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Патент USA US2137333

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Nov. 22, 1938.
G. H. COLBURN
2,137,333
LINING IMPLEMENT
Filed Nbv. s, 1956
2'2 (.2596
2,137,333
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE
2,137,333
LINING IMPLEMENT
.
George H. Golburn, Waltham, Mass.
Application November 3, 1936, Serial No. 109,005
3 Claims.
This invention pertains to the photographic art ‘
and relates more particularly to an improved lin
ing implement for lining photographic negatives,
the invention being especially useful in those
‘.1 branches of the printing art wherein’ photo
graphic negatives are employed in the preparation
(01. 33--32)
the cutting edge has usually been of chisel form
and with square corners, a shape which has not
been found wholly suitable for the removal of the
tough elastic ?lm in such a way as to produce
sharp lines with accurately straight edges.
,
Furthermore, in using such makeshift imple
ments as have previously been employed, the pro
invention is found of particular value for ruling - duction of double and triple lines necessitates
repeated closely spaced rulings, and in View of
lines upon a photographic negative when, for ex
the inaccuracies inherent in the prior method of 10
10? ample, the ultimate printing surface is to be em
ployed in the printing of ruled forms such as procedure,‘ it has been found almost impossible to
account book and ledger pages, index cards, ruled rule double or triple lines with the desired close
paper or the like, having parallel horizontal lines, ness of spacing without merging the lines here
some of which may be double or triple lines, and and there, a result which greatly detracts from
of_a printing surface. As a speci?c example, the
also frequently having intersecting vertical lines
the appearance of the printed form prepared by 15
some of which may be single, and others double
or triple, depending upon the use to which the
form is to be put.
the use of such a ruled negative.
The requisite lines upon the photographic
20 znegative are produced by removing the exposed
developed emulsion from the underlying glass or
Celluloid support so as to leave clear transparent
lines upon a dark and substantially opaque back
ground, but such removal of the developed gelatin
25 ' ?lm, so as to leave evenly cut sharp lines, par
ticularly if such lines must be very narrow and
spaced closely together, is not at all easy. So far
as is known, no satisfactory tool or instrument has
heretofore been devised for this purpose. _
The ruling of lines upon a negative in accord
ance with prior practice has usually been carried
out as a hand operation, the incising instrument
being drawn along a straight edge after the man
ner of a ruling pen.
The instrument in common
The principal object of the present invention
is to provide an incising implement for the gen
eral purpose described, such that sharp, cleanlines
of any width (within the range usually employed 20*
in printing) may readily be cut into a photo
graphic negative without requiring high skill upon
the part of the operator and with reasonable cer
tainty that such lines will be accurately straight
and of uniform width, with clean-cut sharp mar;
gins and of a uniform depth such as to remove
substantially all of the emulsion from the sup
porting glass or Celluloid.
A further object is to provide an incising cutter
or blade which maintains the desired width of
cutting edge regardless of the number of times
that it may be sharpened; which does not require
any grinding of its lateral surfaces to produce
the desired width of line; which may be held
35 use for this purpose is usually made from a
piece of hack saw blade which is reduced in
?rmly against a straight edge without tendency 35
the desired thickness- at the cutting edge is pro
duced by grinding off the material at the sides,
the end portion usually tapers in thickness, and
45 when drawn along a straight edge the tip of the
blade may rock toward and from the vertical plane
of the straight edge, thus producing a wavy and
irregular line. Further, such grinding of the tool
to the requisite thickness is a troublesome matter,
50 requiring a greater degree of mchanical skill than
is always available in shops where such tools are
employed,‘ and if the cutting edge is repeatedly
sharpened it tends to increase in effective width
rality of parallel lines uniformly spaced apart at
all points. A [further object is to provide a
to tip in one direction or the other; and which
thickness by grinding on one or both sides and may be removably mounted in a suitable handle
which is shaped in accordance with the ideas of - or holder so as‘ readily to be exchanged for an
the particular user so as to provide a cutting edge other blade of different width. A further object
40 .of the width and form deemed ‘most suitable for is to provide an improved cutter or incising im
the purpose. However, it is to be noted that when plement capable of concomitantly cutting a plu
holder or handle for the improved cutters or 45
blades, so designed as to assist the user in pre
senting the cutter edge of the blade at the proper
angle to the work.
Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion will be pointed out hereinafter in the follow 50
ing more detailed description and by reference to
the annexed drawing in which
Fig. 1 is a side elevation, with certain parts
and thus produces a thicker line than intended.
broken away, illustrating the improved incising
.Moreover, in accordance with such prior practice,
cutter mounted in a desirable form of holder, the
2
2,137,333
cutter shown being designed or cutting triple
substantially exactly with the width of any line
(corresponding, for example, to a standard print
Fig. 2 is an end elevation looking from the ing line) which it is desired to draw upon the
right-hand end of Fig. 1;
photographic negative. Such sheet material has
Fig. 3 is an enlarged side elevation, partly accurately parallel, smooth, and if desired, poi-A
broken away, showing the improved cutter re
ished sides, and thus in making a blade of desired
moved from the holder,
?nal thickness it is merely necessary to select
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the cutter of Fig. 3; sheet material of the proper gauge, and then by a
Fig. 5 is a plan view, showing a single cutter or stamping, punching or other similar operation, to
lines;
10 blade arranged to be held in a handle such as
cut out blades of desired contour and with cer
that of Fig. 1 and designed for incising a single
line;
tainty that they will have the desired accurate
Fig. 6 is a similar cutter, but designed for con
essary to use any grinding or other operation for
comitantly cutting parallel lines of equal width;
15
Fig. 7 is a plan view of a similar cutter but
having two blades designed concomitantly to out
two lines of different width;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary side elevation partly
in section, illustrating the action of the improved
20 cutter in removing the film from the supporting
glass or Celluloid;
V
'
Fig. 9 is a section to very greatly enlarged scale
substantially on the line 9—-9 of Fig. 8, showing
a preferred shape for the cutting edge of the
25 blade; and
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary plan view, illustrating
the appearance of a photographic negative ruled
by the use of this improved implement.
Referring to the drawing, the numeral i desig
nates va handle or holder designed for securely
holding any one of a set of interchangeable cut
ters.
This handle may be made of any suitable
material such as wood or metal, and is preferably
of generally triangular cross section, as illustrated
‘in Fig. 2, comprising the ?at sides 2, 3 and 4.
Preferably the angles of the triangle are truncated
so as, for example, to form a ?at surface 5 sub
stantially parallel to the surface 2. The holder
is provided at one or both ends with a tool hold
ing chuck of any appropriate type. For example,
the chuck may comprise a pair of spaced parallel
jaws 6 and 1 and a knurled internally screw
threaded collar designed to draw the jaws 6 and
1 toward each other so as to clamp a cutter be
45 tween them. Preferably these jaws 6 and ‘l are
so arranged that when a cutter is mounted in the
handle, the plane of the cutter blade will be sub
stantially perpendicular to the surface 2 of the
handle and if a single blade be employed, the
50 ‘plane of such blade will bisect the angle between
the sides 3 and 4. Such an arrangement permits
the user very readily to determine the proper po
sition of holding the handle, in order that the cut
thickness.
10
By such procedure it becomes unnec
reducing the blades to the ?nal desired thickness.
Preferably, in forming the blade in accordance 15
with the present invention, the corners I5 and 15
of the original substantially rectangular blank
are cut away and the tip end is ?nished to have
a rounded contour, as shown at I‘! thereof. How
ever, this latter feature is not essential. In cut- 20
ting away the corner l6 of the blank the metal is
so removed as to provide a work-engaging surface
,or edge H! which is tangent to the rounded tip
and which preferably makes an included angle
of the order of 32° with the adjacent edge I9 of 25
the blank. A notch 20 is also cut in this same edge
of the blank, such notch preferably being of gen
erally triangular shape having one side 2| making
an angle of approximately 30° with the edge 19 of
the blank and having another side 22 which in
tersects the edge I 9 of the blank at the same
point 23 at which the surface [8 intersects said
edge 19, this line of intersection at the point 23
constituting the cutting edge. Preferably the in
cluded angle between the side 22 of the notch and 355'.
the surface I8, is of the order of 90°. As may be
noted, the cutting away of the corners l5 and N5
of the blank, and the provision of the notch 21],
reduces the end of the blank to a hook-like shape,
the angle between the lines l8 and 22 de?ning the
beak of the hook with the cutting edge 23 at the
tip of the beak.
,
.
Following the above method of procedure ‘the
cutting edge 23 extends transversely across the
entire thickness of the blade, and if it be desired
either initially or during use to sharpen the blade,
it is merely necessary to'deepen the notch 20, in
particular removing material from the side 22 of
the notch without substantially changing the
angle between such side and the work-engaging 50"
surface l8, and without in any way varying the
effective transverse length of the cutting edge 23.
Preferably the corners of the blade at the ends
ting edge of the blade may be truly horizontal or
of the cutting edge are slightly rounded, as in
parallel
to
the
surface
of
the
work.
56
dicated at 24 and 25, respectively, (Fig. 9), such 55
As illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4, the cutter 9 com
rounding or smoothing of these corners prevent
prises three blades l?, I l and I2, disposed in par
ing the tearing or milling of the gelatin ?lm as
allel relation and of the same dimensions. Each
- the cutter is drawn through it. However, it is to
blade comprises a shank’ portion Illa, lla and be understood that this rounding of the corners
I2“, respectively,and these shank portions are
24 and 25 is but little more than a smoothing or 60
held in properly spaced relation by means of in
burr-removing
operation and vthat the radius of
terposed spacer blocks 13 and M. The blocks and
curvature
in
these
corners is very small.
the shank portions of the blades are preferably
After the blade has thus been prepared it may,
permanently united after assembly so as collec~
if desired, be hardened and tempered or other
65 tlvely to form the shank of the three-bladed cut
ter by means of rivets or other types of inserted wise heat treated to make it hard, tough and
wear-resistant. On the other hand, it is contem
fastener, but preferably by spot welding, as indi
plated that the blade may be given a hard wear
cated at l5 (Fig. 3).
Each of the blades, for example the blade i l, as resistant surface, for example by chrome plating,
70 illustrated in detail in Fig. 3, consists of a gener
although in such case it may be necessary to se 70
ally rectangular elongate strip of sheet metal. leot sheet material of such slightly lesser thick
Sheet metal is commercially available in almost ness than that of the ?nished plate as to com
any desired thickness, varying in gauge by thou
pensate for the thickness of the plating. It is
sandths of an inch, so that it is possible to obtain further contemplated that steel of the variety
75 " metal in sheet form of a gauge which corresponds
known as “stainless” steel may be used and prop
2,137,333‘
3
face. 18 of the bladev travels along the work and
erly heat treated to maintain the desired hard
provides a support for the,‘ implement. However,
ness.
‘Whatever method be employed for ‘?nishing - such work-engagingsurface usually engages the
the blade, it is to be understood that after it has ‘support 28 only adjacent to the cutting point,
' thus been ?nished it will be assembled with
usually making an angle of the order of 2° with
others, if several blades are to be used in forming the surface of the support 28. Apparently this is
a single cutter, with the interposedspacers, as
the most effective angle of operation, although
above described, and the several blades then it is to be understood that the tool may be rocked
joined together ‘so as to form a unitary cutter.
slightly ‘in a vertical plane in accordance with
10 It is further contemplated that after such as“ ' the condition of use whereby to obtain the maxi~ 10.
semblage, and union of the blades the cutting,’ mum efficiency under any given set of conditions.
edges of the several associated blades may be
By making ‘an angle of approximately 90° be
simultaneously ground or honed, so that such
tween the surface l8 and the side 22 of the
cutting edges will be in accurate alignment.
notch it becomes substantially impossible to dig
In Fig. 6 a cutter is illustrated comprising but the cutting edge'so deeply into the work as, for 15
two blades Ill and H‘with a spacer l3 interposed .
between them and with filler members l3a and Ma
similar to the spacer but disposed at the outer
sides of the blades Ii] and M, respectively, such
=~filler members being of a. thickness such‘ that
when the blades, the spacer and the ?llers are
assembled, the transverse thickness of the shank
portion of the resultant cutter will be the same
asrthat of the cutter of Fig. 4 so that it may be
25 ?tted into the same chunk as the latter.
In Fig. 5 a cutter with a single blade I l is illus
trated, and in this case ?ller members I31“ and
M0 are shown as disposed at opposite sides of
the shank of this blade, such ?llers being se
30 cured to the blade and being of such thickness
example, to gouge into a support of Celluloid or
the like upon which the gelatin may be mounted.
Since the cutting edge 23 is accurately perpen
dicular to the side face of the ‘blade which comes
in contact with the straight edge, theimplement 20
does not tend to rock so as to produce a wavy
line, and thus it is possible to produce lines which.
are accurately straight even though the cutter ‘I
is operated by hand ‘and merely guided by a
straight edge. Moreover, as already pointed out, 25
since the transverse length of the cutting edge is
a ?xed dimension not subject to change by sharp
ening the tool, it is certain that throughout the
useful life of the blade it will always produce a
line of the same accurate width.
that the assemblage is of the same transverse
width as that of Figs. 4 and 6.
the provision of a holder or handle and a set of
In all of the cutters above described the blades
interchangeable cutters (having shank portions
are of the same thickness so that their cutting
35 edges are all of the same length and would pro
duce lines on the negative of the same width.
30
As already noted, the invention contemplates
of like dimensions) designed to produce any de
sired width or combination of lines, and thus the 35
user, without difficulty and without loss of time,
However, as illustrated in Fig. 7, the cutter may ' 'is enabled to rule the negative in accordance with
be devised so as simultaneously to produce lines
of different width. Thus as shown in this ?gure,
40 the cutters l I and l Ia are of different thicknesses,
a spacer I3 being interposed between them and
?ller members Ma and It)111 being assembled with
the blades and spacer so as to form a cutter
having a shank of the same standard thickness
45
as those previously described and adapted to be
received in the same holder or handle.
Obvious
ly any other desired assemblage of blades of dif
ferent thicknesses and with spacers of different
thicknesses interposed between them may be
made in accordance with the invention.
'50
In using the device, assuming that a cutter
has been mounted in the handle, the user grasps
the handle in such a way that the surface 2 is
uppermost and holds the implement so that its
longitudinal axis preferably makes an angle of
55
approximately 30° with the surface of the nega
tive 2'! which is to be lined. Assuming that the
negative has been placed upon a horizontal sup
port and that a straight edge is available for
60
guiding the cutter, the operator (thus holding
the implement at the angle indicated) brings the
vertical outer face of the cutter blade into con
tact with the straight edge and then, while hold
ing the tool in the inclined position suggested,
draws the tool along the straight edge thereby
65
incising the ?lm of gelatin 2% and removing this
?lm from the support 28 as a narrow chip so as
to leave a clear transparent line upon the nega
tive. When using a duplex cutter such as that
70 of Fig. 6, two closely spaced parallel lines will be
formed simultaneously, as‘indicated at 29 (Fig.
10). On the other hand, when using a cutter
,having a single blade, a single line will be cut
into the negative, as shown at 3B in Fig. 10.
During the operation of the cutter, the sur
75
any predetermined pattern and without the
necessity of resorting to intermediate sharpening
of the tool or other slow, laborious process re
quiring mechanical skill for its proper accom
40
plishment.
While certain desirable embodiments of the
invention have been illustrated by way of ex
ample, it is to be understood that the invention 45
is not necessarily limited thereto, but that all
equivalents are to be regarded as within the pur
view of the invention, as expressed in the ap
pended claims.
I claim:
50
1. A cutter for lining a photographic negative
or the like, comprising an elongate handle, a
holder at the end of the handle, a cutting tool
removably mounted in said holder, said tool com
prising a sheet metal blade having a substan 55
tially uniform thickness so that its opposite faces
are parallel, the blade having an arcuate end
surface and an adjoining edge’ surface constitut
ing a work-engaging surface, the blade having
a second edge surface extending at an angle of 60
the order of 90° to said work-engaging surface
and meeting the same at an intersection line to
afford a cutting edge, said line extending across
substantially the entire width of the blade, said
work-engaging surface extending at an angle of 65
the order of 30° to the direction of extent of said
handle, whereby the tool may be drawn by said
handle over a coated negative with the work-en
gaging surface engaging the face of the nega
tive and said second surface ‘substantially per
pendicular thereto.
70
2. A cutter for lining a photographic negative
or the like, comprising an elongate handle, a
holder at the end of the handle, a cutting tool re
movably mounted in said holder, said tool com 75
4
2,187,333
prising sheet metal .blades with spacers there
between, each of said blades having a substan
tially'uniform thickness so that its iopposite'faces
are ‘parallel, each blade having an arcuate end
surface and an edge surface tangential thereto
constituting a work-engaging surface, each blade
having 1a second ‘edge surface extending at an
angle of the order of 190° to its work-engaging
surface and meeting the same at an intersection
10 line to afford a cutting edge, said line extending
across substantially the entire width of the blade,
said work-engaging surface extending at an
angle ‘of the order of 30° to the direction of ex
tent of said handle, "the intersection ‘lines of the
16 respective blades being aligned with each ‘other,
the work-engaging surfaces’ of the respective
blades lying in ‘portions of a common plane,
whereby the "tool may be drawn by said handle
over a coated negative with the work-engaging
20 surfaces engaging the ‘face ‘of the negative and
the second surfaces of the respective blades be
ing disposed in a plane substantially perpendicu
lar to' the face of the negative.
'3.
cutter for lining a photographic negative
or ‘the like, comprising an elongate handle, ‘a
holder at the end of the handle, a cutting tool
removably mounted in said holder, said tool
comprising a sheet metal blade having a substan
tially uniform thickness so that its opposite faces
are parallel, the blade having an edge surface
at its end which is remote from the handle which
constitutes a work-engaging surface, the blade
having a ‘reentrant portion providing a second
edge surface extending at an angle of the order 10
of 90° to said work-engaging surface and meet
ing the same at an intersection line to afford
a cutting edge, said line extending across sub
stantially the entire width of the blade, said
work-engaging surface extending at an angle of 15
the order of 30° to the direction of extent of said
handle, whereby the tool maybe drawn by said
handle over a coated negative with the work-en
gaging surface engaging the face of the nega
tive from which the coating has been removed
and said second surface substantially perpendicu
lar thereto.
GEORGE H. COLBURN.
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