I _ ' . I I > ~ I I If circular hape, either 25 Starting‘ witli'a disk originally or‘ as ‘produced by a ‘cycle of‘reducing 1. operations wherein vaIIIgivenv angle of turning ‘was employed, the ‘stool; maybe reduced in‘the-suc o. ‘ , According‘ to an alternative'method of ‘opera Ition,.the work-piece whichIhas become elliptical ' ceeding cycle by turning through-othervangles. For example, itIthestock wa's'turned v‘through 30 I 30. after the ?rst p'assis turned through an angle I‘ dif?ering from 90° vfor further ‘reduction in thick ‘ 'angl'es‘of 302145" or 'other‘small angles during a I preceding 'cycle,1‘it may be'turned'l'through 90° I or] some other‘, angle ‘on thefsucceedi'ng cycle. \ I ness'and reconversion into ‘the circular shape, the‘operation of turning‘ the work-piece through Or" instead offturning eachr'ti'me inf 1a.v cycle I ' this angle with accompanying ‘ further rolling through equal angles, the stock ‘may be turned 35 35 out being repeated until the minor axis of the through 1a givenlangle or angles and finally ellipsefhas become equaIl'to the ‘major ‘axis, that through anfan'gle which is supplementary to the is tovsay, untilI'Ithe circular shape has again been attained. This method, as inthe case of 'the previous angle of turning._ ' By ‘employing sup plementing anglesI at‘ the en'dtoizrthe ,l-cyjcle the I_method of 'myfformer application, can be re , 40 peat'ed'as often as‘desired.‘ ‘This rolling-out" of conversion‘ back to"circular_*formimay“ be has-. 40. the work-piece in di?erent radial directions ' tened‘." However, "in~'any~plan‘of‘operation the. angles of turnln'gIIjImust-bei carefully selected I. may under certain circumstances have a favor according whichtI have-discovered‘ If,__able actiononthe texture of the ?nished disk, “ and ' whichtoj'the'law will" be more ‘fully stated hereinafter. "particularly ‘when the rolling“ is carried out in "*jAgainft-he percentage of reduction for-each 45 \ I j IIItne' "possible {coldand‘ .state?gi-iot may, I under rolling someis; circumstances; ‘of course‘, also be i v"pass-1n ‘a cycle may-also be varied if the herein. “.,Ipreferable’. I_ ’ disclosed law of‘i‘eduction is ‘followed... iI , ' In accord ncéfthen, the ‘second method“ The angle'ot v‘urning,\the percentage‘of reduc I Iv‘offoperation', the thick simmer initialwork-piece _' - tion, and the" number ‘of .passes ‘in - a cycle from shape toécir'cular shape may be ascer-' 50 , 5‘o‘uis-?rstrolledI out to al?e?nitemeducedthick-Q ‘circular - ‘ ness and the 'ellipse'thus "iIQrm‘ed‘liasI its v'major ’ "tained either graphically or mathematically or "axisiat‘ri‘ght' angles‘ to the ‘axes ‘of?the"rolls;' ‘it is"? .' . by-:bothfmethods‘v-combined . in , accordance with hereinldisclosedlawn 7." i ""then‘turne'dfthrough an. angle of (forexamplé) »“ "the I abouti45°jand inf-thisepositionr'isfed "through? '1 , It-is .self evident-that theater angle'throiigh . I 55' rolls;_the passage‘ between which? is so dimen-"s lwhich the work hasto be turned for converting 55 ‘ sionedthat the. same-‘percentage reduction in}. " “to the circular shape from‘ the elliptical shape thickness (25 per cent, for example) is e?ected will be smaller the nearer the angle of turning. for one pass approaches 90°. In the of as is the case in the preceding pass. Thispro cedure is then twice repeated in' case the tum-_ angles which approach 0°, there ?rst of all a0 ingangle, as assumed, is 45°. The work-piece is, >Itakes,_ place an increase in the deviation from. w‘ ‘ 2,187,099 the circular shape followed later by an ap proach and evening out to the circular shape. But such initial increase in the deviation from circular shape I ?nd is a drawback and may be avoided if an angle is employed which lies in the neighborhood of 45° or over. Otherwise. that ‘angle is to be preferred by the use of which the smallest possible total angle of rotation will represent a multiple of this angle without re 10 mainder, such as in the cases of the angles of 45° and 30° given by way of example. In. the case of a great many angles, the smallest possi ble total angle must be exceeded by ‘further repetition if theotherwise remaining fraction. is small angle of rotation is di?erent from that in the case of a larger angle of rotation. This requires a correction to the calculated supple menting angle which would ordinarily, in prac tice, be determined empirically although un doubtedly it could also be ascertained by cal culation. 1 Since at such- repetition of the turning opera tion and corresponding reduction in thickness, an increase in the size of the work-piece in the 10 directions of-both axes of the ellipse takes place, and since we are only concerned with the ob taining of a larger and thinner ?nal disk, it is ~ not always necessary to effect a pass with a 15 not to be ?lled up by a supplementing angle of a supplementing angle in order to reduce the num di?‘erent number of degrees which then has'to be ascertained while taking into consideration ber of_ passes.‘ Thus, in such cases where a par the necessary reduction in thickness. ' In the accompanying drawing which illustrates Fig. 1 illustrates a rolling mill for reducing" the stock when the turning betweenrolling op the turning angle is 45° and where in each pass the percentage reduction in thickness is 25 e per cent. Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, a circular 30 disk of stock A is passed between the two upper .rolls B andG of a three-high rolling mill to produce the elliptical shape E. , - I It is worthy of mention that there. is still a Figure 2 illustrates the successive stages of Thiselliptical shape is now turned through 90° and passed between the lower rolls C and D to .produce the exact circular shape F. can be chosen instead of the interposition of a supplementing angle. _ 25 the reconversion of the ellipse to a. circle where 35 duce a-circular shape after numerous repeti tions of. the turning operation, this repetition 20 20 practical applications of the invention: erations is 90°; and ticular angle of turning alone enables a total angle of rotation to be attained which will pro . - further possibility.‘ The ellipse produced in the ?rst instance by turning the work-piece through 25 any desired angle and subsequently reducing it in thicknex by rolling, can first of all be con verted into another ellipse, angularly displaced and of greater area, the work-piece being then so turned that the major axis of the ellipse 80 lies ~parallel to the rolls and rolled out in this position with a. di?erent percentage reduction in thickness, the extension ‘taking place in a.‘ direction at 90° with respect to the major axis as in my former patent application above men Referring to Fig. 2, i is the initial ellipse which has been produced by rolling out the circular work-piece indicated by broken lines; 2 is the tioned. The altered percentage reduction in thickness must be so proportioned that ‘a cir cular shape now results from the ellipse which intermediate stage, also elliptical, which results ‘ was altered with‘ respect to the original ellipse. after the work-piece has been turned through According to‘ the size of the preceding angle of 45°; 3 is the further elliptical intermediate stage, rotation the percentage reduction, in thickness and 4 is the ?nally obtained circular shape. The must be greater or less; that is to say, if the pre intermediate elliptical shapesare angularly dis _ceding angle of rotation was 45° it would have placed with respect to the immediately preced-~ to be smaller than in the case of a preceding ing shape. The successive turnings of the work- angle of rotation of 30°. piece through 45° are to be understood as mean ing that the elliptical work-piece taken ‘from the preceding pass is so introduced between the succeeding pair of rolls that the major axis 50 of the ellipse is- turned through‘ 45°. with respect to the direction of rolling, whereupon after this pass the work-piece is then- again'turned through a further 45° with respect to the direction of rolling so that it has ?nally been turned with respect to the direction of rolling through 135". . It is to be noted as one of the features of the invention that the ?nal working. to circular shape‘ is attained by rollingthe elliptical work piece at 90° to its major axis. that is, in the direc tion of its minor, axis. The amount of working requiredcan readily be calculated in relation to the previous amount of working in the pro portion of the angle turned to the total turning ' of the previous angle or angles. In any case where it is desired to produce a 55 The major axis of the last ellipse however, as' circular disk having de?nite diameter and de? can be seen'from the drawing, has. only been ‘nite thickness, when the precise treatment has angularly displaced, with respect to the direction been determined, one may ,ascertain‘by graphi of rolling, through an angle-0145“. ' cal or empirical preparatory work, or even pure ‘so The supplementing‘ angle .above referred to: ly by calculation backwards, what dimensions 60 cannot always be ascertained with exactness by the initial work-piece must have. If the case a simple calculation. Take the case, ‘for ex occurs where theparticular position of the work ample, where an angle of 11°, with a three times piece in the intermediate stages has to-be a's-. repetition, almost produces the circular shape, certained with respect to the roll axes and the dimensions of the ellipse of'the individual inter 65 65 which for its complete formation requires a to tal angle of 11° which is somewhat greater than mediate shapes, then this can be facilitated by 311°. By simple calculation, if one reckons from making the determination necessary to provide the ?rst ellipse, a supplementing‘ angle of‘ that the major axis of the particular ellipse to 70 b°—-3a must be chosen for the fourth pass. But _ be rolled shall extend in the direction of the this would not be rigorously‘ correct in every "bisector oi' the turning angle and that the magni 70 case since it has-been ascertained that ,_f_or__.al-v tude of the ratios between the major and the tering the ratio between thetwo-axes of the ~minor‘axis of the respective ellipse can beset I ellipse, the position‘ ‘or theangle bisectorsfwith; respect to the’rollin'g axis has torbev taken ‘into’ 70 account, which inthe caseoi’. acoi'nparatively f down as ordinates on a sine curve. _, ' in the case of ‘my former patent applica tion, the initial work-piece is preferably ob 75 3 2,137,099 tained by the reduction of a cylindrical block. If value is not attached to th'e‘obtaining of an exact circle as ?nal shape, that is to say, if an approximation to the circular shape Su?ices and the exact circular shape is- intended to be obtained by another further treatment, e. g. by cutting, then, of course, the described process can v To summarize what has been statedand illus trated by example hereinabove, the rule or law may be stated as follow: 1 Starting with a circular disk of uniform'thick- . ness, the stock is rolled a number of times in a cycle to change it from circular shape to G1 liptical shape and then back into exact circular be terminated as soon as an ellipse is produced shape. I v ' The percentage of reduction and the principal which does not depart excessively from the circu axes of the ellipse formed in the ?rst operation 10 in the cycle, or ?rst change from circular to el lar shape. In cases where the ?nished article is required to be of elliptical shape the process would, of course, not be continued until the cir cular shape were restored but would be termi nated on the obtainment of the desired ellipti? cal shape with the desired dimensions. As already stated in my former patent appli cation, a thick‘disk of elliptical shape can be employed as the initial work-piece and further ' liptical shape, are takenas reference or datum points upon which subsequent operations in the cycle are based. I - The stock is worked in a straight line across 15 its width. that is, along a diameter or axis, whether the operation is a continuous rolling action or otherwise. In any cycle from circular operated upon accordingly until the desired cir-l to-circular it is to be understood that the char 20 cular metal sheet or elliptical metal sheet hav acteristics of the operating means, so far as side spread of stock is concerned, remain unchanged, ing the desired dimensions is obtained. Furthermore, when employing an angle of or if changed that due account thereof be taken. rotation which di?ers from 90°, the work-piece In any given cycle from circular-to-circular, is operated upon in various radial directions, and the increment in length along one principal axis .25 not merely in two directions at right angles to v of the ?rst ellipse is made equal to the incre one another, whereby the texture of the metal I ment in length along the other principal axis. The. last operation in the cycle from circular _ is improved. Moreover, the' angle of rotation to-circular is effected along the minor axis of differing from 90° can be also utilized to obtain ?nal forms which di?er both from the circular 30 shape and from the elliptical-shape; for by em ploying in the course of the process angles of the last elliptical shape. rotation of diiferent size so that the reduction in thickness in the course of the process varies turning operations. in percentage, not only the dimensions but also particularlygif in addition an- initial work-piece is chosen which also deviates from the otherwise circular or elliptical shape.‘ ‘By graphical crem pirical means which may also‘ be assisted in part ‘ desired dimensions which may be required at any particular time and for which the initial shape - . The percentage of reduction at‘ each rolling operation is preferably made an aliquot part or simple multiple of the degree of reduction in the 35 35 the shape of the ?nal form can be in?uenced, 40 by calculation, it is possible in very many cases, in this manner, to obtain a ?nal form of the , The change from circular shape to circular 30 shape is preferably e?ected in a few reducing and ?rst rolling operation from circular. This, of course. includes the case Where the subsequent reduction is equal to the ?rst, that is, a unit mul tiple of the ?rst. The angle of turning for each rolling opera 40 tion is preferably made} an aliquot part of 90° or of a simple multiple of 90°, such as 180° or 270°, usually-not over 180°. The angle of turn with its dimensions, as well as the shapes and - ingwill be 90° or less, 'i. e. an acute angle, since 45 dimensions at the individual steps of the proc _ the effect of turning more than 90” is the same 45 ess including the. necessary angles of rotation as turning less. For example, the effect of turn and percentage reductions in thickness, can be ing 135° obviously‘ would be the same as turn-1 ascertained. It has previously been proposed, for example. 50 in the patent to Milliken No.- 1,561,346, Novem- > ber '10, 1925, to roll circular disksinto elliptical shape and then turn them through 90° and roll them again with the idea of again producing a circular shape. However, no rule of working is 55 given which will assure the return to circular shape. One mustexperiment to determine the degree of reduction, required to restore the el liptical disk to circular, shape. Of course, ‘it has long been known, even inthe simple arts of roll 60 ing dough, putty, modeling clay and the like, that an elliptical shape could be restored to an approximately circularshape by rolling the el. liptical shape‘along its minor axis. But these known methods are experimental and give no 65 de?nite assurance of producing‘an exact circular shape; moreover they refer only to the simple case of turning through. 90° and furnish no ‘ assistance when the ‘stock is turned through angles other than 90°. 70 According to the‘ present invention the altera tions in the diskare performed under a rule or ing 45°, and of turning 150° the same as turn- ‘ ing 30°. . -. . When. turning by the same angle for each 50 reduction in the cycle,v the total number of re- . ducing operations required will bethe quotient of 90° divided by'half the angle of turning. For example‘ the number of operations when turning 90° will be 2; ‘for 45°‘the number will be .4; for : 30° the number will be 6; for 60‘’_ the number will be 3; and so on. The total angle of‘turn ing from circular-‘to-circular will be the hum-' ber of operations, minus one, multiplied by the angle of turning. ' For example, when'turning 90° the total angle will be (2-1)'><90° or 90°; when turning 45° ‘ the ‘total angle will be‘ (4+1) ><45°-or 135°;‘when turning 30° the‘total angle will be .(6—1)><30° or 150°;when turning 60° the totalangle of turning will be or 120°; and so on. - When turning through ‘angles which‘ are not simple aliquot parts ofj90° or'of a simple multi- ' . pie‘ thereof and when turning through-supple» menting angles to ha‘stennthef return to-c'ireue' lar shape, the basic‘ rules are adhered'tofnameé "law which will de?nitely assure the return to 1y, that the last reduction is along the minor axis exact circular shape when that is desired, re ' of the last ellipse and that the projected incre~ gardless of whether the stock is turned through ments in reduction along the two principal axes of the ?rst ellipse‘are made equal. 75 75 an angle of 90°>or any other angle. 4‘ 2, 187,099 When reducing in any turned position by per centages " different from the percentage of re duction at the ?rst operation, the basic rules are observed, namely that the last reduction is ef fected along the minor axis of the last ellipse, and thepercentages of reduction along the two prin cipal axes of the ?rst ellipse are made equal. If one of the other regular forms produced in the cycle is desired instead of the circular form, angle which bears a. low-simple relation to one of the quarters of a circle, namely, 90, 180, 270, 360 degrees; rolling the disk along the new axis to reduce its thickness by the same percentage as at the ?rst action; repeating'the turning and rolling after the ?rst, said rolling action until the disk is made substantially truly circular on the ?rst approach to circular shape, that is, un til the minor‘ axis of the ?rst vellipse becomes 10 the operations may be stopped with the desired equalto‘the major axis; and continuing the op 10 form instead of being continued to produce the . erations until the disk has the ?nal‘ size and , circular form. For any other shape, the nearest _ thickness desired. duce accurate predetermined circular shapes by 4. The method of - manufacturing disks of mal leable-material, which comprises, rolling a cir cular disk along a ?rst axis to thin it by a 16 given percentage and to change it to a ?rst el liptical shape; turning the disk through one of the angles 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 degrees; rolling the _ a plurality of reducing and turning operations disk along the new axis to reduce its thickness regular shape is taken and changed as required to produce the desired shape. _ It will thus be seen that the invention provides a simple practicable and dependable method of reducing disk stock in such manner as to pro of different angles. This is possible because the by the same percentage as at the ?rst action; 20 repeating the turning and rolling after the ?rst invention furnishes a dependable rule or law by said rolling action until the disk is made sub 20 in which the turning may be through a number which to operate. vWhile certain embodiments of the invention 25 have been described it is to beunderstood that the invention may have various embodiments within the limits of the prior art and the scope of the subjoined claims. ‘ - stantially truly circular on the ?rst approach to circular shape, that is, until the minor axis of the ?rst ellipse becomes equal to the major axis; and continuing the operations until the disk has the ?nal. size and thickness desired. 5. The method of manufacturing disks of It is, however, an essential condition that the malleable material, which comprises, rolling a 30 work-piece is not only turned but is, besides, circular disk along a ?rst axis to thin it by a given percentage and to change it to a ?rst el of become progressively narrower by the same liptical shape, turning the disk through one of the angles 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 degrees; rolling the passed through pairs of rolls, the passes where percentage, provided, that particular reasons do not give rise to a change‘ of the rule regulat 35 ing the decrease of the thickness of the sheet - metal, as has already been pointed out in the preceding pages and in which cases the width of said passes is otherwise regulated according to the change of the said rule. ' I claim: l\. The method of manufacturing sheet metal disks by rolling out a disk between cylindrical rolls, comprising ?rst rolling a circular disk work-piece into elliptical shape and then re peatedly turning it through an angle of which 90° is a multiple and further rolling it to reduce its thickness until' a circular shape is again obtained, each successive pass of the work-piece between the rolls, after, the ?rst pass, being so determined that the reduction in thickness pro ducedthcreby will be of the same percentage as that of the ?rst. 2. The method of manufacturing sheet-metal disks which comprises ?rst rolling out a thick er circular disk of smaller diameter between cylindrical rolls whereby the work-piece is ?rst reduced in thickness and changed into an el liptical shape, then repeatedly turning the work piece and rolling it further to reduce it until it again becomes exactly circular, each turning be ing through the same angle of which 90° is a multiple and the width of the successive roll passes being so adjusted that the reduction in thickness obtained with each rolling with re peated turning through the same angle is of the same percentage as the reduction produced by . the ?rst rolling. ' 3. The method of manufacturing disks 01' mal leable’ material, which comprises, rolling affir disk along the new axis to reduce its thickness by the same percentage as at the ?rst action; and repeating the turning and rolling after the ?rst‘ said‘ rolling action until the total number of rollings along different axes, including the ?rst, equals the quotient obtained by dividing 90 degrees by halfthe angle of turning; the total 40 angle of turning being equal to the total number of rollings, minus one, multiplied by the angle of turning, whereby-the disk is made substan tially truly circular by making the minor axis of the ?rst said ellipse equal to the major axis 45 thereof before further rolling operations are performed on the disk, for the purposes set forth. ' 6. The method of manufacturing disks of malleable material, which comprises, rolling a circular disk along a ?rst axis to thin it by a given percentage andto change it to a ?rst el liptical shape; turning the disk through one of the angles 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, degrees; rolling the disk along the new. ‘axis to reduce its thickness by the same percentage as at the ?rst action; and repeating .the turning and rolling after the ?rst said rolling action until the total number of rollings along different axes, including the ?rst, equals the quotient obtained by dividing 90 degrees by half the angle of turning; the to tal angle of turning being equal‘to the total number of rollings, minus one, multiplied by the _ angle of turning, and the last rolling to return the disk to circular shape being effected along the minor axis of the last formed ellipse, where -by the disk is made substantially truly circu lar by making the minor axis of the ?rst said ellipse equal to the major axis thereof before cular disk along a ?rst axis to thin it by a ' further rolling operations are performed on the 70 disk, for the purposes set forth. 70 given percentage and to change it to a ?rst el liptical shape; turning the disk through an HANS SCHUSTER.

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