Патент USA US2137133код для вставки
NGVn 15, 1938. H, DALLMANN 2,137,133 APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING VARIABLE QUANTITIES Fileçl June 18I 1954 Ú’ ' ’ Herbert; ïlallm Tm,Y Hi Attovne’g. Patented Nov..l l5, 1938 2,137,133 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,137,133 APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING VARIABLE QUANTITIES Herbert Dallmann, Berlin-Karlshorst, Germany, assigner to General Electric Company, acor poraticn of New York e Application June 178, 1934, Serial No. 731,152 In Germany June 28, 1933 14 Claims. (Cl. 'i3-_193) My invention relates to apparatus for integrat ing variable quantities and concerns particularly methods and apparatus for integrating the prod uct of two variable quantities. It is an object of my invention to provide a heat quantity meter adapted to register the quan tity of heat supplied to a moving heat-absorbing substance, for example water in response to the rate of ilow of such substance and the temper ature or the temperature rise ci the substance. It is a further object of my invention to pro vide an electrical arrangement for multiplying and integrating two variable quantities which shall be independent of variations in voltage of an auxiliary ,source of current-utilized to ener gize the apparatus. ` Still another object of my invention is to pro vide an improved form oi’ impulse telemeter. It is also an object of my invention to provide an arrangement for obtaining compensation for voltage variations in electric measuring appa ratus including telemeters of the impulse type. Other and further objects and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds. In accordance with my invention in its pre ferred form, I utilize a resistance bridge of the - Whcatstone type in which the resistances of one or more of the arms are varied in accordance with temperature variations, and blocks of cur 30 rent are supplied to the bridge at a rate depend ing upon the rate of ñow of the heat-absorbing material, the quantity of heat in which is to be measured. To compensate for variation in voltage of the current supply, means are pro vided ior permitting the blocks of supply current to flow for intervals oi time inversely propor tional to the voltage of the current source. 'I‘he y measurement of heat quantity is obtained by means of an ampere-hour meter connected'in the 40 cross-circuit of the Wheatstone bridge. The features of my invention which I believe to be novel and patentable will be pointed out in the claims appended hereto. For a better under standing of my invention, reference may be had to the following description taken in connection having four resistance arms 2,'3, I, and 5 con nected in series parallel. An ampere-hour meter 6 having a winding connected in a cross-circuit between the common terminal of arms 2 and 4 and the common terminal of arms 3 and 5' is 5 provided for registering the time integral of the product of two variable quantities. One or more of the arms of the bridge I are arranged to have their resistances vary in accordance with the variations in one of the quantities to be multi- 1b plied, for example, the temperature or the tem perature rise of a heat-absorbing substance in which heat quantity is to be measured. If desired, one of the arms, such as the arm 2, may be arranged to vary in resistance in accord- l5 ance with the variations in temperature oi the incoming heat-absorbing substance, such as water in a hot-water heating system, and'an other arm 3 maybe arranged to have its resist ance vary ln accordance with variations in tem- 20 perature of the outgoing heat-absorbing sub stance, such as the water in a hot-water heating system. Ii' desired, of course, either arm 2 or 3 may be arranged to vary in resistance in accord- . ance with temperature change instead of tem- 25 perature of the heat-absorbing substance and the otherarm could‘then be of constant resistance. Likewise, ii the total heat quantity is to be meas ured instead of heat supplied to or withdrawn from the heat-absorbing substance, then only one 30 of the arms would be made variable and its resistance would be made proportional to the temperature of the heat-absorbing substance. The variation in resistance oi the bridge arms may take place in any desired manner as by 35 means of a variable contact moved by a temper ature-responsive device, or the resistance mate rial itself may be subjected to the variable tem perature and its resistance caused to vary in ccn sequence of the effect of temperature on the re--- 40 sistance oi an electrical conducting material, such that the current through meterg i varies with the temperature relation under investiga tion. . ' ‘ The bridge i is supplied with ycurrent by a 45 is a circuit diagram illustrating one embodiment source 'i in a circuit connected between the common terminal of arms 2 and 3 and the common ot my invention; Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of terminal of armsßl and l. with the accompanying drawing in which Fig. -1 another embodiment oi my invention; and Fig. 3 is a‘graph illustrating the principle of oper ation of my invention. 'f v A rotating contact or current shifter 9 is pro vided which operates at a rate proportional to 50 the second of the quantities to be multiplied, Referring now more in detail to the drawing in such as, for example, the rate of ilow of a heat which like reference characters are utilized to - absorbing substance in whichrthe heat quantity is to be measured. Rotating contact 9 may'be designate like parts throughout, in the arrange ment of Fig. 1, I provide a Wheatstone bridge I connected, for example, to a water meter in a 55 2 ' 2,187,138 hot-Water heating system. The circuit of the supply source 'i also includes an ampere-hour meter i8 driving e rotating contact il to form a current quantity relay. A pair of brushes is pro 5 vided for each of the rotating contacts t* and il and these are joined by a pair of conductors .'i providing alternative current patties for the ci “ rent-supply circuit. The rotating Contact or current shifter ¿i com l0 sists of a disc, approximately t1di of which conducting and the otirer ’neit c1’ nich is non cenducting so that connection of current source '" alternately shifted "rom one ei the alternative conductors il to the stile" es the 6e» l5 vice i) rotate". 'The rotating' Contact ii consists disc of conducting meteriai 3135;’ . se te. time t: and, during this period, a current ic 'At time ti', e. connection is made to the conductor 2l and current ñcws until it is rupted at time tn'. However, if now the ebsorbing material ñows et e slower rate, caus- 5 ing Contact 9 to rotate more slowly, the current shifter 8 will not make the succeeding contacts 'until the times i4 and ti'. The average current falls from I5 to Ic es the rate of fiow of the neat absorbing material decreases. The ratio of the Il) average current I5 or I@ to the instantaneous cur rent in varies in response to variations in the rate of SOW of the lieat--elcser‘ning medium, In case the voltage of the source ’S increases, assuming tire originel speed of rotation ci cen~ 1u tact 9, the cirrent will also increase from the value in to e. greater velue, sncli es ii. Eer/ever, the current will te clit "sent efdsntiizy’`iA meter l5 or cur _1 r. u' lg »clusters il, flows. lower inter heat et the time ’ cure il nt quen constant quantities ef elel tricity flowing tlireugl'i n i3 or the average veine M. ìsy the variation 'vel similar manner, either? " t5 current ï'io’m'ng in e 'tir en inereesed voi ci; more quie re~i1ctir z 3G ssdrce 1. íî'ince the total nnreber oéî blc 'sowing through tire entre“ 7 mls upon the number ie apparaten i; ‘ „omging ’ ris their conteeU i‘orine L t" ¿3 u 30 235 s.tt«hour er ceri-ent In, met using sttuhour meters, ïrlcyed to advantage. tile voltage windings `ere preferably connected to 70 the commen voltage source in order that any ex ege or" source 75 through t'ne ¿sting temperature errors of the current quantity relay Il or the 'neat quantity meter 8 will be elim- 75 animas~Yr inated by not inñuencing the ratio of the speeds 3 of the devices I0 and 6. My invention is not limited to use of electric circuit- elements having particular electrical con required for the meter i9 to make a complete revolutionwill be correspondinglydecreased or increased. In the arrangement of Fig. 2, the bridge con stants or to a particular relationship between the constants of the elements of the apparatus, and sists of lower arms I5 and I5 having fixed re Ul sistances and upper arms I3 and Id formed by two suitable values of the constants will suggest them selves to those skilled in the art for obtaining the portions of a resistor of fixed resistance. A tem perature indicator Il of any desired type is pro vided, which actuates a movable contact I8 adapt best results in connection with the type and range of measurements which it is desired to make. However, to facilitate the understanding of myl invention the operation thereof will be explained in connection with a numerical example. Let it be assumed that the rate of flow of the 15 heating medium is such that the current shifter 9 maintains> connection between it and the cur rent interrupter I I for a period of 40 seconds and breaks vthe connection for a period of 60 seconds, that the resistance of the entire circuit varies be tween 100 and 200 ohms as a result of variations in 'the resistors 2 and 3 produced by temperature , changes and that the electromotive force of the `current source 'I fluctuates between 4 and 3 volts, while the integrating meter I9 has such an elec 25 trical constant as to rotate the Contact I I through an angle of 180 degrees in 30 seconds when 15 milliamperes are flowing. In a period of 100 seconds during which a com plete revolution of the current shifter 9 takes 30 place. assuming the condition when the current source -I has an electromotive force of three volts. and the entire resistance oi' the circuit is 100. ohms the following events will occur: At the time zero the current shifter 9 closes 35 the connection between the current source 'I and the upper conductor 2Ia of the pair of conduc tors 2| (see Figure 1) and the contact arrange ment II is in such a position that the circuit is closed «through the contact and the upper con ductor 2Ia. In consequence, the integrating me ter I0 begins to rotate. Under the conditions oi' voltage and resistance assumed 30 milliamperes ed to make contact intermittently with a point 10 on the resistor forming the arms I3 and I 4 de pending upon the temperature indicated by indi- . cator I'I. A chopper bar I9 is provided for bring ing movable contact I8 in contact _with the re sistor and a coil 2i! connectedrimsarigs with source 'I is provided for actuating'the chopper bar I9 when current is iiowing. It will be apparent that, in the arrangement of Fig. 2. blocks of current will also be passed through ampere-hour meter IIìin dependence 20 upon the quantity of heat-absorbing substance flowing in the system and that variations in volt age of the source IlI will be compensated for by variations in the length of time current is per mitted to flow during each current-conducting interval. During non-conducting intervals, the chopper bar I9 is released and movable contact I8 is permitted to adopt a new position, in case of f variations in temperature. The current flowing in ampere-hour meter Gis thereby adjusted in 30 termittently in vorder to provide a measurement of the total heat quantity or the product of tem perature rise times quantity of heat-absorbing material. It will be seen thatan incorrect registration cannot be caused by the stoppage of the contact device 9 since the quantity relay Il) brings about automatic interruption of the current circuit'. I have herein shown and particularly described certain embodiments of my invention and certain 40 methods of operation embraced therein for the purpose of explaining its principle and showing ’ its application but it will be obvious to those causes the contact I I to interrupt the circuit after skilled in the art that many modifications and 45 15 seconds, when a rotation of 180 degrees has variations are possible and I aim, therefore, to cover all such modiñcations and variations as , taken place. After 40 seconds the current shifter 9 disconnects the current source, and after 50 fall within the scope of my invention which is defined in the appended claims. seconds the current shifter 9 transfers the con What-I claim as new and desire to secure by nection to the lower conductor 2lb so that the y 50 integrating meter I0 runs again until 65 seconds Letters Patent of the United States, is: „ 1. A heat quantity meter comprising infcombi have elapsed, the times in each case being meas ured from zero. Thereupon the contact I I breaks nation with a source of current, a resistance the circuit again. For a period of twice 15 sec - bridge supplied by said current source, an am onds a current of _30 milliamperes has flowed in pere-hour meter in series with said current supply, a pair of conductors interposed in the cir the bridge. If one assumes an electromotive force of 4 volts cuit of said current-supply to provide alternative and an overall resistance of 100 ohms a current current paths therebetween, a current shifter ofV 40 milliamperes ñows in the bridge for a period driven at a ratepróportional to the rate of ilow of a moving heat-absorbing substance in which of twice 11.25 seconds. . 60 Assuming an electromotive force of 3 volts and heat quantity is to be measured and adapted al an overall resistance oi' 200 ohms a current oi’ 15 ternately to transfer the circuit connection from milliamperes flows in the bridge for a period of one of said conductors to the other, and a current interrupter driven by said ampere-hour meter twice 30 seconds. Assuming an electromotive force of 4 volts and and adapted to interrupt the current in _said con 65 an overall resistance of 200 ohms a current ofk 20 ductors alternately whenever a predetermined milliamp'eres flows in the bridge for a period of quantity ci electricity has flowed through said ampere-hour meter, said _resistance bridge com twice 22.5 seconds. . prising resistance arms connected in series-paral It is consequently immaterial what electromo tive force exists in the circuit or how large the lel and a cross-circuit including a second ampere 70 resistance is since, as the’caiculation will show, hour meter serving to measure a heat quantity the current -quantity which has ilowed in the of the moving substance, said bridge arms includ bridge during a period of 100 seconds is 900 milli ing a resistance variable in accordance with tem arnpere-seconds in any case. If the speed of the perature change in the heat-absorbing substance. transmitter driving the currentI shifter 9 is great 2. A heat quantity meter comprising in com 75 er or less than assumed in the example, the time bination with a current supply source, an imped iiow. Accordingly, the integrating meter I0 50 » 55 65 70 75 4 29131133 ance bridge supplied by said current so“ roe, an integrating electric meter in. series with seid cur- combination with a source of supply current, a current shifter in circuit with said source and rent supply, a peir of conductors interposed the circuit of said current supply to provide alterna- driven at a rate proportional to the magnitude of an indication to be transmitted, a pair of conduc Gl tive current petlis between source f. ' said integrating meter, a current shift-er dri .e tors cooperating with said current shifter, adapted to provide alternate current paths and extending rate proportional to the rete o to the remote point to which indications are to absorbing substance be measured and adepte be transmitted, and a third conductor extending, to said remote point, an integrating electric meter l0 connection baci; and » l located at said remote point and driving a current l0 interrupter, said current shifter having a contact ' « alternately connected to one or the other of said to interru' " e inea quantity 15 current, s.. ci bridge comprising impedance arms in parallei circuits, and e cross-circuit including; a second integrating electric meter serving to measure a neet eucntity of 'the flowing substance. onc ci sale? arms having en impedance -ñrst two conductors at one end and said current interrupter having a Contact intermittently dis connected from said first two conductors alter- l5 mately at their other end, but otherwise connected both of said conductors, said third conductor being Connected t0 DI‘OVÍde ‘à return electrical Cil' cuit through Said Current ínîerl‘upter, Said inte* 2o variable accordance with Variations ternpereture in the beat-absorbing substance. 3. .fin integrating product _meter comprising in grating 818cm@meter'MMSHÍKÍSHDDÍYSOUYCBJHÖ 20 S'àiiî Current ïntel‘rllilter being driven by Said ín ’u'êgl‘aïìng meter ’i0 interrupt the Current in either combination with a current supply source, an impedance bridge supplied by seid current source, 25 a current quantity relay in series ith said eurrent supply, e ¿Deir of conductors interposed in oí said conductors each time said integrating m8 ter has measured e predetermined quantity of current, whereby the registration of said meter is 2r mme dependent 119011 the number Of Operations the Circuit 0i 59M; aufregt Supply t@ 555mm@ ¿im ternative current peths between said source and said relay, a current shifter driven at rete fprc30 portional to one of two quantities to ’oe muitipiied of seid current shifter and independent of varia ‘GÈG‘HS in vûlilag@ GÍ Said Current Supply (ì fm impulse CUI’I'GDÈ 759161381381' ,COmDI‘ïSîrlg a paí? 0f COHCÍUCÈGI‘S adäiï'têd ‘J0 DI‘OVide alternate 'i0 and adapted to, transfer the circuit connection ba .,r and forth between said conductors, and a current paths and êx'ìendínë between 2» transmit ¿iP-g IJGÍHÍ? and a feßeivïl'lä DÖÍHÈ, a return path Current interrupt-,eg driven bv Sai@ sufren@ quantity relay and adapted to înterruot the current COIlíÍuCÈOI‘ ELÍSO extending“ bêiìweêi‘i Said transmit till@ P-HÓ rëßê‘îvillg» DOÍD'US, Si SGUTCG 0f Clll‘rcnt CGH» nected in series with said return path conductor, 35 ' 3e in either of said conductors each ti. mined quen/¿ity @i electricity has j. Said gum-en@ quam-iw yeïgy, ser@ b comprisn infT impedance arms in pereilel r-f-Uit57 ail-.á ,EL en integrating meter at said receiving point also connected in series with said return peth con d eter, circui‘t-eln'îtinâmeons at the transmit cross-circuit meiuçìing an ’f „1; point for rilternately cer~` eting t'ne conduc o? sato ‘_oeir to the tra: tter eno". or? said (if) @13C-¿ric the product of one or" in variable ` to provide „ supply ani s cn Cir other et. inn; one of Le l said. bridge e ¿Ü varyin no: Y- „c quantities, t rent between cio q»areilel circoli' circuit in dependence uperrvcriet i ference between seid latter two quantities. x 5. en inigiulse teieineter com s'n ' :zo ter connected bet-Ween the common point of tile impedences in one series peir and the com mon point of the impedences in the other series 'cs_r, at least one of said arms having an im cadence adapted to be varied in. dependence upon 75 2,137,138 the magnitude of the second of the quantities to be multiplied, thereby varying the distribution of current between the parallel circuits and the cross-circuit of said bridge in response to varia tions in the second of said quantities and making the registration of said integrating electric meter dependent upon the time integral of the product of the multiplied quantities. 8. In an impulse current telemeter, means for 10 producing and transmitting current impulses at a rate dependent upon the magnitude of a meas urement to be transmitted, an integrating meter energized by said impulses to register the total quantity of electricity transmitted, and means 15 having -contacts in series with said integrating meter and driven by said integrating meter for interrupting each of such current impulses through said meter when a predetermined quan tity of electricity has been transmitted during the 20 impulse, thereby making the registration of said integrating meter dependent upon the total num ber of impulses received and independent of the magnitude of the currents during said impulses the current magnitude of the impulses and the 25 constant of said integrating meter and interrupt ing means being such as to cause current inter~ ruption to take place within the time duration of impulses corresponding to the impulse rate representing the greatest measurement magni 30 tude to be transmitted. 9. In a heat quantity measuring system, an electric measuring circuit including a temperature responsive impedance bridge in Wheatstone form with a cross circuit and with a pair of current sup 35 ply terminals connected in the said measuring circuit, a source of- current connected to said measuring circuit, flow-responsive circuit control means connected to said source for energizing said circuit from said source at intervals the 40 frequency of which is proportional to a rate of 5 current source to cause ñow of current there through, means for passing the difference be tween said currents through said meter, circuit interrupting and connecting means in series with said current source, and flow-responsive means in Ul operative relation with said circuit interrupting and connecting means for varying the relative periods of connection and interruption of said circuit interrupting and connecting means in re 10 sponse to variation in rate of flow. 12. A device for integrating the heat content of a flowing heat absorbing medium comprising in combination, an integrating electric meter, temperature-responsive current-control means, a source of current in circuit with said meter and said current-control means, circuit interrupting and connecting means, and a current-integrating unit in series with said current source, said cir cuit interrupting and connecting means having a vmovable connecting contact and a movable inter rupting contact and stationary contacts coop erating therewith, flow-responsive means driving said circuit-connecting contact with a frequency proportional to rate of ñow, said current-integrat ing unit having an ampere-hour responsive mov able element' connected to said circuit-interrupt gi ing contact to open the circuit after each passage of a predetermined number of ampere-hours. 13. A device for integrating the product of two quantities comprising in combination, an inte 30 grating electric meter, current control means re sponsive to variations in one Iof the quantities, a source of current in circuit with said meter and said current control' means, current interrupting and connectingv means and a current-integrating unit in series with said current source, said cur rent interrupting and connecting means having a movable connecting contact and a movable in terrupting contact and stationary contacts coop erating therewith, means responsive to variations in the other of the quantities driving said circuit connecting contact with a frequency proportional to the magnitude of said other quantity, said cur rent-integrating unit having an ampere-hour iiow, circuit control means connected to said first circuit control means and to said measuring cir cuit for deenergizing said measuring circuit each time it is energized after a period of time inversely 45 45 proportional to the voltage of said source, and an ` responsive movable element connected to said cir- integrating electric meter connected in the cross cuit-interrupting contact to open the circuit after each passage of a predetermined number of am circuit of said bridge. ‘ 1G. In a system for measuring the product of pere-hours. 14. A device for measuring the product oi' two two quantities, an electric measuring circuit hav- ' quantities comprising a. source oi' current, a main 50 ing branched paths in a portion thereof, a source ' of current being included in the circuit, circuit control means also included in the circuit for in termittently maintaining said source connected to the remainder of said circuit at intervals de 55 pendentupon one of said quantities and for pe riods of time which are inversely proportionalv to the voltage of said source. an electric integrat ing meter connected as a cross circuit between Intermediate points in the branched paths of said 60 measuring circuit, and means for diverting cur rent from one of_ said branched paths to the other through said cross circuit in proportion to the other of said quantities, when the measuring cir cuit is energized. 11. A device for integrating the heat _transfer 65 effected by aiiowing medium entering a heat v transfer system at one temperature and leaving at another temperature comprising in combina tion, a source of current, an integrating electric 70 meter, current-control means responsiveto vari ations in the entering temperature of the medium, current-control means responsive to variations in the leaving temperature of the medium, means for connecting said current-control means to said circuit connectedv thereto, said main circuit in cluding a portion divided into a plurality of branches, one of which includes current-control means extendingto an intermediate portion oi' the branch in which it is included, a cross circuit including an electric meter for showing the mag nitude of the product and connected between in- ‘ termediate points oi' two oi said branches, said main circuit also including circuit interrupting and connecting means for alternately opening and closing the main circuit to produce current im pulses therein, said circuit interrupting and oon necting means including means for terminating each current impulse after a predetermined quan tity of electricity has passed therein and means 65 for intermittently closing the circuit to produce impulses with a frequency proportional to the magnitude of one of the quantities, said current control means in the branch portion ofthe cir cuit being responsive to the variations in the other of the quantities to divert current from one branch to the other through the cross circuit in response to variations in said other quantity. T DAILMANN.