Патент USA US2137127код для вставки
Nov. 15, 1938. J. G. BEST‘ _ 2,137,127 _ ANIMATED S‘IGN AND METHOD OF OPERATING IT Filed Dec. 10, 1937 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet l // 8% ‘ Q’MiL/IiZ/W Nov. 15, 1938. _._ G‘, BEST ‘ - 2,137,127 ANIMATED SIGN ANDMETHOD OF OPERATING IT Filed Dec. 10, 1937 Fz'y. 4 v F157‘. 5' 69% 6d’ ' 05/ _ 37 \ ‘2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ’ 2/910 L / 4/36 ' 4/9’ ' 3mm ‘>334, _' MMx/IYWW @W 2,137,127 Patented Nov. 15, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘ 2,127,127 ‘ANIMATED SIGN AND METHOD a > > '‘ IT ‘ING or orEuA'r John Gordon' Best, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, assignor to General Animated Signs, Limited, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a company of ‘On tario, Canada ' Application December 10, 1937, Serial No. 179,196 ' In Canada February 12, 1937' g 4 9 Olaims. (01. 40-130) The present invention relates toanimated signs means. for creating an illusion'of animation at r the animating portions of the indicia. In one em bodiment of my invention the non-animating portions appear stationary and serve as message bearing indicia only. In another embodiment of ing the color of the sign illumination.The in_ 5 vention is further concerned withgmethods of‘ my invention the non-animating indicia are of and is more particularly concerned with illumi nated animated signs of the character in ‘which an illusion of animation is brought about by vary ,such former of such a nature as toproduce a animating such signs to produce special effects. psychological effect of natural vmotion in .‘the The illusion of animation produced according indicia which ‘supplements and - ampli?es the to my invention is due wholly to the physiological . basic animation produced by color changes‘ in v10 and psychological e?ects vcaused by my special 10 ' lighting, color and background arrangements. the illuminating means. , " ' 7 Further objects of my invention will'become The basic or primary animationis physiologi cal and is based upon ‘well known optical color laws such as color reflection and absorption, etc.; frequency of cyclic color changes; color and back ground combination in the sign and color com; apparent, asthe speci?cation proceeds in con nection-With the annexed drawings, and'from the 15 appended claims.v In‘the‘drawings; . , ‘ v ' . ' , ' G bination in the illuminating'means for the sign; - .. Figure 1 is a perspective view illustrating an arrangement by which my indicia bearing sign gmay be illuminated to produce animation ef 20 The basic animation is presented when the fects according to the invention. Figure 2 is a modi?ed form of the sign surface cyclic color change of the sign illuminating means‘ and physiological e?ects and phenomena such as chromatic aberration, irradiation, etc.- , V and indicia’of Figure 1. v is ‘ between certain limits of ‘frequency. With Figure 3 is a still further modi?ed form of the proper conditions the illusion of M animation is . sign surface and indicia of Figure l. produced in the range between one and twenty ' cyclic color changes per second. However, in certain cases, as where an illusion of natural di , Figure 4 is a front View of a sign forming part 25 of my invention and. illustrates a manner of rectional motion is desired to accompany the‘ :creating an illusion, of natural movement of an object. Here, speci?cally, a circlemay‘be made basic animation,- the range is preferably between one and‘one-half and four cyclic color changes per second. ' to appear to rotate in a speci?c direction, ' , I Figure ,5 illustrates another sign embodying ' 30 my invention and illustrates a manner ‘of. creat novel animated'signs’and methods of operating '- ing an illusion of natural movement of a bird. the same wherein the illusion of animation is Here ‘the animated parts are integral with the I ‘ It is a major objecf or my invention to provide obtained by illuminating ,the‘sign with lights of object which appears to move. different colors.‘v 40 ' I a ,Figure' 6 shows another sign according to my 35 invention illustrating how an illusion of natural _ , A further object of my invention is to provide a novel'animated sign in which the illusion of movement of?ames from 'a ?re may be produced animation is physiologicallyproduced. , Figurej'l shows a further sign embodying my ' '_ A further object of my invention is to ‘provide invention in which an illusion of motion of ‘a a novel animated sign in which, an illusion of vehicle is produced. Here] the animating parts natural movement‘ is psychologically produced. are separate from the object which appears Anotherobject of my invention‘is to provide a . sign which will have normal advertising, value to move. f , Figure v8 is a partially diagrammatic view of a‘ in the daytime when not being illuminated. A further object of my invention is to provide a sign having distinctively colored indicia mark ings upon a neutral backgroundand which is illuminated alternately by light which ‘has the a suitable form of illuminating means for giving‘ 45 alternate ?ashes of different .colored light and which maybe used with any ‘of the signs of the ~ invention. ‘ ' ' Before proceeding with a detailed description same predominant hue as part of the colored in dicia and by light of a different color whereby an illusion of animation is produced. 1 1 ofthe invention it, will belhelpful to de?ne the ' 50 Another object of my invention‘ is to provide: an animated sign having certain portions of the of the sign. indicia animating and certain portions a. non— 55 animating and ‘ ‘having suitable illuminating various terms used‘in the specification and claims. B-y-“indicia” I mean markings at the surface The indicia may be animating or non-animating and maybe pictorial or non-pic torial. The ‘indicia may, combine to de?ne an 55 2 2,137,127 object, or may be entirely separate from each other, or may be superposedat least in part. By “background” I mean the portions ofthe sign contacting the Whole or a major portion of the periphery of the indicia andextending out Wardly therefrom an indedeterminate distance. Thus the background may be merely an outline or border around the indicia, or may be the whole or a large portion of the ?eld upon which 10 the indicia are displayed. For‘ instance, the in dicia may assume the form of ?gures or letters and may have a contrastingly colored border of neutral or non-neutral color and in such case the borders can be regarded as the background. 15 By “illumination” I mean the casting of col ored lights upon the sign in accordance with this invention. , . v ' ' By “neutral color” I mean a color that has no distinguishing or dominant hue. Examples of 20 such are white, black, grey or brown. ‘ .By “dominant hue” or “distinguishing hue” I mean a color which has a predominant wave band which makes the light appear to an observer to be of particular color. For example, a light 25 whichan observer might call “red” may contain some yellow or blue light which is not apparent due to the overwhelming preponderancy of wave bandsin the red portion of the visible spectrum. Thus, whenever I state that a light has a “dom 3.0 inant hue” or is of a certain “color” I means to include not only substantially monochromatic light but also impure colors which generally have the same appearance as the monochromatic light. A speci?c example of this is that when I say “red” 3.5, I mean'to include among others, impure colors generally known as magenta and scarlet but which have predominant red wave bands. By. “cyclic color change” I mean the exposure of the sign to light of one color for its full time 40 interval and to the other color through its full time interval and until the beginning of the next exposure of the sign to light of the ?rst color. By “non-animating” I mean that the part or parts referred to are colored in colors, including 45 neutral colors, which are not animated when sub jected to light which animates'other portions of the sign. . . . . ' In ampli?cation of the nature of non-animat ing colors, the properties of a color which render 50 it non-animating are: - , ' (a) * Its ability to re?ect back both of the col ors alternately cast upon the sign. Such colors may be white, grey, brown, yellow, etc. (b) Its ability to absorb both colors cast upon 55 the sign. Such colors maybe black, dark blue, etc. - By “basic or “primary animation” I mean the illusion of animation produced physiologically by the alternate lighting arrangement of my in 60 vention. This is'to be distinguished from the illusion of natural-movement or directional mo tion which is psychologically produced. This psychological illusion ampli?es and gives direc~ tion to the physiologically created basic anima 65 tion. ' By “discrete” I mean‘ separate and individual images are observed as distinguished from im ages which, due to the persistency of vision, op tically blend and appear continuously visible. With reference to Figure 1 a sign I! having a as a non-neutral color, or a color complementary to that of part I 3. Animating part l3 which may be composed of one or several different co-operating or non-coop erating representations, iscolored in a color which has a distinguishing or dominant hue. Since colors having high energy value are preferred in signs, the animating color is preferably red al though any color may be selected as desired. Non-animating part M, which may or may not 10 be composed of one or several different co—oper ating or non-co-operating representations, is col ored in a color which may have a dominant hue or may be neutral, but which is selected to be [constantly visible no matter what color is being 15 projected on the sign. The sign is preferably illuminated by a pro jector which casts differently colored lights al ternately upon the same. ' Such a projector may comprise a pair of lamps 20 before each of which is disposed alight ?lter of suitable color with the lamp circuits controlled by suitable ?asher switches, or may comprise the rotatable color ?lter assembly of Figure 8, later to be described. 25 One of these color screens or ?lters is designed to pass light which has the same dominant due as the animating color on the sign. The other color screen or ?lter is designed to pass light which is de?cient in the dominant hue of the animating 30 indicia. In practice it has been found Very satis factory to project complementary colored lights upon the sign. For example, where red primary indicia markings are used, red and green lights are projected on the sign. The secondary or non Suitable and preferable animating indicia colors are red, green and blue. Suitable and preferable non-animating colors are yellow, orange, green, 40 blue or violet or even a neutral color. The non-animating indicia may be located upon the same colored background as the animating indicia or may have provided for it a background of a different color. 45 In operation the ?asher in the circuit of the vlamps in projector it is operated to alternately andsuccessively light these lamps thereby cast ing alternate ?ashes of differently colored light upon the sign ll. When light of the animating color falls on the sign the primary animating portion I3 and the non-animating portion M are both visible to an observer but, when the non animating light is being projected, portion I3 is not visible in its own color because the non animating light-is de?cient in the dominant hue of portion l3 vand will therefore not be re?ected or transmitted thereby. ' Hence the observer views a sign background upon which the primary indicia are alternately 60 visible and the secondary indicia are constantly visible. When the cyclic color frequency has been regulated properly the primary part I3 Will be seen alternately as discrete images and will pre sent an appearance of animation comprising a 65 pulsating movement due mostly to the effect of chromatic aberration in the eye and a bodily movement in space relative to the background. In some cases there is a stereoscopic effect so that the indicia appears to stand out from the 70 background I2 is illuminated by light from a background. suitable source l9. ' The indicia upon background The frequency at which the cyclic color change takes place must be high enough to allow the I 2 consists-of‘a primary or animating part 13 and a secondary or non-animating part l4. 75 Background l2 may be of any suitable color such 35 animating indicia markings are of course of such color as to reflect or absorb both red and green. observer to gain a sense of animation, but must not be so high as to optically merge the images 75 3 2,137,127 ._ or the. primarmnartabecause of. persistence. ‘of vision; midi-therefore: make them constantly vis ible; Preferably therange of cyclic color change should‘ be- in the neighborhood of ‘from one ‘and one-half to ,four cyclic‘ changes per-second for best practical ‘results; ' v - - .This illusion; of . animation - is ,the' primary or ' so as to be continuously visible. basic animation whichthepresent invention‘ pro duces: A few examples of speci?c lighting; ‘ar rangementsare given-‘to show the ?exibility of . for animating a sign'having red primary indicia I " V l caston the sign.~ I e -' . representation.’ a v " - is alternately lighted as de- ' scribed above'and at a rate of ,from one, and ' lWhen such a sign one-half to four- cyclic changes ‘per second, an illusion of‘ animationiscreated in the animat ing indicia or: circle .31. This illusion is supple 1..5 ‘ 'f-(a) Red and green lights may be alternately 15 Here‘the'non animating indicia is separate‘from the pictorial this-principle.» Some equivalent lightjmethods' are listed below.‘ ' In. Figure 4 a sign 35 is provided preferably with a :neutral background 36-upon which is disposed an annular ‘ring or circle 3‘! colored in a suitable animating color such as red. A plu rality of arrows 38_. are associated with circle ‘31 and all point in the same direction of motion. Arrows 38 are co-lored'in a non-animating-color " “(b) A green light may be kept on continuously ‘ mented and» ampli?ed and given directional char and a red light alternated on and off ;at suitable acteristics by the presence of arrows 38 so ‘that > circle 31 appears to'rotate in the directionof the frequencies." ' ’ . ‘ ' 1'. : ' ._ ¢_ I arrowsor clockwise as shown in Figure 4. This e (c) ‘A red or green lightmay be kept-uncon tinuously- and a polychromatic or orthochromatic light alternated on ‘or oil at suitable frequencies; (d) Red light-and poly; ,or-jorthoc'hromatic light illusion of directional movement is produced .29 psychologically. and is suggested by the non-anii matingindicia and if the arrows pointed inthe may be alternated on or off at-suitable frequen- I oppositedirection the?circle would appear-to so cies. 25 ~ . = -. _ ’ . . '7‘ - > In Figure 5 a sign 39 has a neutral background 25 48 1upon which. a bird‘ is pictorially disposed. Wing portions‘ 4| are ‘colored in an animating The particularlmethod of lighting will depend 'color while the body 42 is colored in a non-ani snitablefrequencies. 30 rotate. i . -('e.)\- Green light and polychromatic‘ orviorthoe chromatic'light may be alternated on or off at ‘ > ‘ ' - on the nature of the sign and the kind of anir mating color. ' When thissign is subjected to the lighting arrangements described ‘above wings 4| 3.0. - in the sign of Figure 1 the animated. primary appearto pulsate or flap1while,‘.since ‘body "is mation desired‘, ~ A . 1 ; V - indicia serves to catch ‘and hold’ the attention pointed in a particular direction, the whole bird of an observer. The secondary non-animating appears to‘move to the right inFigure 5. This indicia conveys the advertising message toithe illusion; of motion is produced by the association in the-observer’s mind of?apping wings with a 35. ..;-In Figure 2 is ‘illustrated ,anembodiment ‘ofsth'e movingbird. Heregboth sets of indicia combine invention comprising ,a sign 2| having a back; toform the pictorial representation of the object. ‘In Figure 6 is illustrated a sign 49 having a ground Zllupon- which are‘ disposed animating indicia 22, which are colored in a'color havinga. neutral background '50 uponwhich: are disposed pictorially fuel 5| in non-animating color, yellow 40 distinguishing hue corresponding with one of the colors of thew-lighting» device. Indicia‘markings ?ames 52 and red ?ames-V53. When this sign is‘ 23 on that background are-neutral in color. . The cyclically illuminated as above described the red ?ames. appear‘to move,'upward in; a, natural and backgroundmay- ‘be of any non-animating 0010 observer. I w a: v - > ' except thecolor used for indicia 23.1 ~11 45 ' - ; When illuminatedby thelight arrangement de visible at all times._ Of course, the-,relative‘c'olors . > _ . ' Figure 7, involvesl-an-arrangement opposite to that of, Figure 41in that theindicia which appears ofjindicia 23 and the-background may be. selected to-moveis here colored in non-animating colors. so»v that either may be substantially non-re?ective, ' Figure. 7, shows a sign -54»having.a.;neutral back as would. bethe caseif colored-black, whilethe. ground 55 upon‘ which an automobile 56 is por other is highly re?ective if colored white; grey, .yellow,~'etc.> Another embodiment , -> of ' the invention is‘illus 55 flames- appear ‘relatively stationary.,'1 scribed above in‘Figureglg indicia-22 will appear ‘ f-_The 'vembodimentjof the invention shown in to animate whilegindiciag1 23» will‘ be constantly 50 flamelilre‘manner.‘v while, the fuel and .the yellow tratedinFigure 3 where a sign .29comprisesja background 3| on "which is'disposedanimating indicia30 and" 32 coloredlin asuitable animating color." A portiony33>of the background is. colored differently from the remainder of the background 60 andv has (disposed thereon :non'fanim‘ati‘ng indicia 34 ‘colored in vsuitablejnonranimating. colors. Background; 33 is preferably neutral ‘ in color. For practical purposes the non-animating 001m, here may be yellow, orange, pale'rblue} pale 65 green, pale‘violet'or even neutral; It: maybe 50 vtrayedira non-animatingcolor. , A series of lines .57] inanimating color'suchivas red are‘disposed behind'the automobile-r; >When .thissign' is cycli cally illuminated" theiredilinesirappear to animate and impartvto theautomobilean illusion of nat 55 ural and directionahmovement,UHerethe ani mating-indicia are‘separate markings’which im part anwillusion oi natural'm‘otionto/a separate rorirerimatmg indicia->6 . 1 ; " ' j _:A nrthenfQrmpi tcwolor changing mechanism w chrnay be usedisshown at Figure 8 in which substantially‘. . v whitealight‘ from; agsuitable source ‘ ‘ ‘5.8g ipassesrv-through a¢condenserp59 ‘and then through“ a, rotating .colonwheel ‘or shutter 60 65 ' here pointed: out that:anyicolorheavily. shaded ' driven Ij byjgai suitable constant 301!" variable‘ speed with‘ ‘black . such as :dark blue; dark ‘violet; dark motor (not shown-hand whichihlasitwo di?erent green, etc. maybe considered the‘ full “equivalent Vcolori'segments..orlr?lters ‘6i andf62t Beam .63 isprojectedllponj any ofwthecolor signs above of black for ‘purposes: of theinve'ntions" ' described; Kilt :will; belobvious that beam ,63 is 70 The embodiments of the invention illustrated 70 in'Figures 4lgil'are mainly concerned with creating alternatelyiof different colors in practicingthe illusions: of‘na'tural directional motion or move Although the above disclosed‘ embodiments of. ment and involve'the addition of motion indicat ing indicia tosupplement the‘ animation produc-~ my invention speci?cally illustrate signs in which . fthmc‘clorg-ieilects are ,~ attained. through reflected 75 ing.effectsabovedescribed.. : inventiom ; - i . ' ‘ 4 light from suitably it will be apparent well applicable to transparent color 2,137,127 colored portions of the sign, that the invention'is equally signs having.‘ translucent or portions for producing ‘the same effects. Where such light permeable signs are used, the" source of-light such as the pro jector of Figure 8 is located. behind the sign and the modi?ed light is transmitted to the eye of the observer. Furthermore translucent'signs may 10 be used to produce the same lighting effects. For carrying out my invention where an illu sion of natural or directional movement is de sired, the object to be given the appearance of motion should be studied and analyzed. The 15 best arrangement of animating'and non-animat ing lines should be selected‘ifo'r the sign. For example, it-may be best‘to locate the animation producing lines entirely separate from the ob ject to be animated and which ‘appears to move as in Figure 7. _ Selection 'of the frequency of cyclic color change depends upon the character of the object portrayed. For example, the frequency when showing a gull ‘in ?ight would be lower than that 25 employed to show liquid flow from a bottle or a speeding auto-mobile. In most cases, while the primary or basic animation may be small the secondary or psychological effect is usually am pli?ed and quite natural. 30 The invention may be embodied in other spe ci?c forms ‘without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiment is therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the 35 scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which~come within the meaning and range of equivalency-of the claims are therefore intended to‘ be'embraced 40 therein. What is claimed and desired'to be secured by United-States Letters Patent isrl ’ ‘ 1. In an animated signfa background of neu tral' color, indicia upon said background, said in di?erent‘colors, oneof' said lights being of sub stantially the same‘ color as said primary part and the‘ other of said lights being de?cient in the distinguishing'hue of said ‘primary color, where by‘. an- illusionof animation is conveyed to the eyes of an observer, said primary'part of said indiciav smoothly animating in sharp contrast to said background, the absence of animating color in the‘latter vavoiding fatigue‘ of the human eye and-‘causing the single colored primary part of 10 said indicia to stand out in predominating re lations'hip‘on said background. ' 4. In an animated sign having a two part background, indicia upon‘ said background, said indicia comprising a primary part colored in an 15 animating color and located on one part of the backgroundand a secondary" part of non-ani mating color located on the other part of said background ‘and means for illuminating said sign‘ alternately with lights of di?erent color, said 20 background parts being di?erently colored with one-10f said background parts being neutral in color‘.v and the other of said background parts be ing non-neutral in color. @5.’ In an animated sign of the'type described in claim 4, said. primary part being predomi nantly red and located upon a background of sub stantially ‘complementary color. ‘6. The" ‘method of making animating signs which comprises analyzing the subject to be ani 30 mated, providing a background of neutralcolor, pictorially representing upon that background an inherently animate part of the subject colored in ‘an inanimate color, pictorially representing upon the same background another part colored in a single animatecolor and being of compara tively small area with respect to the area of the a background‘ and alternatingly illuminating said sign? with" light rays of animate and inanimate colori'iwhereby the combined physiological and 40 psychological-in?uences of said lighting create anTillusion of animated natural movement of said" subject, said single animate colored part smoothly animating in sharp contrast against 45 dicia comprising a primary part which is colored . saidibackground, the absence of animating colors 45 in a single animating color having a‘ dominant hue and a secondary part which is colored in a non animating color and means for illuminating said sign in such a manner as to‘produce and con 50 vey to the eyes of an observer the illusion of-ani mation in ‘said sign,‘ and to render said primary part intermittently distinctly visible in contrast ing relationship to said‘secondary part, said il 55 luminating means effecting periodic ‘exposures of said'sign to light of ‘substantially the same dominant hue as the animating color and said said periodic exposures being spacedv by expo sures of said sign 'to'light whose dominant hue is different from that of the animating color. 60 “ 2. In the animated sign de?ned inclaim 1, said illuminating means being operable to‘ pro ject said light upon said sign'with a cyclic color in the latter avoiding fatigue of the human eye and subordinating said‘ background to said'ani mate colored part of said sign.v Y ' :~7'.~.Apparat_us for'producing- a psychologically induced-optical illusion of animation in a sign having indicia of. suitable animating color upon a-background of ‘neutral color comprising means for alternately illuminating the sign with lights of "diiferent colors, one ‘of Which'has the same predominant hue-as the color of the animating 55 ihcliciaandfthe other of which has a different predominating hue, said alternations having a frequency oflgreater than one and one-half and less vthan four cyclic color changes per second, said'frequency being su?icient to‘effect smooth 60 animation 'of said-indicia but yet su?iciently low to avoid fatigue of the human eyedue to rapid frequency of from one and one half to four color». change. 4 . cycles per second, said frequency being su?icient . E 8. The» method of producing an optical illu 65 to effect smooth animation of said indicia/abut sion ofv animation in a sign having indicia of suit yet su?iciently low to‘ avoid fatigue of the human ableranimatingcolor upon a background.‘ of neu eye due to rapid color change. ‘ 1 ‘ » ' r 3. In an animated sign, a neutral color back ground, indicia on said background, said indicia 70 having a primary part‘ of comparatively small area with respect to the area of the background and being colored in a single animating color hav ing a distinguishing hue‘ and a secondary part colored‘ in a non-animating color, and 5means for 75. illuminating said sign alternately with lights of tral color‘ which‘ comprises alternately illuminat ingl'thea'sign with lights of .diiferent. colors, one of whichhas the same predominant hue as the color of the animating indicia andthe other of 70 which has a di?'erent predominant hue, said a1 ternations having a frequency of greater than one and one-half and less than four cyclic color changes per second, said frequency being sum cient to eifect smooth-animation of said indicia 75 5 2,187,127 but yet su?iciently low to avoid fatigue of the alternately visible and said secondary part is con-‘ human eye due to rapid color ‘change. I 9. In an animated sign, a background of neu tinuously visible and an illusion of animation of said primary part is conveyed. to the observer, tral color, indicia upon said background, said in-' dicia comprising a pictorial primary part which is colored in a single animating color and a sec ondary part which is colored in a non-animating color, said primary pictorialpart being of com paratively small area with respect to the area 10 of said background and means for successively illuminating said sign with‘ lights of di?erent dominant hues, one of said lights having its dominant hue substantially the same as that of the animating color whereby said primary part is said non-animating secondary part comprising lettering pictorially distinct‘ from said primary part but being a component part of the sign, said pictorial primary part of said indicia ‘smoothly animating in sharpcontrast against said backgroundthe absence of animating color inthe latter avoiding fatigue of the human eye 10 and causing said primary part to vividly stand out Vfrom said background and predominate thereover. ' ' ' JOHN. GORDON BEST.