Патент USA US2137333код для вставки
Nov. 22, 1938. G. H. COLBURN 2,137,333 LINING IMPLEMENT Filed Nbv. s, 1956 2'2 (.2596 2,137,333 Patented Nov. 22, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE 2,137,333 LINING IMPLEMENT . George H. Golburn, Waltham, Mass. Application November 3, 1936, Serial No. 109,005 3 Claims. This invention pertains to the photographic art ‘ and relates more particularly to an improved lin ing implement for lining photographic negatives, the invention being especially useful in those ‘.1 branches of the printing art wherein’ photo graphic negatives are employed in the preparation (01. 33--32) the cutting edge has usually been of chisel form and with square corners, a shape which has not been found wholly suitable for the removal of the tough elastic ?lm in such a way as to produce sharp lines with accurately straight edges. , Furthermore, in using such makeshift imple ments as have previously been employed, the pro invention is found of particular value for ruling - duction of double and triple lines necessitates repeated closely spaced rulings, and in View of lines upon a photographic negative when, for ex the inaccuracies inherent in the prior method of 10 10? ample, the ultimate printing surface is to be em ployed in the printing of ruled forms such as procedure,‘ it has been found almost impossible to account book and ledger pages, index cards, ruled rule double or triple lines with the desired close paper or the like, having parallel horizontal lines, ness of spacing without merging the lines here some of which may be double or triple lines, and and there, a result which greatly detracts from of_a printing surface. As a speci?c example, the also frequently having intersecting vertical lines the appearance of the printed form prepared by 15 some of which may be single, and others double or triple, depending upon the use to which the form is to be put. the use of such a ruled negative. The requisite lines upon the photographic 20 znegative are produced by removing the exposed developed emulsion from the underlying glass or Celluloid support so as to leave clear transparent lines upon a dark and substantially opaque back ground, but such removal of the developed gelatin 25 ' ?lm, so as to leave evenly cut sharp lines, par ticularly if such lines must be very narrow and spaced closely together, is not at all easy. So far as is known, no satisfactory tool or instrument has heretofore been devised for this purpose. _ The ruling of lines upon a negative in accord ance with prior practice has usually been carried out as a hand operation, the incising instrument being drawn along a straight edge after the man ner of a ruling pen. The instrument in common The principal object of the present invention is to provide an incising implement for the gen eral purpose described, such that sharp, cleanlines of any width (within the range usually employed 20* in printing) may readily be cut into a photo graphic negative without requiring high skill upon the part of the operator and with reasonable cer tainty that such lines will be accurately straight and of uniform width, with clean-cut sharp mar; gins and of a uniform depth such as to remove substantially all of the emulsion from the sup porting glass or Celluloid. A further object is to provide an incising cutter or blade which maintains the desired width of cutting edge regardless of the number of times that it may be sharpened; which does not require any grinding of its lateral surfaces to produce the desired width of line; which may be held 35 use for this purpose is usually made from a piece of hack saw blade which is reduced in ?rmly against a straight edge without tendency 35 the desired thickness- at the cutting edge is pro duced by grinding off the material at the sides, the end portion usually tapers in thickness, and 45 when drawn along a straight edge the tip of the blade may rock toward and from the vertical plane of the straight edge, thus producing a wavy and irregular line. Further, such grinding of the tool to the requisite thickness is a troublesome matter, 50 requiring a greater degree of mchanical skill than is always available in shops where such tools are employed,‘ and if the cutting edge is repeatedly sharpened it tends to increase in effective width rality of parallel lines uniformly spaced apart at all points. A [further object is to provide a to tip in one direction or the other; and which thickness by grinding on one or both sides and may be removably mounted in a suitable handle which is shaped in accordance with the ideas of - or holder so as‘ readily to be exchanged for an the particular user so as to provide a cutting edge other blade of different width. A further object 40 .of the width and form deemed ‘most suitable for is to provide an improved cutter or incising im the purpose. However, it is to be noted that when plement capable of concomitantly cutting a plu holder or handle for the improved cutters or 45 blades, so designed as to assist the user in pre senting the cutter edge of the blade at the proper angle to the work. Further objects and advantages of the inven tion will be pointed out hereinafter in the follow 50 ing more detailed description and by reference to the annexed drawing in which Fig. 1 is a side elevation, with certain parts and thus produces a thicker line than intended. broken away, illustrating the improved incising .Moreover, in accordance with such prior practice, cutter mounted in a desirable form of holder, the 2 2,137,333 cutter shown being designed or cutting triple substantially exactly with the width of any line (corresponding, for example, to a standard print Fig. 2 is an end elevation looking from the ing line) which it is desired to draw upon the right-hand end of Fig. 1; photographic negative. Such sheet material has Fig. 3 is an enlarged side elevation, partly accurately parallel, smooth, and if desired, poi-A broken away, showing the improved cutter re ished sides, and thus in making a blade of desired moved from the holder, ?nal thickness it is merely necessary to select Fig. 4 is a plan view of the cutter of Fig. 3; sheet material of the proper gauge, and then by a Fig. 5 is a plan view, showing a single cutter or stamping, punching or other similar operation, to lines; 10 blade arranged to be held in a handle such as cut out blades of desired contour and with cer that of Fig. 1 and designed for incising a single line; tainty that they will have the desired accurate Fig. 6 is a similar cutter, but designed for con essary to use any grinding or other operation for comitantly cutting parallel lines of equal width; 15 Fig. 7 is a plan view of a similar cutter but having two blades designed concomitantly to out two lines of different width; Fig. 8 is a fragmentary side elevation partly in section, illustrating the action of the improved 20 cutter in removing the film from the supporting glass or Celluloid; V ' Fig. 9 is a section to very greatly enlarged scale substantially on the line 9—-9 of Fig. 8, showing a preferred shape for the cutting edge of the 25 blade; and Fig. 10 is a fragmentary plan view, illustrating the appearance of a photographic negative ruled by the use of this improved implement. Referring to the drawing, the numeral i desig nates va handle or holder designed for securely holding any one of a set of interchangeable cut ters. This handle may be made of any suitable material such as wood or metal, and is preferably of generally triangular cross section, as illustrated ‘in Fig. 2, comprising the ?at sides 2, 3 and 4. Preferably the angles of the triangle are truncated so as, for example, to form a ?at surface 5 sub stantially parallel to the surface 2. The holder is provided at one or both ends with a tool hold ing chuck of any appropriate type. For example, the chuck may comprise a pair of spaced parallel jaws 6 and 1 and a knurled internally screw threaded collar designed to draw the jaws 6 and 1 toward each other so as to clamp a cutter be 45 tween them. Preferably these jaws 6 and ‘l are so arranged that when a cutter is mounted in the handle, the plane of the cutter blade will be sub stantially perpendicular to the surface 2 of the handle and if a single blade be employed, the 50 ‘plane of such blade will bisect the angle between the sides 3 and 4. Such an arrangement permits the user very readily to determine the proper po sition of holding the handle, in order that the cut thickness. 10 By such procedure it becomes unnec reducing the blades to the ?nal desired thickness. Preferably, in forming the blade in accordance 15 with the present invention, the corners I5 and 15 of the original substantially rectangular blank are cut away and the tip end is ?nished to have a rounded contour, as shown at I‘! thereof. How ever, this latter feature is not essential. In cut- 20 ting away the corner l6 of the blank the metal is so removed as to provide a work-engaging surface ,or edge H! which is tangent to the rounded tip and which preferably makes an included angle of the order of 32° with the adjacent edge I9 of 25 the blank. A notch 20 is also cut in this same edge of the blank, such notch preferably being of gen erally triangular shape having one side 2| making an angle of approximately 30° with the edge 19 of the blank and having another side 22 which in tersects the edge I 9 of the blank at the same point 23 at which the surface [8 intersects said edge 19, this line of intersection at the point 23 constituting the cutting edge. Preferably the in cluded angle between the side 22 of the notch and 355'. the surface I8, is of the order of 90°. As may be noted, the cutting away of the corners l5 and N5 of the blank, and the provision of the notch 21], reduces the end of the blank to a hook-like shape, the angle between the lines l8 and 22 de?ning the beak of the hook with the cutting edge 23 at the tip of the beak. , . Following the above method of procedure ‘the cutting edge 23 extends transversely across the entire thickness of the blade, and if it be desired either initially or during use to sharpen the blade, it is merely necessary to'deepen the notch 20, in particular removing material from the side 22 of the notch without substantially changing the angle between such side and the work-engaging 50" surface l8, and without in any way varying the effective transverse length of the cutting edge 23. Preferably the corners of the blade at the ends ting edge of the blade may be truly horizontal or of the cutting edge are slightly rounded, as in parallel to the surface of the work. 56 dicated at 24 and 25, respectively, (Fig. 9), such 55 As illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4, the cutter 9 com rounding or smoothing of these corners prevent prises three blades l?, I l and I2, disposed in par ing the tearing or milling of the gelatin ?lm as allel relation and of the same dimensions. Each - the cutter is drawn through it. However, it is to blade comprises a shank’ portion Illa, lla and be understood that this rounding of the corners I2“, respectively,and these shank portions are 24 and 25 is but little more than a smoothing or 60 held in properly spaced relation by means of in burr-removing operation and vthat the radius of terposed spacer blocks 13 and M. The blocks and curvature in these corners is very small. the shank portions of the blades are preferably After the blade has thus been prepared it may, permanently united after assembly so as collec~ if desired, be hardened and tempered or other 65 tlvely to form the shank of the three-bladed cut ter by means of rivets or other types of inserted wise heat treated to make it hard, tough and wear-resistant. On the other hand, it is contem fastener, but preferably by spot welding, as indi plated that the blade may be given a hard wear cated at l5 (Fig. 3). Each of the blades, for example the blade i l, as resistant surface, for example by chrome plating, 70 illustrated in detail in Fig. 3, consists of a gener although in such case it may be necessary to se 70 ally rectangular elongate strip of sheet metal. leot sheet material of such slightly lesser thick Sheet metal is commercially available in almost ness than that of the ?nished plate as to com any desired thickness, varying in gauge by thou pensate for the thickness of the plating. It is sandths of an inch, so that it is possible to obtain further contemplated that steel of the variety 75 " metal in sheet form of a gauge which corresponds known as “stainless” steel may be used and prop 2,137,333‘ 3 face. 18 of the bladev travels along the work and erly heat treated to maintain the desired hard provides a support for the,‘ implement. However, ness. ‘Whatever method be employed for ‘?nishing - such work-engagingsurface usually engages the the blade, it is to be understood that after it has ‘support 28 only adjacent to the cutting point, ' thus been ?nished it will be assembled with usually making an angle of the order of 2° with others, if several blades are to be used in forming the surface of the support 28. Apparently this is a single cutter, with the interposedspacers, as the most effective angle of operation, although above described, and the several blades then it is to be understood that the tool may be rocked joined together ‘so as to form a unitary cutter. slightly ‘in a vertical plane in accordance with 10 It is further contemplated that after such as“ ' the condition of use whereby to obtain the maxi~ 10. semblage, and union of the blades the cutting,’ mum efficiency under any given set of conditions. edges of the several associated blades may be By making ‘an angle of approximately 90° be simultaneously ground or honed, so that such tween the surface l8 and the side 22 of the cutting edges will be in accurate alignment. notch it becomes substantially impossible to dig In Fig. 6 a cutter is illustrated comprising but the cutting edge'so deeply into the work as, for 15 two blades Ill and H‘with a spacer l3 interposed . between them and with filler members l3a and Ma similar to the spacer but disposed at the outer sides of the blades Ii] and M, respectively, such =~filler members being of a. thickness such‘ that when the blades, the spacer and the ?llers are assembled, the transverse thickness of the shank portion of the resultant cutter will be the same asrthat of the cutter of Fig. 4 so that it may be 25 ?tted into the same chunk as the latter. In Fig. 5 a cutter with a single blade I l is illus trated, and in this case ?ller members I31“ and M0 are shown as disposed at opposite sides of the shank of this blade, such ?llers being se 30 cured to the blade and being of such thickness example, to gouge into a support of Celluloid or the like upon which the gelatin may be mounted. Since the cutting edge 23 is accurately perpen dicular to the side face of the ‘blade which comes in contact with the straight edge, theimplement 20 does not tend to rock so as to produce a wavy line, and thus it is possible to produce lines which. are accurately straight even though the cutter ‘I is operated by hand ‘and merely guided by a straight edge. Moreover, as already pointed out, 25 since the transverse length of the cutting edge is a ?xed dimension not subject to change by sharp ening the tool, it is certain that throughout the useful life of the blade it will always produce a line of the same accurate width. that the assemblage is of the same transverse width as that of Figs. 4 and 6. the provision of a holder or handle and a set of In all of the cutters above described the blades interchangeable cutters (having shank portions are of the same thickness so that their cutting 35 edges are all of the same length and would pro duce lines on the negative of the same width. 30 As already noted, the invention contemplates of like dimensions) designed to produce any de sired width or combination of lines, and thus the 35 user, without difficulty and without loss of time, However, as illustrated in Fig. 7, the cutter may ' 'is enabled to rule the negative in accordance with be devised so as simultaneously to produce lines of different width. Thus as shown in this ?gure, 40 the cutters l I and l Ia are of different thicknesses, a spacer I3 being interposed between them and ?ller members Ma and It)111 being assembled with the blades and spacer so as to form a cutter having a shank of the same standard thickness 45 as those previously described and adapted to be received in the same holder or handle. Obvious ly any other desired assemblage of blades of dif ferent thicknesses and with spacers of different thicknesses interposed between them may be made in accordance with the invention. '50 In using the device, assuming that a cutter has been mounted in the handle, the user grasps the handle in such a way that the surface 2 is uppermost and holds the implement so that its longitudinal axis preferably makes an angle of 55 approximately 30° with the surface of the nega tive 2'! which is to be lined. Assuming that the negative has been placed upon a horizontal sup port and that a straight edge is available for 60 guiding the cutter, the operator (thus holding the implement at the angle indicated) brings the vertical outer face of the cutter blade into con tact with the straight edge and then, while hold ing the tool in the inclined position suggested, draws the tool along the straight edge thereby 65 incising the ?lm of gelatin 2% and removing this ?lm from the support 28 as a narrow chip so as to leave a clear transparent line upon the nega tive. When using a duplex cutter such as that 70 of Fig. 6, two closely spaced parallel lines will be formed simultaneously, as‘indicated at 29 (Fig. 10). On the other hand, when using a cutter ,having a single blade, a single line will be cut into the negative, as shown at 3B in Fig. 10. During the operation of the cutter, the sur 75 any predetermined pattern and without the necessity of resorting to intermediate sharpening of the tool or other slow, laborious process re quiring mechanical skill for its proper accom 40 plishment. While certain desirable embodiments of the invention have been illustrated by way of ex ample, it is to be understood that the invention 45 is not necessarily limited thereto, but that all equivalents are to be regarded as within the pur view of the invention, as expressed in the ap pended claims. I claim: 50 1. A cutter for lining a photographic negative or the like, comprising an elongate handle, a holder at the end of the handle, a cutting tool removably mounted in said holder, said tool com prising a sheet metal blade having a substan 55 tially uniform thickness so that its opposite faces are parallel, the blade having an arcuate end surface and an adjoining edge’ surface constitut ing a work-engaging surface, the blade having a second edge surface extending at an angle of 60 the order of 90° to said work-engaging surface and meeting the same at an intersection line to afford a cutting edge, said line extending across substantially the entire width of the blade, said work-engaging surface extending at an angle of 65 the order of 30° to the direction of extent of said handle, whereby the tool may be drawn by said handle over a coated negative with the work-en gaging surface engaging the face of the nega tive and said second surface ‘substantially per pendicular thereto. 70 2. A cutter for lining a photographic negative or the like, comprising an elongate handle, a holder at the end of the handle, a cutting tool re movably mounted in said holder, said tool com 75 4 2,187,333 prising sheet metal .blades with spacers there between, each of said blades having a substan tially'uniform thickness so that its iopposite'faces are ‘parallel, each blade having an arcuate end surface and an edge surface tangential thereto constituting a work-engaging surface, each blade having 1a second ‘edge surface extending at an angle of the order of 190° to its work-engaging surface and meeting the same at an intersection 10 line to afford a cutting edge, said line extending across substantially the entire width of the blade, said work-engaging surface extending at an angle ‘of the order of 30° to the direction of ex tent of said handle, "the intersection ‘lines of the 16 respective blades being aligned with each ‘other, the work-engaging surfaces’ of the respective blades lying in ‘portions of a common plane, whereby the "tool may be drawn by said handle over a coated negative with the work-engaging 20 surfaces engaging the ‘face ‘of the negative and the second surfaces of the respective blades be ing disposed in a plane substantially perpendicu lar to' the face of the negative. '3. cutter for lining a photographic negative or ‘the like, comprising an elongate handle, ‘a holder at the end of the handle, a cutting tool removably mounted in said holder, said tool comprising a sheet metal blade having a substan tially uniform thickness so that its opposite faces are parallel, the blade having an edge surface at its end which is remote from the handle which constitutes a work-engaging surface, the blade having a ‘reentrant portion providing a second edge surface extending at an angle of the order 10 of 90° to said work-engaging surface and meet ing the same at an intersection line to afford a cutting edge, said line extending across sub stantially the entire width of the blade, said work-engaging surface extending at an angle of 15 the order of 30° to the direction of extent of said handle, whereby the tool maybe drawn by said handle over a coated negative with the work-en gaging surface engaging the face of the nega tive from which the coating has been removed and said second surface substantially perpendicu lar thereto. GEORGE H. COLBURN.