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Патент USA US2137224

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Nov. ~22, 1938.
F. L. BEN EDlCT
2,137,224
vii-EATER
Filed June 10, 1936.
2 Sheets-Sheet. I
W
- NOV. 22, 1938.
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F, [__ BENEDlc-r I I
'
HEATER
-
Filed June 10, 1936
2,137,224
'
»
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
2,137,224
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,137,224
,
a
'
HEATER
Floyd L. Benedict, Columbus‘, Ohio
Application June 10, 1936, Serial No. 84,512
6 Claims. (01. 122-149)
This invention relates to improvements in heat
ers and has for its‘ primary object the provision
of an improved heater so formed as to effect im
proved heat transfer between the gaseous heating
- agent and the ?uid or ?uids to be heated thereby,
to the general end of producing a heater, boiler '
or furnace which ‘shall be e?icient in operation
and simple and convenient to maintain in a clean
and deposit free condition for most effective oper'?
10
ation.
‘
-
for effecting the circulation of the gaseous heat
ing agent, or the hot‘gases incident to fuel com
15: bustion throughthe. heat circulating passages of
the ‘heater, in order that said gases may be
broughtinto effective contact with the. metallic
constructed in accordance‘ with the present in
vention;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the casing of the
heater;
I
-
Fig. 3 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view 15
taken through‘the heater on the plane indicated
by the line III—III of Fig. 1;
heat transferring surfaces of the heater, and to
Fig. 4 is a similar view on the offset or stag
accomplish this in such manner that the ?ne
gered planes’ indicated by the lines IV-IV of
20 solids, normally suspended in such heating agents
Fig. 1;
~
-
may be precipitated therefrom and deposited in
suitable containers, in order to prevent such solids
Fig. 5 is a vertical transverse sectional view of
the heater on the plane indicated by the line
from accumulating in- the tubular or other re
V--V of Fig.4;
stricted passages of the heater intended for gas
passage and heat transferring purposes, and pro
ducing therein accumulations of solid matter
which interferewith the efficient functioning of
Fig. 6 is a similar view on the plane denoted by
the. line VI-VI of Fig. 4;
the heater.
,
V
‘
;A further object of the invention resides in
30 constructing the casing of the heater and so ar
ranging the gas conducting chambers and pas:
sages of the heater asto facilitate the operation
of cleaning such chambers and passages of de
posits of solid matter when the need therefor is
35
In the accompanying drawings, forming apart
of the speci?cation, in which similar characters
of reference denote like and corresponding parts
throughout the several views thereof:
Fig. 1 is a view in front elevation of a heater 10
-
7' Itis another object of ‘the invention to provide
a heater, boiler or furnace with improved means
25;
iently removing dust, carbon and ?y ash deposit
from the deposit collecting chambers of the heat
er; and various other improved features of con
struction and operation ‘which will be in part
obvious and in ‘part pointed out hereinafter.
found to exist.
,
\
~
.
Other objects reside in the completion of a
heater, boiler or furnace of simple, sturdyand
economical construction; a heater particularly
constructed for. the burningv of solid fuels with
the employment of associatedautomatic stoker
apparatus for delivering the fuel to the combus
tion‘ space of the heater; in theprovision of a
heater which may be serviced in a cleanly man
ner without producing dust and dirt exteriorly of
45 the same; a heaterhaving a novel arrangement
of gas circulatingpassages for the gaseous prod
ucts of combustion,’ the saidpassages being so
designed and relatively arranged as to effect an
eflicient heat transfer between the products of
50 combustion, the con?ning‘walls of the passages
and the fluids to be heated, disposed around said
walls, to the end of obtaining low temperatures
on- .the partof said products of combustion when
thelatter‘are delivered to the outlet stack of the
heater; in the provision, of means for conven
'
20
_
Fig. '7 is a horizontal sectional View on the
plane indicated by the line VII-VII of Fig. 4.
In the single embodiment of my improved heat~
er illustrated in the» drawings, the numeral I
designates the casing of the heater. In this
instance, the casing is formed to include spaced
vertical side walls ‘2—2, a crowned top wall 3 and
front and back walls 4 and 5 respectively. These
walls may be formed from metallic sheeting or
castings and of any suitable size and mechanical
strength, depending upon the practical uses to
which the heater is adapted to be placed and the
thermal requirements therefor. It will be under
stood that the casing may be provided with suit
able exterior layers of insulation, not shown, to 40
reduce heat losses "in accordance with accepted
heater practice.
Arranged within the outer casing I andsuitably
supported in connection with the walls of the
latter is an‘ internal casing 6 which, in the em 45
bodiment of the invention illustrated, also includes
spaced vertical side walls ‘l--‘|, a crowned top 8
and vertically arranged front and back walls 9
and II] respectively. The walls of‘the inner cas
ing 6 are inwardly spaced from the corresponding 50
walls of the outer casing. The inner casing is
formed, in this instance, with a bottom H in
which is provided a retort l2. A conveyor screw
I3 is disclosed in the bottom of the retort for
the purpose of conducting solid fuel from an 55
2
2,137,224
exteriorly disposed fuel storage space or hopper
into the retort. It will be understood, however,
that other types of fuel, either solid or ?uid, may
be burned in the combustion space I4 provided
within the con?nes of the casing 6 above the bot
ent invention to the burning of any particular
therethrough giving up a large part of their heat
to the walls of said tubes and thence to the
?uid medium surrounding the tubes. The heated
gases upon emerging from the forward ends of
the tubes 24 are delivered into vertical .conduits
25 arranged in the forward corner portions of
the casing I, as shown in Fig. 7. The bottoms
fuel or any speci?c means for effecting the in
of these conduits are equipped with removable
troduction thereof into the heater.
containers 26 for the retention and entrapment
of unburned fuel'solids carried in entrainment
with the gaseous products of combustion follow
ing the passage of the latter through the primary
tom I I thereof and that I do not con?ne the pres
Below the
10 bottom II, there is provided an air chamber I5
by which air may be introduced, preferably under
a positive pressure, into the upper end of the
retort by way of the restricted ports I6, air en-tering the chamber I5 through the conduit or
15 opening disclosed at II. The combustion cham
tubes 24.
It will be understood that these ash receivers
4 and 9 of said casings, a door I9 being hingedly
mounted on the front wall 4 of the casing I to
normally close the openings I8 and the combus
tion chamber. It will be noted that the com
bustion chamber I4 is of liberal size and ofample
cubical capacity in providing for complete com
bustion of the fuels introduced therein in order
25 to effectively impart heat to the metallic sheets
order to maintain the latter internally free from
such objectionable and e?iciency retarding
101
or containers indicated at 23 and 26, may be 15
ber or space I4 is rendered accessible by means of conveniently removed from time to time from
registering openings I8 formed in the front walls ' their operating positions within the heater in
or walls of the inner casing and thence to the ’
?uid medium to be heated. In this instance, the
said fluid medium may be assumed to be water
and is arranged in the ‘inverted substantially
30 U-shaped chamber 20 formed between the inner
and outer casings. It will be obvious to those
skilled in the art that ?uids other than water,
either gaseous or liquid,.may be heated in'the
spaces indicated by the chamber 20.
35
'
At the rear of the combustion chamber I4,
there is arranged a hollow, upstanding bridge
wall 2|, which is spaced from the vertical back
wall ID of the inner casing to provide a vertical
chamber 22 therebetween through which the
40 products of combustion, passing from the com-v
bustion space I4 travels in a generally downward
direction. In the bottom of the chamber 22,
there is arranged a removable‘ container 23
which is adapted to receive precipitated'solid
45 matter, such as ash, carbon or soot, which has
been carried over into the chamber 22 through
entrainment with the gaseous products of com
. bustion. The precipitation of this undesired solid
matter is facilitated by the change in direction
50 of movement of the combustion gases after pass
ing upwardly through the space I4, thence over
the open top of the bridge wall 2I and down
wardly through the chamber 22.
’
Communicating with the opposite sides of the
55 chamber 22 are vertical banks of primary heating
tubes 24. These tubes are disposed in parallel
horizontal order and are located in the lower
portions of the chamber 20, being surrounded by
the ?uid undergoing heating. The gases of com
60 bustion after entering the vertical chamber 22
to the rear of the bridge wall 2|, spread later
ally and downwardly and enter the rear open
ends of-the tubes 24,'a large proportion of the
undesired solid matter present in such gases hav
ing been precipitated and deposited in' the con
tainer 23‘ by the rapid change in the direction
of flow of the gaseous products of combustion,
so that the latter, when entering the tubes 24,
will be in a fairly clean state and deprived of a
70 large proportion of their normally solid content.
This is done in order to minimize the deposition
of carbon, soot and ash in the relatively re
stricted passages afforded by the tubes 24.
After entering’the tubes 24, the gases of com
75 bustion
travel forwardly and longitudinally
products.
20
It is also within the scope of the invention to
utilize means for continuously removing ash de
posit from the bottom of the chamber 22 and/or
the conduits 25, as well as through the intermit
25
tent means here disclosed.
As indicated by the arrows in Fig. 4, the heat
ing gases, upon emerging from the forward ends
of the primary bank of tubes 24, pass upwardly
through the conduits 25, precipitating their ash
content to a large degree into the containers 26, 30
and then enter the forward ends of a bank of
larger diametered secondary tubes 21.
These
tubes are also arranged in the chamber 28 and
are surrounded by the fluid medium undergo
ing heating. The gases of combustion pass lon 35
gitudinally through the tubes 21 in the oppo
site direction to the flow thereof through the
primary tubes 24, and upon emerging from the
tubes 21 are delivered into a tertiary purging
chamber 28 arranged at the rear of the casing
I. The solid matter present in the gases dis-"
charged into the duct 28 is usually precipitated
to the bottom of said duct and may be removed
through the normally closed outlet opening 29
therein. The duct in the upper region thereof
includes a horizontal branch 30 which leads to
the outlet stack, not shown, for the heater gases.
45:
In alignment with the rear ends of the sec
ondary tubes 21, the back wall of the duct 28
is equipped with closures 3| by which access to
the tubes 21 for cleaning purposes is afforded.
Also, the front wall 4 of the casing I in align
ment with the forward ends of the primary and
secondary tubes 24 and 21 respetcively, is pro
vided with a plurality of removable cover plates
to
or doors 33 which may be opened or removed
to permit of convenient access to said tubes for
cleaning and the removal of internally obstruct
ing deposit which may collect after prolonged
periods of operation. Likewise, the back wall 5 60
of the casing I is provided with removable cover
plates or doors 33 for openings in said wall to
obtain convenient access to the rear ends of the
primary tubes 24.
In Fig. 3, the level of the water in the cham 65
ber 28 has been indicated at 34, there being a
steam space 35 formed in the boiler or casing
I above said water level, the steamvoutlet being
indicated at 36. A gage glass 31 may be arranged
on the front of the casing to indicate water levels
and likewise the steam space may be equipped
with a pressure gage 38.
'
70
>
By virtue of the novel arrangement of the
assembly of the component parts peculiar to this
heater, there is provided a spacious compartment 75
2,137,224.
3
in which the fuel is burned, the said compart
bustion discharged from said combustion chamber
ment being of such proportions .- asto afford a
pass substantially downward, secondary vertically
large area for the fuel bed, with sufficient height
arranged purging chambers at the front of said
above the'fuel bed to provide a greater volume
and extended time for the complete combustion
of the combustibles emanating from the fuel bed.
heater located between the inner and outer cas
ings, a primary bank of open ended ?ues uniting
The large volume and greater height of the
and a secondary bank of ?ues disposed above the
primary bank and uniting the secondary cham
combustion chamber retards the time from the
period‘the combustibles leave the fuel bed until
the primary and secondary purging chambers,
bers with a tertiary chamber disposed at the rear
they come into contact with the surrounding con- ' of the heater, said primary and secondary ?ues 10
?ning surfaces,'which tends to prevent prema
ture cooling of the combustible mixtures below
the ignition temperatures before combustion is
being disposed in said heating chamber for inti
mate engagement with the ?uid to be heated.
completed
complemental walls of said casings being rela
15
As the air which supplies oxygen to support
combustion passes through the burning fuel bed
and mixes with the gases emanating from the
fuel, there must be a certain rate of speed at
whichthe gaseous mixture passes through and
'20 leaves the fuel bed. With'most solid fuel, this
velocity of the gaseous mixture is sufficient to
entrain a certain amount of unburned solid mat
ter which ?oats along in the path of the ?owing
gases from the fuel bed._ This unburned solid
25 matter may comprise unconsumed particles of
fuel or such residues as carbon, soot or ash,
which solids are generally termed fly ash.
Through the above described construction of
the heater, this fly ash is readily trapped and
30 may be conveniently removed from time to time
so that the heat transmitting surfaces may be
kept in a clean state and devoid of. solid deposits
which retard the rate of heat transmission.
The present invention therefore provides for
2. In a heater, inner, and outer casings, the
tively spaced to provide a heating chamber there- ‘
between for the reception of a ?uid to be heated,
the ‘interior of said inner casing being formed to
provide a combustion chamber, a bridge wall dis
posed within said inner casing and spaced from
the rear wall thereof to produce a primary purg
ing chamber for the substantially downward pas
sage of products of combustion discharged from
the upper part of said combustion chamber, sec
ondary vertically arranged purging chambers at
the front of said heater, open ended primary ?ues
arranged in spaced vertical order at the sides of
said primary purging chamber and extending
through said heating chamber for conducting
gaseous products of combustion from the primary
purging chamber to the secondary purging cham 30
bers, a tertiary purging chamber arranged at the
rear of said heater and provided with a waste gas
outlet, and a plurality of secondary ?ues ar
ranged above the primary ?ues in said heating
complete combustion, within practical limits, of
chamber and uniting for gas ?ow the secondary '
the fuels consumed within the combustion cham
chambers with said tertiary chamber.
3. In a'heater, inner and outer casings, the
ber, effective heat transfer between the resulting
gases of combustion and the ?uid medium to be vcomplemental walls of said casings being rela
heated thereby, the removal of solids from the tively spaced to provide a heating chamber there
40 gases of combustion which so frequently clog the between for the reception of a ?uid to be heated, 40
?ues of such a heater or produce deposits which the interior of said inner casing being formed to
interfere with heat transmission through the provide a combustion chamber, a bridge wall dis
walls of the tubes, and a heater which will be posed within said inner casing and spaced from
clean and easy to- maintain in its most efficient the rear wall thereof to produce a primary purg
~
45 working condition. '
ing chamber for‘the substantially downward pas 45
When a fuel bed is established in the bottom of sage of products of combustion ‘discharged from
the combustion chamber M, the construction of the upper part of said combustion chamber, sec
the furnace is such as to facilitate the removal of ondary vertically arranged purging chambers at
clinkers, ash, etc., without removing the latter the front of said heater, open ended primary ?ues
through the room or atmosphere surrounding the arranged in spaced vertical order at the sides of 50
exterior of the furnace, by providing the front of said primary purging chamber and extending
the combustion chamber with a short upstanding through said heating chamber for conducting
wall 40, located in alignment with the door 19 and ' gaseous products of combustion from the primary
the opening l8. Clinkers removed over the wall purging chamber to the secondary purging cham
4!! may be dropped directly into the container 26 bers, a tertiary purging chamber arranged at the ‘
through the opening 4|, as shown in Fig. 3, there
rear of said heater and provided with a waste gas
by avoiding ash deposit in the surrounding room outlet, a plurality of secondary ?ues arranged
area, since when the door I9 is opened to permit above the primary ?ues in said heating chamber "
of this operation, the draft therethrough is in an and uniting for gas flow the secondary chambers
60 inward direction.
with said tertiary chamber, and traps disposed in I
While I have described what I consider to be the bottoms of said primary, secondary and ter
the preferred form of my invention, nevertheless tiary purging chambers for the reception of solids
it will be understood by those skilled in the art precipitated from the combustion gases delivered
that the same is subject to considerable change to said last-named chambers.
and modi?cation without departing from the
4. In a heater, inner and outer casings, the
essential features of the invention, as the latter complemental walls ‘of said casings being rela
have been de?ned in the following claims.
tively spaced to provide a heating chamber there
What is claimed is:
between for the reception of a ?uid to be heated,
1. In a heater, inner and outer casings having the interior of said inner casing being formed to
spaced walls providing a heating chamber there
provide a combustion chamber, a bridge wall dis 70
between, the interior of said inner casing being posed within said inner casing and spaced from
formed to provide’ a combustion chamber, a
the rear wall thereof to produce a primary purg
bridge wall disposed within said inner casing and
ing chamber for the substantially downward pas
sage of products of combustion discharged from
the upper part of said combustion chamber, sec
producing at the rear of said inner leasing a purg
ing chamber through which the products of com
2,137,224
ondary vertically arranged purging chambers at
the front of said heater, open ended primary ?ues
arranged in spaced vertical order at the sides of
said primary purging chamber and extending
through said heating chamber for conducting
gaseous products of combustion from the primary
purging chamber to the secondary purging cham
bers, a tertiary purging chamber arranged at the
rear of said heater and provided with a waste gas
10 outlet, a plurality of secondary ?ues arranged
above the primary fiues in said heating chamber
and uniting for gas ?ow the secondary chambers
with said tertiary chamber, traps disposed in the
bottoms of said primary, secondary and tertiary
15 purging chambers for the reception of solids pre
cipitated-from the combustion gases delivered to
said last-named chambers, and means for remov
ing the trapped solids from said heater.
5. In a heater of the class described, inner and
20 outer casings having spaced walls providing a
heating chamber therebetween, the interior of
said inner casing being formed to provide a com
bustion chamber, a bridge wall disposed vertically
within said inner casing and producing at the
rear of the latter a primary purging chamber
through which the products of combustion dis
charged from said combustion chamber pass
downwardly and laterally, said casings being
formed at the front of said heater to provide a
secondary vertically arranged purging chamber,
a primary bank of open-ended ?ues uniting the
primary and secondary purging chambers, and a 10
secondary bank of ?ues arranged above the pri
mary bank and uniting the secondary chamber
with the tertiary chamber disposed at the rear of
the heater, said secondary ?ues being of greater
length than the primary ?ues to extend over the 15
top of said primary chamber.
'6. The structure as speci?ed in claim 5 and
further characterized by having the individual
flues of the secondary bank of greater diameter
than the individual ?ues comprising the primary 20
bank.
FLOYD L. BENEDICT.
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