Патент USA US2137386код для вставки
Nov. 22, 1938. _ K_ CAMPBELL ET AL 2,137,386 CONTROLLABLE ENGINE COWLING Original Filed Oct. 19, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet‘ 1 INVENTORS Kenneth Campbell %,P/IMpBA Téylor: Nov. 22, 1938, K. CAMPBELL ET AL 2,137,386 CONTROLLABLE ENGINE COWLING Original Filed Oct. 19, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS Kennel/7 Campbell “#P/YIWPB. Tbylor Patented Nov. 22, 1938 2,137,386 PATENT OFFICE _‘ UNITED STATES 2,137,386 CONTROLLABLE ENGINE COWLING Kenneth Campbell, Radburn, and Philip E. Tay lor, Upper Montclair, N. J., assignors to Wright Aeronautical Corporation, a corporation of New York Application October 19, 1935,:Serial No. 45,264 Renewed February 19, 1932 " / 8 Claims. (Cl. 223-171) This invention relates to cooling and cowling means for engines, and in certain respects com prises improvements on the co-pending applica tion of Chilton, Serial No. 720,283, ?led April 12, 1934. In that application there is disclosed a disc placed within the cowl entrance to de?ne a radial air entrance to conform to the divergent ?ow existing behind the propeller and to prevent the recirculation and loss of air found to exist with 10 .conventional open entrance cowls. Recent improvements in ?nning and in pres sure-baffles of air-cooled radial aircraft engines. have greatly reduced the pressure differential across the bailies needed for adequate cooling. Previously, when’ this differential got down to a pressure of 5” H2O, or less, as may happen in slow \ ‘speed climb, di?culty was encountered with cool; I ing, but with the cylinder and baffle improvements now available these low pressure differentials are 20 adequate for cooling, thus permitting full throttle climb operation at low airplane speed. In high speed level ?ight, however, the baf?e differentials will increase to 3 ‘or 4 times the ?gure obtained buckles for adjustment having universal pivotal connections 28, 22, with the rim of the disc and the cylinder heads, respectively. These links 26 are oblique relative to the edge of the disc and thus guide the disc for coincidental axial and rotative movement, and the links may generally be de?ned as lying in a plane which bisects the angle between the engine axis and a normal thereto, said plane, in turn, being perpendicular to that plane which includes the engine axis and 10 the normal.‘ In other words, each link lies in a plane which makes substantially a 45° angle with the engine axis. - The rim vof the disc 22 is of similar diameter ' to the entrance 32 defined by the usual inturned 25 portion 32 at the front of the engine cowling ring. The disc 22 is rotated bodily through a link 35 by means of a suitable bellcrank lever ,36 pivoted to a suitable bracket 38 secured to one of the cylinder heads 21?, the lever 36 being also pro a vided with a suitable control rod 22 running to a pilot’s control (not shown). On account of the angular disposition of the links 26, rotation of the in climb. Such high bai?e pressures are no longer cowling by the control 22, results in the disc being 25 necessary for cooling, and they result in an un moved fore and aft to positions wherein the disc necessarily great air ?ow over the cylinders which . edge may be variably spaced from the cowl edge absorbs an unnecessarily great proportion of the 32 to permit of variation in the amount of air ‘engine power. entering within the cowling 32 for engine cooling Accordingly, a prime object of this invention is purposes. The disc 22 is illustrated by full lines, 30 to provide a simple and improved means for ad-. justing the air ?ow, so that the excess quantity passing in high speed ?ight, with conventional cowls, may be reduced so as merely to meet the cooling requirements; whereby the drag of the 35 entire engine-cowling combination is also re duced. Associated objects are to provide im proved and simpli?ed means for effecting the de sired cowl opening control. In the drawings: 40 ‘ Fig. l is a fragmentary axial section of the cowling of the invention, with the engine and propeller indicated in dotted lines; Fig. 2 is a fragmentaryend view; and Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view illustrating 45 the control mechanism. In these drawings, l0 designates a conventional propeller hub having conventional blades I2. A conventional engine nose l4 and cylinders it are indicated in dotted lines. To the engine nose M there is secured a ?xed circular mounting drum l8, provided with (preferably non-metallic) wear ing strips 20 on which a cylindrical hub 22 of a large, slightly coned disc. 24 is free for limited rotation and sliding. The rim of the disc is guided by a plurality of links 26 comprising turn in a forward position giving minimum opening, 30 while the dotted‘ lines 22 of Fig. 1 illustrate the open position to be used in slow' speed ?ight. In -~ operation the pilot will take 011' and climb with the cowl in its most open position and will adjust it towards the closed position for level ?ight, 35 giving reduced air flow with correspondingly re duced power absorption for cooling. The usual cylinder head temperature indication may be used as a guide in adjusting the cowl. The disc is formed to take advantage of the radial air ?ow 40 behind the propeller as taught in said copending application. While we have described our invention in de- , tail in its present preferred embodiment, it will 45 be obvious to those skilled in the art, after un derstanding our invention, that various changes and modi?cations may be made therein without departing from the spirit or scope thereof. We aim in the appended claims to cover all such 50 modi?cations and changes. ’ What is claimed is: 1. The combination with an engine cowl hav- . ing a front entrance opening, of a disc disposed therein, swinging links guiding the rim of said 2 2,137,386 disc for approximately helical movement, and coaxial with said engine, the other ends of said - links being pivoted to the disc edge, means for control means for e?ecting said movement. swinging said disc, on said links, with respect to 2. The combination with an engine, of an em the engine cylinders, and guide means for the bracing cowl having an air‘ entrance, a disc de fining an annular passage within said entrance, central portion of said disc. 7. The combination with a radial cylinder en and links pivotably connecting said disc to said engine for variation in the area of said entrance. gine, of angularly disposed links pivoted to the 3. The combination with an engine cowl, of an ends of certain cylinders, a disc ahead of and adjustable air entrance disc therein, and sup porting and controlling means therefor compris ing swinging links pivotably connected to said coaxial with'said engine, the other ends of said links being pivoted to the disc edge, means for swinging said disc,‘ on said links, with respect to disc and engine. 4. The combination with an engine having a portion of said disc, and a ring cowl encircling nose, of cylindrical supporting drum thereon, a ll disc having a hub engaging said drum for rota tional and sliding movement thereon, a cowl em bracing said disc for de?ning an adjustable an nular air entrance opening between said cowl and disc, manual means for rotating said disc, 20 and means responsive to disc rotation for axially moving said disc. 5. The combination with a radial cylinder en gine, of angularly disposed links pivoted to the ends of certain cylinders, a disc ahead of and 25 coaxial with said engine, the other ends of said links being pivoted to the disc edge, and means for swinging said disc, on said links, with respect to the engine cylinders. 6. The combination with a radial cylinder en gine, oi angularly disposed links pivoted to the ends of certain cylinders, a disc ahead of and the engine cylinders, guide means for the central said disc with the leading edge of which said disc is adapted to form a variable area air entrance opening. 8. In aircraft engine cowling an annular mem her, a disc member movable relative thereto to adjust the area for air?ow between the members, a plurality of circumferentially spaced links each attached. at one end to the aircraft and at its other end to one of said members, said links re spectively lying in planes each of which sub stantially bisects the right angle between the en gine axis and a normal to the engine axis, and control means for moving said disc member, said links imparting both axial and circumferential movement to said disc members upon controlled movement thereof. PHILIP B. TAYLOR. ' KENNETH CAMPBELL.