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Патент USA US2137133

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NGVn 15, 1938.
Fileçl June 18I 1954
Herbert; ïlallm Tm,Y
Hi Attovne’g.
Patented Nov..l l5, 1938
Herbert Dallmann, Berlin-Karlshorst, Germany,
assigner to General Electric Company, acor
poraticn of New York
Application June 178, 1934, Serial No. 731,152
In Germany June 28, 1933
14 Claims.
(Cl. 'i3-_193)
My invention relates to apparatus for integrat
ing variable quantities and concerns particularly
methods and apparatus for integrating the prod
uct of two variable quantities.
It is an object of my invention to provide a
heat quantity meter adapted to register the quan
tity of heat supplied to a moving heat-absorbing
substance, for example water in response to the
rate of ilow of such substance and the temper
ature or the temperature rise ci the substance.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide an electrical arrangement for multiplying
and integrating two variable quantities which
shall be independent of variations in voltage of
an auxiliary ,source of current-utilized to ener
gize the apparatus.
Still another object of my invention is to pro
vide an improved form oi’ impulse telemeter. It
is also an object of my invention to provide an
arrangement for obtaining compensation for
voltage variations in electric measuring appa
ratus including telemeters of the impulse type.
Other and further objects and advantages
will become apparent as the description proceeds.
In accordance with my invention in its pre
ferred form, I utilize a resistance bridge of the
- Whcatstone type in which the resistances of one
or more of the arms are varied in accordance
with temperature variations, and blocks of cur
30 rent are supplied to the bridge at a rate depend
ing upon the rate of ñow of the heat-absorbing
material, the quantity of heat in which is to
be measured. To compensate for variation in
voltage of the current supply, means are pro
vided ior permitting the blocks of supply current
to flow for intervals oi time inversely propor
tional to the voltage of the current source. 'I‘he
y measurement of heat quantity is obtained by
means of an ampere-hour meter connected'in the
40 cross-circuit of the Wheatstone bridge.
The features of my invention which I believe
to be novel and patentable will be pointed out in
the claims appended hereto. For a better under
standing of my invention, reference may be had
to the following description taken in connection
having four resistance arms 2,'3, I, and 5 con
nected in series parallel. An ampere-hour meter
6 having a winding connected in a cross-circuit
between the common terminal of arms 2 and 4
and the common terminal of arms 3 and 5' is 5
provided for registering the time integral of the
product of two variable quantities. One or more
of the arms of the bridge I are arranged to have
their resistances vary in accordance with the
variations in one of the quantities to be multi- 1b
plied, for example, the temperature or the tem
perature rise of a heat-absorbing substance in
which heat quantity is to be measured.
If desired, one of the arms, such as the arm 2,
may be arranged to vary in resistance in accord- l5
ance with the variations in temperature oi the
incoming heat-absorbing substance, such as
water in a hot-water heating system, and'an
other arm 3 maybe arranged to have its resist
ance vary ln accordance with variations in tem- 20
perature of the outgoing heat-absorbing sub
stance, such as the water in a hot-water heating
system. Ii' desired, of course, either arm 2 or 3
may be arranged to vary in resistance in accord- .
ance with temperature change instead of tem- 25
perature of the heat-absorbing substance and the
otherarm could‘then be of constant resistance.
Likewise, ii the total heat quantity is to be meas
ured instead of heat supplied to or withdrawn
from the heat-absorbing substance, then only one 30
of the arms would be made variable and its
resistance would be made proportional to the
temperature of the heat-absorbing substance.
The variation in resistance oi the bridge arms
may take place in any desired manner as by 35
means of a variable contact moved by a temper
ature-responsive device, or the resistance mate
rial itself may be subjected to the variable tem
perature and its resistance caused to vary in ccn
sequence of the effect of temperature on the re--- 40
sistance oi an electrical conducting material,
such that the current through meterg i varies
with the temperature relation under investiga
The bridge i is supplied with ycurrent by a 45
is a circuit diagram illustrating one embodiment
source 'i in a circuit connected between the common terminal of arms 2 and 3 and the common
ot my invention; Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of
terminal of armsßl and l.
with the accompanying drawing in which Fig. -1
another embodiment oi my invention; and Fig.
3 is a‘graph illustrating the principle of oper
ation of my invention.
A rotating contact or current shifter 9 is pro
vided which operates at a rate proportional to 50
the second of the quantities to be multiplied,
Referring now more in detail to the drawing in
such as, for example, the rate of ilow of a heat
which like reference characters are utilized to -
absorbing substance in whichrthe heat quantity
is to be measured. Rotating contact 9 may'be
designate like parts throughout, in the arrange
ment of Fig. 1, I provide a Wheatstone bridge I
connected, for example, to a water meter in a 55
hot-Water heating system.
The circuit of the
supply source 'i also includes an ampere-hour
meter i8 driving e rotating contact il to form a
current quantity relay. A pair of brushes is pro
5 vided for each of the rotating contacts t* and il
and these are joined by a pair of conductors .'i
providing alternative current patties for the ci “
rent-supply circuit.
The rotating Contact or current shifter ¿i com
l0 sists of a disc, approximately t1di of which
conducting and the otirer ’neit c1’ nich is non
cenducting so that
connection of current
'" alternately shifted "rom one ei the
alternative conductors il to the stile" es the 6e»
l5 vice i) rotate". 'The rotating' Contact ii consists
disc of conducting meteriai 3135;’
. se
time t: and, during this period, a current ic
'At time ti', e. connection is made to the
conductor 2l and current ñcws until it is
rupted at time tn'. However, if now the
ebsorbing material ñows et e slower rate, caus- 5
ing Contact 9 to rotate more slowly, the current
shifter 8 will not make the succeeding contacts
'until the times i4 and ti'. The average current
falls from I5 to Ic es the rate of fiow of the neat
absorbing material decreases. The ratio of the Il)
average current I5 or I@ to the instantaneous cur
rent in varies in response to variations in the rate
of SOW of the lieat--elcser‘ning medium,
In case the voltage of the source ’S increases,
assuming tire originel speed of rotation ci cen~ 1u
tact 9, the cirrent will also increase from the
value in to e. greater velue, sncli es ii. Eer/ever,
the current will te clit
"sent efdsntiizy’`iA
meter l5 or cur
u' lg
et the time ’
nt quen
constant quantities ef elel
tricity flowing tlireugl'i n
i3 or the average veine M.
ìsy the variation
similar manner, either? "
current ï'io’m'ng in e
'tir en inereesed voi
ci; more quie
re~i1ctir z
ssdrce 1.
íî'ince the total nnreber oéî blc
'sowing through tire entre“ 7
mls upon the number
ie apparaten i; ‘
ris their
i‘orine L
t" ¿3
er ceri-ent In,
using sttuhour meters,
to advantage.
tile voltage windings `ere preferably connected to
the commen voltage source in order that any ex
ege or" source
75 through t'ne
¿sting temperature errors of the current quantity
relay Il or the 'neat quantity meter 8 will be elim- 75
inated by not inñuencing the ratio of the speeds
of the devices I0 and 6.
My invention is not limited to use of electric
circuit- elements having particular electrical con
required for the meter i9 to make a complete
revolutionwill be correspondinglydecreased or
In the arrangement of Fig. 2, the bridge con
stants or to a particular relationship between the
constants of the elements of the apparatus, and
sists of lower arms I5 and I5 having fixed re Ul
sistances and upper arms I3 and Id formed by two
suitable values of the constants will suggest them
selves to those skilled in the art for obtaining the
portions of a resistor of fixed resistance. A tem
perature indicator Il of any desired type is pro
vided, which actuates a movable contact I8 adapt
best results in connection with the type and range
of measurements which it is desired to make.
However, to facilitate the understanding of myl
invention the operation thereof will be explained
in connection with a numerical example.
Let it be assumed that the rate of flow of the
15 heating medium is such that the current shifter
9 maintains> connection between it and the cur
rent interrupter I I for a period of 40 seconds and
breaks vthe connection for a period of 60 seconds,
that the resistance of the entire circuit varies be
tween 100 and 200 ohms as a result of variations
in 'the resistors 2 and 3 produced by temperature
, changes and that the electromotive force of the
`current source 'I fluctuates between 4 and 3 volts,
while the integrating meter I9 has such an elec
25 trical constant as to rotate the Contact I I through
an angle of 180 degrees in 30 seconds when 15
milliamperes are flowing.
In a period of 100 seconds during which a com
plete revolution of the current shifter 9 takes
30 place. assuming the condition when the current
source -I has an electromotive force of three volts.
and the entire resistance oi' the circuit is 100.
ohms the following events will occur:
At the time zero the current shifter 9 closes
35 the connection between the current source 'I and
the upper conductor 2Ia of the pair of conduc
tors 2| (see Figure 1) and the contact arrange
ment II is in such a position that the circuit is
closed «through the contact and the upper con
ductor 2Ia. In consequence, the integrating me
ter I0 begins to rotate. Under the conditions oi'
voltage and resistance assumed 30 milliamperes
ed to make contact intermittently with a point 10
on the resistor forming the arms I3 and I 4 de
pending upon the temperature indicated by indi- .
cator I'I. A chopper bar I9 is provided for bring
ing movable contact I8 in contact _with the re
sistor and a coil 2i! connectedrimsarigs with source
'I is provided for actuating'the chopper bar I9
when current is iiowing.
It will be apparent that, in the arrangement
of Fig. 2. blocks of current will also be passed
through ampere-hour meter IIìin dependence
upon the quantity of heat-absorbing substance
flowing in the system and that variations in volt
age of the source IlI will be compensated for by
variations in the length of time current is per
mitted to flow during each current-conducting
interval. During non-conducting intervals, the
chopper bar I9 is released and movable contact I8
is permitted to adopt a new position, in case of f
variations in temperature. The current flowing
in ampere-hour meter Gis thereby adjusted in 30
termittently in vorder to provide a measurement of
the total heat quantity or the product of tem
perature rise times quantity of heat-absorbing
It will be seen thatan incorrect registration
cannot be caused by the stoppage of the contact
device 9 since the quantity relay Il) brings about
automatic interruption of the current circuit'.
I have herein shown and particularly described
certain embodiments of my invention and certain 40
methods of operation embraced therein for the
purpose of explaining its principle and showing ’
its application but it will be obvious to those
causes the contact I I to interrupt the circuit after skilled in the art that many modifications and
45 15 seconds, when a rotation of 180 degrees has variations are possible and I aim, therefore, to
cover all such modiñcations and variations as
, taken place. After 40 seconds the current shifter
9 disconnects the current source, and after 50 fall within the scope of my invention which is
defined in the appended claims.
seconds the current shifter 9 transfers the con
What-I claim as new and desire to secure by
nection to the lower conductor 2lb so that the
50 integrating meter I0 runs again until 65 seconds Letters Patent of the United States, is: „
1. A heat quantity meter comprising infcombi
have elapsed, the times in each case being meas
ured from zero. Thereupon the contact I I breaks nation with a source of current, a resistance
the circuit again. For a period of twice 15 sec - bridge supplied by said current source, an am
onds a current of _30 milliamperes has flowed in pere-hour meter in series with said current
supply, a pair of conductors interposed in the cir
the bridge.
If one assumes an electromotive force of 4 volts cuit of said current-supply to provide alternative
and an overall resistance of 100 ohms a current current paths therebetween, a current shifter
ofV 40 milliamperes ñows in the bridge for a period driven at a ratepróportional to the rate of ilow
of a moving heat-absorbing substance in which
of twice 11.25 seconds.
Assuming an electromotive force of 3 volts and heat quantity is to be measured and adapted al
an overall resistance oi' 200 ohms a current oi’ 15 ternately to transfer the circuit connection from
milliamperes flows in the bridge for a period of one of said conductors to the other, and a current
interrupter driven by said ampere-hour meter
twice 30 seconds.
Assuming an electromotive force of 4 volts and and adapted to interrupt the current in _said con
65 an overall resistance of 200 ohms a current ofk 20
ductors alternately whenever a predetermined
milliamp'eres flows in the bridge for a period of quantity ci electricity has flowed through said
ampere-hour meter, said _resistance bridge com
twice 22.5 seconds.
prising resistance arms connected in series-paral
It is consequently immaterial what electromo
tive force exists in the circuit or how large the lel and a cross-circuit including a second ampere
70 resistance is since, as the’caiculation will show, hour meter serving to measure a heat quantity
the current -quantity which has ilowed in the of the moving substance, said bridge arms includ
bridge during a period of 100 seconds is 900 milli
ing a resistance variable in accordance with tem
arnpere-seconds in any case. If the speed of the perature change in the heat-absorbing substance.
transmitter driving the currentI shifter 9 is great
2. A heat quantity meter comprising in com
75 er or less than assumed in the example, the time bination with a current supply source, an imped
iiow. Accordingly, the integrating meter I0
ance bridge supplied by said current so“ roe, an
integrating electric meter in. series with seid cur-
combination with a source of supply current, a
current shifter in circuit with said source and
rent supply, a peir of conductors interposed the
circuit of said current supply to provide alterna-
driven at a rate proportional to the magnitude of
an indication to be transmitted, a pair of conduc
Gl tive current petlis between
source f. ' said
integrating meter, a current shift-er dri .e
tors cooperating with said current shifter, adapted
to provide alternate current paths and extending
rate proportional to the rete o
to the remote point to which indications are to
absorbing substance
be measured and adepte
be transmitted, and a third conductor extending,
to said remote point, an integrating electric meter
l0 connection baci; and
» l
located at said remote point and driving a current l0
interrupter, said current shifter having a contact
« alternately connected to one or the other of said
to interru' "
inea quantity
15 current, s.. ci bridge comprising impedance arms
in parallei circuits, and e cross-circuit including;
a second integrating electric meter serving to
measure a neet eucntity of 'the flowing substance.
onc ci sale?
arms having en impedance
-ñrst two conductors at one end and said current
interrupter having a Contact intermittently dis
connected from said first two conductors alter- l5
mately at their other end, but otherwise connected
both of said conductors, said third conductor
being Connected t0 DI‘OVÍde ‘à return electrical Cil'
cuit through Said Current ínîerl‘upter, Said inte*
2o variable
accordance with Variations
ternpereture in the beat-absorbing substance.
3. .fin integrating product _meter comprising in
grating 818cm@meter'MMSHÍKÍSHDDÍYSOUYCBJHÖ 20
S'àiiî Current ïntel‘rllilter being driven by Said ín
’u'êgl‘aïìng meter ’i0 interrupt the Current in either
combination with a current supply source, an impedance bridge supplied by seid current source,
25 a current quantity relay in series ith said eurrent supply, e ¿Deir of conductors interposed in
oí said conductors each time said integrating m8
ter has measured e predetermined quantity of
current, whereby the registration of said meter is 2r
mme dependent 119011 the number Of Operations
the Circuit 0i 59M; aufregt Supply t@ 555mm@ ¿im
ternative current peths between said source and
said relay, a current shifter driven at rete fprc30 portional to one of two quantities to ’oe muitipiied
of seid current shifter and independent of varia
‘GÈG‘HS in vûlilag@ GÍ Said Current Supply
(ì fm impulse CUI’I'GDÈ 759161381381' ,COmDI‘ïSîrlg a
paí? 0f COHCÍUCÈGI‘S adäiï'têd ‘J0 DI‘OVide alternate 'i0
and adapted to, transfer the circuit connection
ba .,r and forth between said conductors, and a
current paths and êx'ìendínë between 2» transmit
¿iP-g IJGÍHÍ? and a feßeivïl'lä DÖÍHÈ, a return path
Current interrupt-,eg driven bv Sai@ sufren@ quantity relay and adapted to înterruot the current
COIlíÍuCÈOI‘ ELÍSO extending“ bêiìweêi‘i Said transmit
till@ P-HÓ rëßê‘îvillg» DOÍD'US, Si SGUTCG 0f Clll‘rcnt CGH»
nected in series with said return path conductor, 35 '
3e in either of said conductors each ti.
mined quen/¿ity @i electricity has j.
Said gum-en@ quam-iw yeïgy, ser@ b
infT impedance arms in pereilel r-f-Uit57 ail-.á ,EL
en integrating meter at said receiving point also
connected in series with said return peth con
d eter, circui‘t-eln'îtinâmeons at the transmit
cross-circuit meiuçìing an
’f „1; point for rilternately cer~` eting t'ne conduc
o? sato ‘_oeir to the tra:
tter eno". or? said (if)
the product of
one or" in
` to provide „
supply ani s
cn Cir
other et.
one of Le l
said. bridge e
varyin no: Y- „c
quantities, t
rent between cio q»areilel circoli'
circuit in dependence uperrvcriet i
ference between seid latter two quantities. x
5. en inigiulse
teieineter com s'n ' :zo
connected bet-Ween the common point
of tile impedences in one series peir and the com
mon point of the impedences in the other series
'cs_r, at least one of said arms having an im
cadence adapted to be varied in. dependence upon 75
the magnitude of the second of the quantities to
be multiplied, thereby varying the distribution of
current between the parallel circuits and the
cross-circuit of said bridge in response to varia
tions in the second of said quantities and making
the registration of said integrating electric meter
dependent upon the time integral of the product
of the multiplied quantities.
8. In an impulse current telemeter, means for
10 producing and transmitting current impulses at
a rate dependent upon the magnitude of a meas
urement to be transmitted, an integrating meter
energized by said impulses to register the total
quantity of electricity transmitted, and means
15 having -contacts in series with said integrating
meter and driven by said integrating meter for
interrupting each of such current impulses
through said meter when a predetermined quan
tity of electricity has been transmitted during the
20 impulse, thereby making the registration of said
integrating meter dependent upon the total num
ber of impulses received and independent of the
magnitude of the currents during said impulses
the current magnitude of the impulses and the
25 constant of said integrating meter and interrupt
ing means being such as to cause current inter~
ruption to take place within the time duration
of impulses corresponding to the impulse rate
representing the greatest measurement magni
30 tude to be transmitted.
9. In a heat quantity measuring system, an
electric measuring circuit including a temperature
responsive impedance bridge in Wheatstone form
with a cross circuit and with a pair of current sup
ply terminals connected in the said measuring
circuit, a source of- current connected to said
measuring circuit, flow-responsive circuit control
means connected to said source for energizing
said circuit from said source at intervals the
40 frequency of which is proportional to a rate of
current source to cause ñow of current there
through, means for passing the difference be
tween said currents through said meter, circuit
interrupting and connecting means in series with
said current source, and flow-responsive means in Ul
operative relation with said circuit interrupting
and connecting means for varying the relative
periods of connection and interruption of said
circuit interrupting and connecting means in re
sponse to variation in rate of flow.
12. A device for integrating the heat content
of a flowing heat absorbing medium comprising
in combination, an integrating electric meter,
temperature-responsive current-control means, a
source of current in circuit with said meter and
said current-control means, circuit interrupting
and connecting means, and a current-integrating
unit in series with said current source, said cir
cuit interrupting and connecting means having a
vmovable connecting contact and a movable inter
rupting contact and stationary contacts coop
erating therewith, flow-responsive means driving
said circuit-connecting contact with a frequency
proportional to rate of ñow, said current-integrat
ing unit having an ampere-hour responsive mov
able element' connected to said circuit-interrupt
ing contact to open the circuit after each passage
of a predetermined number of ampere-hours.
13. A device for integrating the product of two
quantities comprising in combination, an inte 30
grating electric meter, current control means re
sponsive to variations in one Iof the quantities, a
source of current in circuit with said meter and
said current control' means, current interrupting
and connectingv means and a current-integrating
unit in series with said current source, said cur
rent interrupting and connecting means having
a movable connecting contact and a movable in
terrupting contact and stationary contacts coop
erating therewith, means responsive to variations
in the other of the quantities driving said circuit
connecting contact with a frequency proportional
to the magnitude of said other quantity, said cur
rent-integrating unit having an ampere-hour
iiow, circuit control means connected to said first
circuit control means and to said measuring cir
cuit for deenergizing said measuring circuit each
time it is energized after a period of time inversely
45 proportional to the voltage of said source, and an ` responsive movable element connected to said cir- integrating electric meter connected in the cross cuit-interrupting contact to open the circuit after
each passage of a predetermined number of am
circuit of said bridge.
1G. In a system for measuring the product of pere-hours.
14. A device for measuring the product oi' two
two quantities, an electric measuring circuit hav- '
quantities comprising a. source oi' current, a main
50 ing branched paths in a portion thereof, a source '
of current being included in the circuit, circuit
control means also included in the circuit for in
termittently maintaining said source connected
to the remainder of said circuit at intervals de
55 pendentupon one of said quantities and for pe
riods of time which are inversely proportionalv
to the voltage of said source. an electric integrat
ing meter connected as a cross circuit between
Intermediate points in the branched paths of said
60 measuring circuit, and means for diverting cur
rent from one of_ said branched paths to the other
through said cross circuit in proportion to the
other of said quantities, when the measuring cir
cuit is energized.
11. A device for integrating the heat _transfer
effected by aiiowing medium entering a heat v
transfer system at one temperature and leaving
at another temperature comprising in combina
tion, a source of current, an integrating electric
70 meter, current-control means responsiveto vari
ations in the entering temperature of the medium,
current-control means responsive to variations in
the leaving temperature of the medium, means
for connecting said current-control means to said
circuit connectedv thereto, said main circuit in
cluding a portion divided into a plurality of
branches, one of which includes current-control
means extendingto an intermediate portion oi'
the branch in which it is included, a cross circuit
including an electric meter for showing the mag
nitude of the product and connected between in- ‘
termediate points oi' two oi said branches, said
main circuit also including circuit interrupting
and connecting means for alternately opening and
closing the main circuit to produce current im
pulses therein, said circuit interrupting and oon
necting means including means for terminating
each current impulse after a predetermined quan
tity of electricity has passed therein and means 65
for intermittently closing the circuit to produce
impulses with a frequency proportional to the
magnitude of one of the quantities, said current
control means in the branch portion ofthe cir
cuit being responsive to the variations in the other
of the quantities to divert current from one
branch to the other through the cross circuit in
response to variations in said other quantity.
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