Патент USA US2137224код для вставки
Nov. ~22, 1938. F. L. BEN EDlCT 2,137,224 vii-EATER Filed June 10, 1936. 2 Sheets-Sheet. I W - NOV. 22, 1938. - F, [__ BENEDlc-r I I ' HEATER - Filed June 10, 1936 2,137,224 ' » 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Nov. 22, 1938 2,137,224 ‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,137,224 , a ' HEATER Floyd L. Benedict, Columbus‘, Ohio Application June 10, 1936, Serial No. 84,512 6 Claims. (01. 122-149) This invention relates to improvements in heat ers and has for its‘ primary object the provision of an improved heater so formed as to effect im proved heat transfer between the gaseous heating - agent and the ?uid or ?uids to be heated thereby, to the general end of producing a heater, boiler ' or furnace which ‘shall be e?icient in operation and simple and convenient to maintain in a clean and deposit free condition for most effective oper'? 10 ation. ‘ - for effecting the circulation of the gaseous heat ing agent, or the hot‘gases incident to fuel com 15: bustion throughthe. heat circulating passages of the ‘heater, in order that said gases may be broughtinto effective contact with the. metallic constructed in accordance‘ with the present in vention; Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the casing of the heater; I - Fig. 3 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view 15 taken through‘the heater on the plane indicated by the line III—III of Fig. 1; heat transferring surfaces of the heater, and to Fig. 4 is a similar view on the offset or stag accomplish this in such manner that the ?ne gered planes’ indicated by the lines IV-IV of 20 solids, normally suspended in such heating agents Fig. 1; ~ - may be precipitated therefrom and deposited in suitable containers, in order to prevent such solids Fig. 5 is a vertical transverse sectional view of the heater on the plane indicated by the line from accumulating in- the tubular or other re V--V of Fig.4; stricted passages of the heater intended for gas passage and heat transferring purposes, and pro ducing therein accumulations of solid matter which interferewith the efficient functioning of Fig. 6 is a similar view on the plane denoted by the. line VI-VI of Fig. 4; the heater. , V ‘ ;A further object of the invention resides in 30 constructing the casing of the heater and so ar ranging the gas conducting chambers and pas: sages of the heater asto facilitate the operation of cleaning such chambers and passages of de posits of solid matter when the need therefor is 35 In the accompanying drawings, forming apart of the speci?cation, in which similar characters of reference denote like and corresponding parts throughout the several views thereof: Fig. 1 is a view in front elevation of a heater 10 - 7' Itis another object of ‘the invention to provide a heater, boiler or furnace with improved means 25; iently removing dust, carbon and ?y ash deposit from the deposit collecting chambers of the heat er; and various other improved features of con struction and operation ‘which will be in part obvious and in ‘part pointed out hereinafter. found to exist. , \ ~ . Other objects reside in the completion of a heater, boiler or furnace of simple, sturdyand economical construction; a heater particularly constructed for. the burningv of solid fuels with the employment of associatedautomatic stoker apparatus for delivering the fuel to the combus tion‘ space of the heater; in theprovision of a heater which may be serviced in a cleanly man ner without producing dust and dirt exteriorly of 45 the same; a heaterhaving a novel arrangement of gas circulatingpassages for the gaseous prod ucts of combustion,’ the saidpassages being so designed and relatively arranged as to effect an eflicient heat transfer between the products of 50 combustion, the con?ning‘walls of the passages and the fluids to be heated, disposed around said walls, to the end of obtaining low temperatures on- .the partof said products of combustion when thelatter‘are delivered to the outlet stack of the heater; in the provision, of means for conven ' 20 _ Fig. '7 is a horizontal sectional View on the plane indicated by the line VII-VII of Fig. 4. In the single embodiment of my improved heat~ er illustrated in the» drawings, the numeral I designates the casing of the heater. In this instance, the casing is formed to include spaced vertical side walls ‘2—2, a crowned top wall 3 and front and back walls 4 and 5 respectively. These walls may be formed from metallic sheeting or castings and of any suitable size and mechanical strength, depending upon the practical uses to which the heater is adapted to be placed and the thermal requirements therefor. It will be under stood that the casing may be provided with suit able exterior layers of insulation, not shown, to 40 reduce heat losses "in accordance with accepted heater practice. Arranged within the outer casing I andsuitably supported in connection with the walls of the latter is an‘ internal casing 6 which, in the em 45 bodiment of the invention illustrated, also includes spaced vertical side walls ‘l--‘|, a crowned top 8 and vertically arranged front and back walls 9 and II] respectively. The walls of‘the inner cas ing 6 are inwardly spaced from the corresponding 50 walls of the outer casing. The inner casing is formed, in this instance, with a bottom H in which is provided a retort l2. A conveyor screw I3 is disclosed in the bottom of the retort for the purpose of conducting solid fuel from an 55 2 2,137,224 exteriorly disposed fuel storage space or hopper into the retort. It will be understood, however, that other types of fuel, either solid or ?uid, may be burned in the combustion space I4 provided within the con?nes of the casing 6 above the bot ent invention to the burning of any particular therethrough giving up a large part of their heat to the walls of said tubes and thence to the ?uid medium surrounding the tubes. The heated gases upon emerging from the forward ends of the tubes 24 are delivered into vertical .conduits 25 arranged in the forward corner portions of the casing I, as shown in Fig. 7. The bottoms fuel or any speci?c means for effecting the in of these conduits are equipped with removable troduction thereof into the heater. containers 26 for the retention and entrapment of unburned fuel'solids carried in entrainment with the gaseous products of combustion follow ing the passage of the latter through the primary tom I I thereof and that I do not con?ne the pres Below the 10 bottom II, there is provided an air chamber I5 by which air may be introduced, preferably under a positive pressure, into the upper end of the retort by way of the restricted ports I6, air en-tering the chamber I5 through the conduit or 15 opening disclosed at II. The combustion cham tubes 24. It will be understood that these ash receivers 4 and 9 of said casings, a door I9 being hingedly mounted on the front wall 4 of the casing I to normally close the openings I8 and the combus tion chamber. It will be noted that the com bustion chamber I4 is of liberal size and ofample cubical capacity in providing for complete com bustion of the fuels introduced therein in order 25 to effectively impart heat to the metallic sheets order to maintain the latter internally free from such objectionable and e?iciency retarding 101 or containers indicated at 23 and 26, may be 15 ber or space I4 is rendered accessible by means of conveniently removed from time to time from registering openings I8 formed in the front walls ' their operating positions within the heater in or walls of the inner casing and thence to the ’ ?uid medium to be heated. In this instance, the said fluid medium may be assumed to be water and is arranged in the ‘inverted substantially 30 U-shaped chamber 20 formed between the inner and outer casings. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that ?uids other than water, either gaseous or liquid,.may be heated in'the spaces indicated by the chamber 20. 35 ' At the rear of the combustion chamber I4, there is arranged a hollow, upstanding bridge wall 2|, which is spaced from the vertical back wall ID of the inner casing to provide a vertical chamber 22 therebetween through which the 40 products of combustion, passing from the com-v bustion space I4 travels in a generally downward direction. In the bottom of the chamber 22, there is arranged a removable‘ container 23 which is adapted to receive precipitated'solid 45 matter, such as ash, carbon or soot, which has been carried over into the chamber 22 through entrainment with the gaseous products of com . bustion. The precipitation of this undesired solid matter is facilitated by the change in direction 50 of movement of the combustion gases after pass ing upwardly through the space I4, thence over the open top of the bridge wall 2I and down wardly through the chamber 22. ’ Communicating with the opposite sides of the 55 chamber 22 are vertical banks of primary heating tubes 24. These tubes are disposed in parallel horizontal order and are located in the lower portions of the chamber 20, being surrounded by the ?uid undergoing heating. The gases of com 60 bustion after entering the vertical chamber 22 to the rear of the bridge wall 2|, spread later ally and downwardly and enter the rear open ends of-the tubes 24,'a large proportion of the undesired solid matter present in such gases hav ing been precipitated and deposited in' the con tainer 23‘ by the rapid change in the direction of flow of the gaseous products of combustion, so that the latter, when entering the tubes 24, will be in a fairly clean state and deprived of a 70 large proportion of their normally solid content. This is done in order to minimize the deposition of carbon, soot and ash in the relatively re stricted passages afforded by the tubes 24. After entering’the tubes 24, the gases of com 75 bustion travel forwardly and longitudinally products. 20 It is also within the scope of the invention to utilize means for continuously removing ash de posit from the bottom of the chamber 22 and/or the conduits 25, as well as through the intermit 25 tent means here disclosed. As indicated by the arrows in Fig. 4, the heat ing gases, upon emerging from the forward ends of the primary bank of tubes 24, pass upwardly through the conduits 25, precipitating their ash content to a large degree into the containers 26, 30 and then enter the forward ends of a bank of larger diametered secondary tubes 21. These tubes are also arranged in the chamber 28 and are surrounded by the fluid medium undergo ing heating. The gases of combustion pass lon 35 gitudinally through the tubes 21 in the oppo site direction to the flow thereof through the primary tubes 24, and upon emerging from the tubes 21 are delivered into a tertiary purging chamber 28 arranged at the rear of the casing I. The solid matter present in the gases dis-" charged into the duct 28 is usually precipitated to the bottom of said duct and may be removed through the normally closed outlet opening 29 therein. The duct in the upper region thereof includes a horizontal branch 30 which leads to the outlet stack, not shown, for the heater gases. 45: In alignment with the rear ends of the sec ondary tubes 21, the back wall of the duct 28 is equipped with closures 3| by which access to the tubes 21 for cleaning purposes is afforded. Also, the front wall 4 of the casing I in align ment with the forward ends of the primary and secondary tubes 24 and 21 respetcively, is pro vided with a plurality of removable cover plates to or doors 33 which may be opened or removed to permit of convenient access to said tubes for cleaning and the removal of internally obstruct ing deposit which may collect after prolonged periods of operation. Likewise, the back wall 5 60 of the casing I is provided with removable cover plates or doors 33 for openings in said wall to obtain convenient access to the rear ends of the primary tubes 24. In Fig. 3, the level of the water in the cham 65 ber 28 has been indicated at 34, there being a steam space 35 formed in the boiler or casing I above said water level, the steamvoutlet being indicated at 36. A gage glass 31 may be arranged on the front of the casing to indicate water levels and likewise the steam space may be equipped with a pressure gage 38. ' 70 > By virtue of the novel arrangement of the assembly of the component parts peculiar to this heater, there is provided a spacious compartment 75 2,137,224. 3 in which the fuel is burned, the said compart bustion discharged from said combustion chamber ment being of such proportions .- asto afford a pass substantially downward, secondary vertically large area for the fuel bed, with sufficient height arranged purging chambers at the front of said above the'fuel bed to provide a greater volume and extended time for the complete combustion of the combustibles emanating from the fuel bed. heater located between the inner and outer cas ings, a primary bank of open ended ?ues uniting The large volume and greater height of the and a secondary bank of ?ues disposed above the primary bank and uniting the secondary cham combustion chamber retards the time from the period‘the combustibles leave the fuel bed until the primary and secondary purging chambers, bers with a tertiary chamber disposed at the rear they come into contact with the surrounding con- ' of the heater, said primary and secondary ?ues 10 ?ning surfaces,'which tends to prevent prema ture cooling of the combustible mixtures below the ignition temperatures before combustion is being disposed in said heating chamber for inti mate engagement with the ?uid to be heated. completed complemental walls of said casings being rela 15 As the air which supplies oxygen to support combustion passes through the burning fuel bed and mixes with the gases emanating from the fuel, there must be a certain rate of speed at whichthe gaseous mixture passes through and '20 leaves the fuel bed. With'most solid fuel, this velocity of the gaseous mixture is sufficient to entrain a certain amount of unburned solid mat ter which ?oats along in the path of the ?owing gases from the fuel bed._ This unburned solid 25 matter may comprise unconsumed particles of fuel or such residues as carbon, soot or ash, which solids are generally termed fly ash. Through the above described construction of the heater, this fly ash is readily trapped and 30 may be conveniently removed from time to time so that the heat transmitting surfaces may be kept in a clean state and devoid of. solid deposits which retard the rate of heat transmission. The present invention therefore provides for 2. In a heater, inner, and outer casings, the tively spaced to provide a heating chamber there- ‘ between for the reception of a ?uid to be heated, the ‘interior of said inner casing being formed to provide a combustion chamber, a bridge wall dis posed within said inner casing and spaced from the rear wall thereof to produce a primary purg ing chamber for the substantially downward pas sage of products of combustion discharged from the upper part of said combustion chamber, sec ondary vertically arranged purging chambers at the front of said heater, open ended primary ?ues arranged in spaced vertical order at the sides of said primary purging chamber and extending through said heating chamber for conducting gaseous products of combustion from the primary purging chamber to the secondary purging cham 30 bers, a tertiary purging chamber arranged at the rear of said heater and provided with a waste gas outlet, and a plurality of secondary ?ues ar ranged above the primary ?ues in said heating complete combustion, within practical limits, of chamber and uniting for gas ?ow the secondary ' the fuels consumed within the combustion cham chambers with said tertiary chamber. 3. In a'heater, inner and outer casings, the ber, effective heat transfer between the resulting gases of combustion and the ?uid medium to be vcomplemental walls of said casings being rela heated thereby, the removal of solids from the tively spaced to provide a heating chamber there 40 gases of combustion which so frequently clog the between for the reception of a ?uid to be heated, 40 ?ues of such a heater or produce deposits which the interior of said inner casing being formed to interfere with heat transmission through the provide a combustion chamber, a bridge wall dis walls of the tubes, and a heater which will be posed within said inner casing and spaced from clean and easy to- maintain in its most efficient the rear wall thereof to produce a primary purg ~ 45 working condition. ' ing chamber for‘the substantially downward pas 45 When a fuel bed is established in the bottom of sage of products of combustion ‘discharged from the combustion chamber M, the construction of the upper part of said combustion chamber, sec the furnace is such as to facilitate the removal of ondary vertically arranged purging chambers at clinkers, ash, etc., without removing the latter the front of said heater, open ended primary ?ues through the room or atmosphere surrounding the arranged in spaced vertical order at the sides of 50 exterior of the furnace, by providing the front of said primary purging chamber and extending the combustion chamber with a short upstanding through said heating chamber for conducting wall 40, located in alignment with the door 19 and ' gaseous products of combustion from the primary the opening l8. Clinkers removed over the wall purging chamber to the secondary purging cham 4!! may be dropped directly into the container 26 bers, a tertiary purging chamber arranged at the ‘ through the opening 4|, as shown in Fig. 3, there rear of said heater and provided with a waste gas by avoiding ash deposit in the surrounding room outlet, a plurality of secondary ?ues arranged area, since when the door I9 is opened to permit above the primary ?ues in said heating chamber " of this operation, the draft therethrough is in an and uniting for gas flow the secondary chambers 60 inward direction. with said tertiary chamber, and traps disposed in I While I have described what I consider to be the bottoms of said primary, secondary and ter the preferred form of my invention, nevertheless tiary purging chambers for the reception of solids it will be understood by those skilled in the art precipitated from the combustion gases delivered that the same is subject to considerable change to said last-named chambers. and modi?cation without departing from the 4. In a heater, inner and outer casings, the essential features of the invention, as the latter complemental walls ‘of said casings being rela have been de?ned in the following claims. tively spaced to provide a heating chamber there What is claimed is: between for the reception of a ?uid to be heated, 1. In a heater, inner and outer casings having the interior of said inner casing being formed to spaced walls providing a heating chamber there provide a combustion chamber, a bridge wall dis 70 between, the interior of said inner casing being posed within said inner casing and spaced from formed to provide’ a combustion chamber, a the rear wall thereof to produce a primary purg bridge wall disposed within said inner casing and ing chamber for the substantially downward pas sage of products of combustion discharged from the upper part of said combustion chamber, sec producing at the rear of said inner leasing a purg ing chamber through which the products of com 2,137,224 ondary vertically arranged purging chambers at the front of said heater, open ended primary ?ues arranged in spaced vertical order at the sides of said primary purging chamber and extending through said heating chamber for conducting gaseous products of combustion from the primary purging chamber to the secondary purging cham bers, a tertiary purging chamber arranged at the rear of said heater and provided with a waste gas 10 outlet, a plurality of secondary ?ues arranged above the primary fiues in said heating chamber and uniting for gas ?ow the secondary chambers with said tertiary chamber, traps disposed in the bottoms of said primary, secondary and tertiary 15 purging chambers for the reception of solids pre cipitated-from the combustion gases delivered to said last-named chambers, and means for remov ing the trapped solids from said heater. 5. In a heater of the class described, inner and 20 outer casings having spaced walls providing a heating chamber therebetween, the interior of said inner casing being formed to provide a com bustion chamber, a bridge wall disposed vertically within said inner casing and producing at the rear of the latter a primary purging chamber through which the products of combustion dis charged from said combustion chamber pass downwardly and laterally, said casings being formed at the front of said heater to provide a secondary vertically arranged purging chamber, a primary bank of open-ended ?ues uniting the primary and secondary purging chambers, and a 10 secondary bank of ?ues arranged above the pri mary bank and uniting the secondary chamber with the tertiary chamber disposed at the rear of the heater, said secondary ?ues being of greater length than the primary ?ues to extend over the 15 top of said primary chamber. '6. The structure as speci?ed in claim 5 and further characterized by having the individual flues of the secondary bank of greater diameter than the individual ?ues comprising the primary 20 bank. FLOYD L. BENEDICT.