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Патент USA US2137158

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Nov. 15, 1938.
A. E. DOUGLASS
`2,137,158
CLINKER COOLING
Filed DeG. l, 1937.
4 Sheets-Sheet l
1 C,
INVENTOR
HL FRED E» DOUGLHSS
BY
-
vm
ATTORNEY;
Nßvu'-L 15, 1938>
'
I
’
A. E. boUGLAss y
`
CLINKER
2,137,158
_COOLING
Filed Dec. 1, 1957 \
4 sheets-sheet> 2
INVENTOR
/ÍLFRED E. DO_UGLASS
`
l
»
'
_
'-
BY
`
ATTORNEYS
'
Nov. 15, 1938.
A. E~ DOUGLAés
2,137,158
CLINKER COOLING
FiledDeC. 1, 1957
4 Sheevts-Shee‘b 4
lNvEN'roR
/ÉLFPED E. DOUGLASS
ATTORNEYJ`
*Patented Nov.. 15, 1938
' ¿13H5
UNITED STATES 4PATlazNT OFFICE
cLiNKEa cooLING
Alfred E. Douglass, Cata'sauqua, Pa., assignor to
Fuller Company, Catasauqua, Pa., a corporation
or Delaware
Application December 1, 1937, Serial No. 177,634
20 Claims. _(Cl. 263-32)
This invention relates to clinker cooling and
more particularly to the rapid air quenching of
Portland cementl clinker. It has especially to do
with the cooling of cement clinker containing a
proportion of magnesium oxide at a rate‘suii?ì-`
mum of about 30%. Crystallization of the liquid .
crystallization, as an _under-cooled liquid or
compounds that crystallize out of solution are
“glass”_in_which the magnesia is present in solid
solution, and thereby rendered innocuous.
tricalcium aluminate, and tetracalcium alumino `
is completed when the temperature of the clinker
drops to about 22mlo F., no apparent increase >in
crystallization occurring below this temperature.
The extent of crystallization is directly related
to the rate of 'temperature drop. If the liquid is
ciently rapid to cause at least a substantial pro
portion of the liquid phase to solidify without ' cooled slowly or at a moderate rate, the principal
1
S The present apparatus can be operated to
ferrite, and lastly periclase (free MgO). Of these
crystalline compounds, periclase is deñnitely
carry out the practice of the method of produc
tion and cooling'of cement clinker described and
layed unsoundness. If the liquid containing the ‘
claimed in my -copending application, Serial No.15 218,228, filed July 8, 1938.
v
Delayed expansion or unsoundness of Portland
cement concrete, attributable to high magnesia
content and resulting in disintegration in con2
cretestructures, has been determined to be di
rectly related to the proportion of free magnesia
in the crystalline form, periclase. >The rateA of
hydration of periclase is extremely slow and in
harmful as it is the principal contributor to de- '
dissolved magnesium oxide is cooled abruptly,
the magnesium oxide held in the proportion of -15
`liquid which' solidiñes as glass in relatively large
concentration at least, andhas little, if- any,
__ hydraulic characteristics, and, accordingly, no
apparent tendency to produce unsoundness. It is
probable vthat the formation of a relatively large
proportion of glass is beneñcial for other reasons, '
as experimental evidence indicates that the glass
vestigations have indicated that complete hydra- » itself has very limited, if any, hydraulic proper#
tion and substantial disintegration may be de
An
accelerated- test for the determination of un
25 layed for periods up to above flve'years.
soundness of Portland cement is now available in
a new autoclave technique, and deñnite refer
ties and _by thus limiting the proportion of (crys
talline) tricalcium aluinlnate its-possible effect 25
upon soundness is limited and, iniaddition, the '
potential heat of hydration of the -cement is
reduced.
If the clinker contains a substantial
proportion of alumina, limiting the formation or
crystallization of tricalcium aluminate. results in
by the cement industry that cements expanding . a _cement more easily controlled as to setting
more than 1% are unsound. 'I'he phrase “high »time Further, some authorities believe that rel- ‘
magnesia content", as used herein, includes -atively large proportions of the crystalline com
cements in which the proportion of magnesium pound tetracalcium alumino ferritereduce the
35 oxide ranges from a minimum Vof about 3% toA resistance of Portland cement concrete to attaclf;v
by sulphates and chlorides, and to freezing and
the maximum permitted by cement specifica
.~ tions, namely 5%, although cements of slightly thawing.
-The immense practical difliculties involved in
greater magnesia content are» not `necessarily
air quenching or otherwise cooling the .clinker
unsound if the magnesia is not permitted to crys
make it impractical,if not impossible, to attain the 40
tallize, as will appear more fully hereinafter.
ences herein to percentage‘of expansionreferto
_
>It has been decidedautoclave test specimens.
The liquid phase of the clinker at the burning _ '
temperature, usually 2600° tov2700° F., is believed
maximum theoretical glass content, -in view of
the conditions under which the clinker is burned,
to comprise all of the alumina and iron oxide, - the high temperatures necessary, the Wide range
of clinker particle sizes and the narrow range of
temperature ldrop within which crystallization
45 calcium oxide and a slight amount of silica.
Little, if any, of the magnesium oxide reacts, in _ takes place. The_production of about 20 to 25%
the normal range of cement clinker, with the of glass, in high magnesia clinkers ofthe types -
the‘magnesium einde, a'small proportion of the
other compounds present,` although possibly a described, is highly satisfactory with reference to
magnesia unsoundness because the .magnesia is
negligible proportion combines with or is other
the last to crystallize and necessarily-„tends to 50'
50 wise held within the iron compounds. The quan
concentrate in any substantial proportion of the
tity of the liquid 'is therefore related to the pro
portions of the iiuxing compounds, iron and liquid which solidiñes as glass, and‘,'ifvthe cement ,
alumina, in the mixture. The theoretical pro' _is otherwise properly prepared, ‘the _autoclave
portion of liquid, in clinkers` of usual. commercial expansion will not Aexceed a small fraction of one
55
55 compositions, accordingly approachesv a maxi-4 percent.
2
2,137,158
Recent commercial cement clinkers have been
found to have a range of glass contents from 2
grates, the latter serving to agitate the bed con
tinuously and to cause i/ndividual particles to
to 22%, this extreme variation being due to the
wide variety of burning and cooling methods and
apparatus used. Modern clinker coolers are
especially designed for two principal purposes,
toward the discharge port at the lower end of
ñrst, to recuperate asubstantial proportion of
the sensible heat of the clinker, the heated air
usually being employed as a secondary combus
tion air in the kiln and, second, to cool the
clinker quickly to a temperature slightly above
>atmospheric to improve the grinding character
istics. These coolers and methods are especially
unsatisfactory for high magnesia clinkers for,
although the overall cooling rate is “quick” and
satisfactory efliciencies in recuperation are ob
tained, cooling in the range of maximum tem
peratures, in which crystallization takes place,
is delayed, with the result- that crystallization of
20 the liquid phase is promoted, the most efiicient
recuperators usually producing clinkers of mini
mum 'glass contents.
It is accordingly the principal purpose of the
invention to air quench the clinker rapidly to
25 cause the temperature to fall below 2200° F. in
a minimum of time, so that a large proportionof glass will be formed, or, conversely, the crys
tallization from the liquid will approach the prac
tical minimum. It is a. further purpose to utilize
the secondary combustion air, under full control
to satisfy various burning conditions, to effect
the initial air quenching and additional primary
be rolled or overturned as they are advanced
the grate assembly. The slo'pe formed by the
leading edges of the grates is preferably rela
tively ñat so that incoming clinker particles will
not roll downwardly over the upper surface o'f
the bed, a slope of about 12° having been found
to be satisfactory for clinker of normal type. 10
Each grate is provided with a multiplicity of
vertical air ports, alternately covered and un
covered, as the moving grate's are advanced and
retracted, through which air under pressure is
'forced upwardly through the clinker bed. The 15
fixed and moving grates are also vertically spaced,
usually about one-quarter inch, to provide a hori
zontal air passage through which air is forced
continuously at substantially right angles to the
flow through the ports and generally in the di
rection of the advancing clinker.
Immediately upon dropping through the chute
and entering the cooling chamber, the clinker
particles are subjected to blasts of -cold air, and
as they are continuously agitated and overturned
as they are advanced from grate to grate the
cold air blasts impinging upon the particles from
two directions, together with the heat \transfer
to the grate cooling water, provides for abrupt
and uniform cooling.
-
.
`
A30
'I'he space in the cooling chamber below the
grates forms a wind-box supplied by a fan hav
cooling, not merely to effect economies in heat ‘ ing the capacity to deliver a volume flow of air ,
recovery,l but principally to move the burning
zone to or-near theend of the kiln, so that theclinker will be discharged in its partly molten
state and delayed cooling in the -crystallization
temperature range will not occur in the kiln it
self. The complete invention also contemplates
40 the quick primary and secondary cooling of the
clinker, or overall cooling, to give the clinker
satisfactory grinding characteristics. ,
The cooling apparatus is especially designed
with the object of avoiding kiln stoppages, or
45 substantial unbalance of the burning conditions,
with the consequent increase in operating costs
and the adverse effect upon vthe quality of the
cement. The apparatus has accordingly `been so
designed that the principal cooling elements may
50 be by-passed and made almost `instantly available
for repair or replacement, and without seriously
affecting essential production operations.` _It is
also among the purposes to provide an inexpen
sive, readily accessible apparatus, requiring no
55 special heat-resisting metals, and which can .be
operated economically, with reference' both to
at least equal to. the kiln requirement of sec
ondary air for combustion against the pressure
necessary to overcome the resistance of the cool
ing elements and the clinker bed, the down
stream pressure not usually exceeding 5 inches
of water. The wind-box is preferably provided
with transversev baffles to form compartmentsy
volume flow, so that the necessary volume can
be forced through and between the grates at
and adjacent to the entrance to the chamber
to reduce abruptly the temperature of the clinker
at least' to 2200*’ F.' Although the diversion of
a. relatively large proportion of the air fiow
through the rearward elements of the grate sur
faces, to satisfy a severe magnesia -condition may
be, at times, less eflicient in heat recuperation 50
than modern types of coolers, it should be borne .
in mind that the principal objective is to pro
duce a maximum glass content and that even .
moderate delay in cooling in the region of high '
'
,
In general. the invention comprises moving the
60 burning zone to or near the discharge end of
' the kiln, by providing a heat radiating surface
55
temperature results in the formation of dan
gerous proportions of `periclase.
maintenance requirements and power consump
tion.
40
separately vsupplied with air under control of
,
The rest of the requirement of secondary ai
is
preferably
proportioned
and
distributed
through the remainder of the clinker bed to
provide for a maximum heat recovery with rela
tion Ito the permissible volume of air. The pre
heated secondary air passes freely upward to a
in the form of a refractory-lined hood having
a central opening, through which the fuel and bustle above thechamber, from which it enters
primary air enters entirely surrounded by highly 'the-'..kilm as previously described.
65 preheated secondary combustion air. The cen
u In addition to the control of cooling rates, in 65
tral location of the _air stream avoids premature Succeeding portions o_f the clinker bed by the
chilling and slow cooling of the clinker, which above described proportioning of volume flow of .
discharges in a partly molten state and ~`falls air, the degree of agitation may be modified by ad
through a chute, designed to prevent air counter
justing the “throw” or extent of movement of
70 flow, the clinker passing directly to a primary> the moving grates and the rate of travel of the
cooling chamber wherein it forms an inclined bed, i. e. the time of exposure in the cooling cham
bed resting upon the cooling elements. The prin
ber, may be modified by changing _the rate o
cipal cooling elements comprise a series of over-'
lapping, horizontal water-cooled grates.
Fixed
75 grates alternate with movable or reciprocating
movement of the grates.
`
The clinker, as discharged from the forward ele
ments of the grate assembly, has been subjected 7.5
3
2,137,158
to “primary” cooling only,'and “secondary” cool
row clinker chute Il, the chute being displacedl ’ '
ing is'desirable for reasons well understood in
the art. Secondary cooling is preferably accom
plished by providing a second chamber and grate
assembly, beyond and generally similar to- that
transversely toward the "rising side” of the kiln,
above described, or a rotary or other .cooler of
conventional type may be employed.
as shown more clearly in Fig. 2, the dimensions
and location of the chute preventing a counter
now of> air through the descending clinker. The
bottom of the chute is closed by a water-cooled
However,
shelf I2, provided WithQsuitable baffles I3 for
‘ overall cooking may be accomplished by a single
guiding the circulation of water supplied through
apparatus and, to that end, the lengthl of the
the connection I4. After the clinker particles
10 `grate assembly and cooling chamber is increased
and the latter is divided by a hanging wall or sus
pended arch to provide primary and secondary
clinker particles are distributed by thepile-thus
cooling chambers. The air supplied to the sec
formed and passïthrough the-entrance I5 of the
cooling chamber 1, in which they form as an in_-.
ondary cooling chamber is separately exhausted,
and a >balanced pressure condition is established
to prevent il'ow of air from either chamber to the
other,` especially to prevent an excessive ñow,
i. e. greater than the combustion requirements,
to the bustle and to avoid reducing the tempera
ture of the secondary combustion air. , This may
conveniently be accomplished by providing an acl
justable damper in the exhaust flue or stack.
For a better understanding of the invention,
reference is made to the accompanying vdraw
25
have accumulated upon the ~shelf I2, and have 10
formed a natural angle of repose, the descending l
ings, in which
l
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'
.
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of the apparatus
for primary cooling
`
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional elevation on line
2-2 of Fig. 1,
.,
clined bed resting upon the grate assembly‘about 15
to be described.
‘
Referring to-Figs. 1, 3 and 4, it will be’seen
that all of the fixed grates I6 are rigidly se
cured to a stationary frame, and all of the mov
ing grates I1 are similarly secured to a moving
frame, forming separate, unitary structures.
The stationary frame comprises inclined channel
members I8 and I9,~secured by upright supports,
as at 20 and 2l,` to lower horizontal frame mem
bers 22 which rest upon the ledges 23 and 24, 25
shownin Fig. 2, suitable transverse braces being
provided as at 25 and 26. The fixed grates VI6
are bolted, as at 21 to angular brackets 28,
Welded or otherwise secured to the frame mem
ward portion of the grate assembly,
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevation partly in sec
tion, ,of the rearward portion of the grate as
bers I8 and I9, each bracket extending for 30
wardly beyond the fixed grate to deflect the
clinker particles from the space between the side
edges of the moving grates I1 and the frame
sembly,
members
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the rear
,
,
`
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional detail of one of the
supporting wheels .for the moving grate, on line
5-5 of Fig. 4,' and
I8 and I9.
I
' ,
The moying frame' comprises inclined side 35
members 29 and 30, suitably braced as at 3|, the
side members carrying uprights 32 to which
ñangesy‘cast integrally at the side edges of the
Fig. 6 is an elevation, partly in. section of a
modified form of the apparatus in which a single . moving grates I1, are secured. The members 29
40 grate assembly is employed to effect both primary are secured to axles 33 and 34, supported by 40
and secondary cooling.
'
'
Referring to the drawings,> and iirstto Fig. 1,
a rotary kiln I, of conventional type, is shown
flanged wheels 35, shown in detail in Fig. 5, pro
vided with'bronze bushings 36, the wheels turn
ing on the axles and running on rails 31 and
to be closed and sealed by a refractory-lined
guided by upper rails 38, the rails being bolted to
hood 2, the hood being provided with a relatively' angle members secured to andA supported by up
large circular opening 3 communicating with the rights of the stationary frame;` as at 39 and 40.
upper portion of an arch-shaped, `refractory-l Fixed plates 4I and 42 cooperate with a plate
lined bustle 4, the bustle being longer than usual 43 secured to each axle to seal the apparatus
and having an open bottom 5, which registers against an outward flow of air past the wheels, _
with a passage `6 opening into the cooling cham,- as will appear more fully hereinafter.
A'
ber 1. The kiln is shown ‘to be fired bypulverized
The desired reciprocating motion of the mov
coal, as this fuel presents the greatest difiiculty able frame may be conveniently accomplished
in avoiding delayed cooling and is more common
by two spaced eccentrics- of conventional type
ly used than oil or gas. 'I'he coal, suspended in comprising eccentric rods 44 pivotally connected
the -primary air stream, enters the kiln through> to a horizontal shaft 45 secured to brackets 46 on 55
. the fuel pipe 8, the portion of the pipe within » the movable frame-members, the rods passing
the bustle 4 and the opening 3 of the hood being through slots in the rear Wall of the chamber 1
protected by a water-jacket 9 supplied withcool- ' and terminating in the usual straps 48 sur
ing Water throughy a suitable connection indicated` rounding each eccentric disc A49. A common '
at I0. The fuel stream enters the kiln entirely
surrounded by highly- pre-heated secondary air crank shaft is provided with a sprocket 50 driven
and this, together with the retracted position o'f I through a chain 5I by a _variable speed motor,
the ends of the fuel pipe and heat radiation from with speed reducer, indicated at 52. It will be
the refractory surfaces of the hood, causes r‘apid ~seen that the grates I1 move in a horizontal
combustion and advances the burning zone or- plane between the fixed grates I6 and that the 65
extent of movement or throw depends upon the
region of highest temperature towardv the dis
charge end of the kiln; whereby the clinker i's eccentricity of the discs 49 on the crank-shaft.
discharged before substantial crystallization from In Fig. 5, the moving grates are shown to be in
the liquid phase takes place. It will also be. their rearmost position- andthe maximum per
seen that the location of the circular opening 3 missible advance is about one-half their width, 1.04
is such> that its walls prevent impingement of at which point the rear edge’of each moving
the relatively cool secondary air stream upon grate is covered by the leadingedge of the ñxed ,
» the hot clinker, thereby preventing freezing of the grate above it, thereby avoiding passage of fine
clinker between the grates. It Willalso be un
liquid in the kiln itself.
derstood that the rate of travel ofthe bed, and 15.
75 The partly molten clinker falls through a nar
4
2,137,158
consequently its thickness can be varied by
changing the speed of the motor 52.
As shown in detail in Figs.` 3 and 4, the ñxed
and moving grates are essentially similar, and
may be gray iron castings, the forward or leading
edges of the fixed grates- and the forward and
. side edges of the moving grates preferably being
chilled in casting to resist the wear of the highly
abrasive clinker. The rear edge of each grate is
10 reinforced by a steel rod 53V and water-cooling
tubes 54 and 55 are imbedded in the casting and
are thoroughly bonded as integral parts thereof.
These tubes may be tinned or galvanized iron
water pipes and are curved and spaced as indi
cated in Fig. 3 so that the entire surface of the
grate is effectively cooled for the dual purposes of
cooling the clinker and making it unnecessary to
employ heat resisting alloys. The ends of the
12o
tubes of each fixed grate are coupled by U
bends 56 and unions 51, the moving grates being
provided with similar bends but on the opposite
side. Cooling water is supplied through a suitable
flexible connection, such as a flexible hose, not
shown, to thepipe 53 and passes; through the up
per moving grate I1 and then downwardly to the
next lower moving grate through the vertical U
paratus is idle, the passages 10 normally being
closed by slide-gates 1 I.
By reference .to Fig. 2, it will be seen that a
clinker by-pass chute 12 is provided through
which the clinker may be diverted in the event of
damage or other accidental stoppage of the above
described cooling mechanism. This chute is nor
mally closed by a pivoted water-cooled gate 13.
To divert the clinker through the chute 12, the
lgate 1.4, shown in Fig. 1, is swung to the dotted 10
line position, closing the entrance I5 to the cool
ing chamber, the g'ate 13 is swung to a vertical
position and the clinker falls to the upper sur
faces of at least three spaced andpartially over
lapping plates 15, .the lower plates being eche 15
.loned forwardly to form an incline from which
the clinker is blown by air under fan pressure
entering the chute between the plates.- From
the plates, the clinker descends by gravity and is
removed by the drag-chain 69. This arrange 20
ment' provides for the essential abrupt chilling of
the clinker and avoids interruption of the kiln
operation.
,
_
v
_
,
The operation of the apparatus will be gen
erally apparent from the;r foregoing, and it will 25
be understood that a relatively flat, inclined
bend 59, single circuits of cooling water being
clinker bed forms on theigra'te" surfaces and is `
Each of the grates is provided` with a multi
plicity of vertical ports or orlñces 6|), the orifices
being conical and widening downwardly so that
they will not be plugged by small particles of
clinker when the apparatus is idle and the air
supply is stopped. The alternate grates are
spaced a distance, usually‘about 4A", to form
rate. The thickness of the bed, normally from 3 30
thus supplied separately to the fixed and moving ' moved toward the forward or discharge end of
the cooling chamber at a regular, intermittent
grates.„
Y
-
horizontal air passageways from the lower por
to 6 inches, and the rate of travel are controlled
by the rate of reciprocation, the discs 49 of the
eccentrics usually being driven at a speed of from
4 to 6 R. P. M. in an apparatus of the propor
tions illustrated. The individual clinker particles
are subjected to continuous agitation and rolling
movements as they descend from grate to grate
and are alternatively and successively subjected
to air blasts from two directions. As the moving
grates are advanced >and retracted, the orifices 40
tion of the chamber 1, which forms the wind-box.
~The forward or`discharge end of the cooling
40 chamber 1 is closed below'the grate assembly by
a refractory wall 6I upon which the lowermost ' 60 inthe rear half of each grate, excepting thefixed grate rests. The ancillary or secondary com
bustion air is the principal cooling medium and
is supplied to the wind-box portion of the cham
ber 1 through a duct 62 supplied by the usual
fan, not shown, the pressure being suiiicient to
overcome theresistance to flow presented by the
grate and the thickness and density of the clink
er bed. The volume of the air so supplied is lim
ited to the combustion requirements of the kiln
together with any additional quantity necessary
to compensate for leakage. The- wind-box is
preferably provided with at least one transverse
baffle 63 to form a compartment supplied by the'
55 duct 62 through one of the connections 64 which
“is provided with a damper 65 whereby the neces
sary volume of air can be diverted through and
betweeni'- the grates adjacent to the entrance I5
of the chamber 1, to provide> the abrupt chilling
60 previously described. Preferably at least one ad
ditional baille, as indicated at 66, divides the
wind-box into additional compartments, where
first and last, are alternately covered and un
covered. During the rearward movement, the'
leading edges of the fixed grates force the clinker
particles to descend to the next lower ñxed grate," 45,
from which they are forced during the forward
movement, and it will be realized that the loca
tions of the horizontal air blasts change con
tinuously.
'I_‘his treatment of the clinker ac
cordingly provides for abrupt and uniformy chill 50`
. 1Ds.”
` In the practical- operation of >the above de
scribed apparatus, in the cooling of high mag
nesia clinker, of 4.4% MgO,-high theoretical tri
calcium aluminate and low iron, the autoclave
specimens averaged 0.25%,'withexpansions down
to 0.15% under favorable conditions, whereas the
same‘kiln when equipped with an integral cooler
of conventional type, produced satisfactory, hard
Iburned clinker of equivalent chemical composi 60
tion,'but autoclave expansions were prohibitive,
ranging between 2.0 and 4.0% , with average speci- _
mens expanding 2.5%.
’
-
by the volume flow of air through the remainder
The modified form ‘of apparatus ~illustrated in
of the clinker bed may be proportioned to provide -Fig. 6, .is designed to effect vboth primary and
for a maximum of cooling and heat recuperation. secondary cooling of the clinker, i.v~ e._in addition
-The clinker discharging over the lowermost to each of the purposes above described, to re
fixed grate falls between the wall 6I and a piv ~ .duce the temperature of the clinker- vquickly to
otally supported water-cooled gate or screen 61, improve its grinding characteristics. Thus, the
70 the clinker falling to a tunnel 68 from which it permissible volume of air that. may efficiently be
may conveniently be conveyed by a drag-chain `
employed in the primary cooler, illustrated in-Flg.
69 of conventional type. The tunnel 68 is pro- ` 1,1is limited to the combustion requirements of
vided with spaced passages 10 for the discharge the kiln and the clinker discharged therefrom
will still range in temperature from about 800°
of ilne clinker particles and dust which accumu
\ late-in the wind-box, particularly when the ap
to 1000° F.
.
'2,137,158
In this form, the principal changes have to do
with a cooling chamber and grateassembly of
~considerably increased length, with means to ex
haust and control the additional air quantity
required for secondary cooling. -The same ref
erence characters are applied, where appropriate,
and the modiñed and additional parts are shown
in section. The primary cooling chamber 1 is
separated from the secondary cooling chamber 11
10 by a hanging or suspended wall 18, suiiicient
clearance above the grates being provided to per
mit large lumps of clînker to pass. Below, and
preferably slightly to the rear of-the wall 18,
the wind-box is divided by an additional baiîle 19,
15 forming the principal division wall to separate
the secondary combustion air from Athe waste air
employed for secondary cooling. Distribution of
l s
ing to support a- bed of clinker particles..means
to impart reciprocating movement to the mov- -
able grates, to agitate and advance the bed,
and means- to admit air under pressure to the
chamber below the grates to provide air blasts,
flowing between the grates and into the clinker
in the general direction of the movement of the
bed.
-
4.»In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of
cement clinker, the combination of a `cooling 10
chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at~
one end and a discharge port at the otherfcool
ing elements in the chamber comprising a series
of horizontal, slightly vertically spaced, over
lapping grates, fixed grates alternating with mov
able grates, the upper surfaces of the grates serv
ing to supporta bed of clinker'particles, means
to impart reciprocating movement to the mov
able grates, to agitate and. advance .the bed,
one or more bailles 80, to provide separate com
20 partments supplied by connections 8| opening » the grates being provided with orifices for thel 20
into the duct 62, under control of dampers 65, as upward 110W of air, ‘and means to admit air under pressure to the chamber to provide blasts ñow
illustrated in Fig. 2.`
ing both between the grates and through the >
Theslopes of the-hanging wall 18 and the sus
the additional air may further be controlled by
pended arch 82 permit the additional air, after
eñecting the desired secondary cooling, to ascend
orifices into the clinker.
,
»ì freely to an exhaust ñue or stack 83, through
5. In an apparatus for the rapidgcooling of
cement clinker, the combination of a cooling
which the flow is vcontrolled by an adjustable
damper 84, the damper serving as .a convenient
chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
one end and a discharge port at the other, cool
ing elements in the chamber 4comprising a series
means to establish a balanced pressure condi
tion between the primary cooling chamber 1 and of spaced over-lapping grates, fixed grates alter 80
the secondary cooling chamber 11, to prevent v nating with movable grates, the upper surfaces
of the grates serving to support a bed of clinker
air ñow from one chamber to another. Varia
particles, means to impart reciprocating move
tion in the kiln flue gas analysis and tempera
ture variations in the ascending air streams are ' ment 'to the movable grates, to agitate and ad
suiliclently accurate indices of unbalanced pres
sure conditions for practical purposes. '
I claim:
'
~
>
1. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of>
cement clinker, the combination of a cooling
chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
one end‘ and a discharge port at the other, cool
ing elements in the chamber comprising a series
y vance the bed, means to admit air- under pres
sure to the chamber below' the- grates to provide .
air blasts flowing between the grates and into -
the clinker in the general direction of its move
ment, and means to divide the ñow of air and
control the quantities flowing into at least two 40
portions of the bed.
~
‘
_
' 6. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling _of
cement clinker, the combination of a cooling
nating with movable grates, the upper surfaces chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
of the grates serving to support a bed of clinker >one end and a discharge port at the other, cool itV
particles, means to impart reciprocating move Ling elements in the chambercomprising a series
of spaced over-lapping grates, fixed grates alter
ment to the movable grates, to agitate and ad
vance the bed, and means to admit air under nating with movable grates, the upper surfaces
of the grates serving to support a bed of clinker
pressure to the chamber below the grates to pro
vide air blasts flowing between the grates and particles, means to impart reciprocating move 50
into the clinker in the general direction of the ment to the movable grates, to agitate and ad
vance ‘the bed, at least one transverse baffle in
movement »of the bed.
'
'
-.
2. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of the chamber below the grates to provide com
cement clinker, the combination of a cooling -partments, and means to admit air under pres
,
55 chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at sure to the compartments.
'1. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of
one end and a discharge port at the other, cooling
elements in the chamber comprising a series of cement clinker,-the combination of a cooling ’
j over-lapping grates, iixed grates alternating» with chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
of spaced over-lapping grates, fixed grates alter
one end and a discharge port at the other, cool- . .
` movable grates, the upper surfacesof the grates
serving to support a bed of clinker particles, y ing elements in the chamber comprising a series^ 60
means to impart reciprocating movement to the lof horizontal, slightly vertically spaced, over
movable grates, to agitate and advance the bed, lapping, water-cooled grates, fixed grates alter
the grates being provided with orifices for the nating with xmovable grates, the upper surfaces
upward flow of air, and means to admit air under of the grates serving to support a bed of clinker
pressure to the chamber below the grates to pro
vide air blasts ñowing upwardly through the
, particles, means to impart reciprocating move- 65 ._
ment to the movable grates, to agitate and ad- ,
vance the bed,l and means to admit air under
. orifices and through the clinker particles.
pressure to the chamber below the grates and into
the clinker in the general direction of the move
3, In an' apparatus for the rapid cooling of
cement clinker, >the combination 'of a cooling
Y chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
lone end and a discharge port at the other, cool
ing elements in the chamber comprising a series
of horizontal, slightly vertically spaced, over
lapping grates, fixed grates alternating with mov
n able grates, the upper surfaces of the grates serv
yment of the bed.
’
l
70
8. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling oi’y
cementÁ clinker, the combination of a coolin
chamber having an entrance for hot clinker a
one end andl a discharge port >at the other, cool
ing elements in the chamber comprising a series 7
6
2,137,158
of slightly vertically spaced horizontal over
lapping grates, fixed grates alternating with mov
able grates, the upper surfaces of the grates serv
ing to support a bed of` clinker particles, the fixed
grates being secured to inclined side members of
a"~stationary frame, the movable grates being
secured to and supported above a movable frame
below the stationary frame, means to impart re
ciprocating movement to the -movable frame, to
agitate the clinker bed and to cause> it to ad
vance intermittently and regularly, and means
to admit air to the chamber below the grates to
provide air blasts flowing through the -spaces be
tween the grates and into the bed in the general
direction of its movement.
9. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of
cement clinker, the combination of a cooling
chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
one end and a discharge port at the other, cool
20 ing elements in the chamber comprising a series
of slightly vertically spaced, horizontal, over
lapping grates, flxedgrates alternating with mov
I able grates, the upper surfaces of the grates serv
425
uously therefrom, cooling elements in the cham
ber to support an inclined bed of clinker particles
comprising a series of overlapping, slightly ver
tically spaced grates, fixed Igrates alternating
with movable grates, means to impart recipro
cating movement to the movable grates to agitate
the bed and move it intermittently and regu
larly through the chamber, and means> to admit
air 'under pressure to the chamber below the
grates to provide air blasts directed through the
' _spaces between the grates and into the bed in the
general direction of its movement, the air pass-v
ing through the bed, _the bustle being provided
with an open bottom registering with an air pas
sage opening freely into the chamber above the
grates.V
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`
f
12. Apparatus for the production and rapid
cooling of cement clinker comprising the com
bination of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood
closing and _sealing the discharge end of the kiln, 20
the hood being provided with an opening com
municating with a bustle'to direct preheated air
through the opening, a fuel pipe extending into -
ing to support a bed of clinker particles, the fixed
the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded
grates being secured to inclined side members of " by the preheated air into the kiln, a cooling
a stationary frame, the movable grates being chamber -below and communicating with the kiln
secured to and supported above a movable frame to receive clinker particles discharging continu
below and surrounded by the stationary frame,~
the movable frame being supported upon axles
provided with wheels supported upon horizontal
rails secured to the stationary frame, means to
impart reciprocating movement to the movable
frame, to agitate the bed and advance it inter-~
mittently and regularly, andmeans to admit air
‘l under pressure to the chamber below the grates
to provide air blasts ñowing through the spaces
between the grates and into the bed in the gen
‘ eral direction of its movement.
l10. Apparatus for the production and rapid
cooling of cement clinker comprising the com
bination of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood
closing and sealing the discharge end of the kiln,l
the hood being provided with an opening com
municating with a bustle to direct preheated air
through the opening, a fuel pipe extending into
the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded by
>the preheated air into the kiln, a cooling cham
berv below and communicating, with the kiln to
receive ‘clinker particles discharging continu
ously therefrom, cooling elements in the chamber
to support an inclined bed o_f clinker particles
comprising a series of over-lapping, slightly ver
tically -spaced grates, fixed grates alternating'
ously therefrom, cooling elements in the chamber
to support an inclined bed of clinker particles
comprising a series of over-lapping, slightly ver- '
tically spaced grates, ñxed grates alternating.
with movable grates,l,means to impart recipro
cating movement to the movable grates to agi
tate the`.bed and vmove it intermittently and
regularly through the chamber, means to admit 35
air under pressure to the chamber below the
grates to provide air blasts directed through the
spaces -between the grates and'into the bed in
thé general direction of its movement, and means
to control the volumeof the air directed through
the upper portion of the bed relatively to.the
volume directed through the remainder of the
bed, the chamber being provided with an air
passage above 'the grates and communicating
A with the bustle.
'
45
13._Apparatus for the production and rapid
cooling of cement clinker comprising the com
bination of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood
closing and sealing the discharge end of the kiln,
the hood being providedwith an opening com
municating with a bustle to direct preheated air`
through the opening, a fuel pipe extending into
the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded by
the preheated air into the kiln, a cooling cham
cating movement to the movableigrates to agitate ' ber below the kiln and having an entrance and 55
the bed and move it intermittently and regularly a discharge port, a chute through which clinker
-through the chamber, and means to admit air particles may descend to the entrance of the
under pressure to the chamber below the grates, cooling chamber, cooling velements in the cham
to provide air blasts directed through the spaces ber to support an inclined bed of clinker par->
ticles comprising a series of over-lapping, slight
60 between the grates and into the bed in the gen
with movable grates, means to L'impart recipro
eral direction of its movement. the air passing v ly vertically spaced grates, fixed grates alternat
through the bed, the chamber being provided
ing with movable grates, means `to impart re
with an air’passage above the gra-tes and com- \ ciprocating movement to the movable grates to
municating with the bustle.
11. Apparatus for the production and rapid
cooling>- of- cement clinker comprising the com
agitate the bed and move it intermittently to
ward the discharge port, means to admit air
under pressure to the chamber below the grates
bination of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood
to provide air blasts directed through the spaces
closing and'sealing the discharge end of the kilnl
between the grates and into the bed in the gen- ’
the hood being provided with an opening com
eral direction of its movement, the air passing
through the bed, the chamber being provided
70 jmunicating with a bustle to direct preheated air
through the opening, a fuel ,pipey extending into
the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded
by the preheated: air into the kiln, a cooling
>chamber below and communicating with the kiln
-to receive clinker particles discharging contin
„ with an airpassage above the grates and com
municating with the bustle, a conveyor below the
chamber to transport' the clinker discharged`~
from the port, a secondtclinker chute beside the
first for directing the clinker from the kiln to
7
2,137,158
the conveyor, a gate normally closing the sec
ond chute, and a gate to close the entrance to
the cooling chamber.
»
” 14. Apparatus for` the production and rapid
cooling of cement clinker comprising the oo_m
bination of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood
closing and sealing the discharge end of the kiln,
the hood being provided with an opening com
municating with a bustle to _direct preheated air
10 thr`óugh the opening, a fuel pipe extending into
preheated air into the -kiln, a cooling chamberbelow and communicating with the kiln to receive
clinker particles discharging continuously there
from, meansto'divide the chamber into primary
and secondary cooling chambers, cooling elements
to support an inclined -bed of clinker particles
extending through both chambers comprising a
series of over-flapping, slightly vertically spaced
grates, ñxed grates alternating with movable
grates, means to impart reciprocating movement 10
the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded by to the movable grates to agitate/ the bed and move
the preheated air into the kiln, a cooling cham- ' .it intermittently and regularly through the cham
ber below the kiln and having an entrance and bers, means to divide the space below the grates
a discharge port, a chute through which clinker ~ into compartments corresponding to said cham
15 particles may 'descend to the entrance of the
cooling chamber, cooling elements in the cham
ber to support an inclined bed of clinker par
ticles comprising a seriesof over-lapping,rslight
ly vertically spaced grates, fixed grates »alternat
ing with movable grates, means to impart re
ciprocating movement to the movable grates to
agitate the bed and move it intermittently t0
Ward the discharge port, means to admit air
under pressure to the chamber below the grates
25 to provide air blasts directed through the spaces
between the grates and into the bed in the gen
eral direction of its movement, `the air passing
bers, means to admit/ air under pressure to the~
15'
compartments to provide air blasts directed
through the spaces between the grates and into
lthe bed in the general direction of its movement,
the air passing through the bed, an air passage
from the primary cooling chamber communicat 20
ing with the bustle to supply it with pre-heated
secondary combustion air, and means for sepa
rately exhausting the air from the -secondary
cooling chamber.
' .
,
.
17. Apparatus for the production' and rapid 25
cooling .of cement clinker comprising the combi
nation -of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood
through the bed, the chamber being provided e closing and sealing the discharge end of the kiln,
the hood being provided with an opening comf L30
municating with a bustle to direct preheated air
through the opening, a _fuel pipe extending into
ing clinker discharged from the port, a` second the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded-by
chute beside `the first for directing the clinker preheated air into the kiln, a cooling chamber
from the kiln to thetunnel, agate normallyclos Abelow and communicating with the kiln to receive
ing the second chute, means to admit air blasts clinker particles discharging continuously there 35
to 'the second chute to chill the clinker, and a from, means to divide the chamber into primary
gate to close the entrance to the cooling chamber. and secondary cooling chambers, cooling elements
15. Apparatus for the production and rapid to supportian inclined bed of clinker particles
cooling of cement clinker comprising the combi
extending through both chambers comprising a
v40 nation of a rotary kiln, a refractory-linedrhood series of over-lapping, slightly vertically spaced 40
closing and sealing the discharge end of the kiln, grates, fixed grates alternating with movable
the hood being provided with an opening -com
grates,_means to impart reciprocating movement
municating with a bustle to direct preheated air to the movable grates to agitate the bed and move
through the opening, a fuel pipeextending into it intermittently and> regularly through the cham
45 the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded ~by bers, means to divide the space below the grates 45
with an air passage above the grates and com
30 municating with the bustle, a tunnel below the
chamber, a conveyor in the tunnel for transport
preheated air into the kiln, a cooling chamber
. below and communicating with the kiln to receive
into4 compartments corresponding to said cham
bers, means to admit air under pressure to the
clinker particles discharging continuously there- y compartments to provide air blasts directed
from, means to divide the chamber into primary through the spaces between the grates and into
50 and secondary cooling chambers, cooling ele the bed in the general direction of its movement, 50
the air passing through the bed, an air passage
ments to support an inclined- bed of clinker par
ticles extending through both chambers compris from the primary cooling chamber- communicat
ing a series of over-lapping, slightly vertically ing with the bustle to supply it with pre-heated
spaced grates, ñxed grates alternatingwith mov
secondary combustion air, a flue for separately
55 able grates, means to impart reciprocating move-l exhausting the air from the secondary cooling 55
ment tothe movable grates to agitate the bed and ` chamber, and a damper in the ilue to control the
- move it intermittently and regularly through the volume flow of air to balance the pressure between
chambers, means to admit air under pressure> to the chambers, to prevent air from flowing from
the space below the grates to provide air blasts Y one to the other.
>
18. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling' of 60
60 directed through the spaces between the grates
and into the bed in the general direction of its> ' cement clinker, the combination of a cooling
movement, 'the air passing through the bed, an chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
air passage fromthe primary cooling chamber one upper end-and a discharge port at the lower
communicating with the bustle to supply it with opposite end, means to support a substantially flat
65 _preheated secondary combustion air, and 'means bed of clinker‘inclining downwardly between the 65
entrance and discharge port comprising a series
for separately exhausting the air from the sec
Fpf overlapping clinker supporting elements, means
ondary cooling chamber.
'
16. 'Apparatus for the production and rapid to move alternate supporting elements relatively „
toy adjacent elements to agitate and force the
cooling of cement clinker comprising‘the combi
70 nation of a rotary kiln, a refractory-lined hood clinker particles downwardly »over said elements
closing and sealing the discharge end of the kiln,. to cause the clinker bed to advance toward the
discharge port,` and means to circulate cooling the hood being provided with an opening com
.
'
municating with la ,bustle to direct preheated air air through .the clinker bed.
’ through the opening, a fuel pipe extending into ' 19. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of
.75. the bustle to inject a fuel stream surrounded by ' cement clinker,~ the combination of a cooling
8
2,187,158
chamber having an entrance for hot clinker at
one upper end and a discharge port at the lower
opposite end, a series Aof over-lapping "clinker sup
porting elements forming an inclinebetween the
chamber having an entrance for hot 'clinker at
entrance and discharge port, means to move
the entrance and discharge port comprising a (_
series of over-lapping clinker supporting ele- '
alternate supporting elements relativelyto adja
one upper end and a discharge port atthe lower
opposite end, means to support a substantially
flat bed of clinker inclining downwardly between
cent elements to agitate and force the clinker par
ments, fixed elements alternating with movable
ticles downwardly over said elements to cause the
elements, means to move the movable elements to
particles to move toward the discharge port, and
agitate the clinker particles and cause them to
move toward the discharge port, and means to 10circulate cooling air through the clinker bed.
10 means to circulate cooling air through the clinker
particles.
.
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'
20. In an apparatus for the rapid cooling of
cement clinker, the combination of a cooling
ALFRED E. DoUGLAés.
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