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Патент USA US2137689

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Nov. 22, 1938.
G. B. KARELITZ'
GOVERNOR-
2,137,689
’
'
Filed June 4, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Fla. 2.
IN VEN TOR.
GEORGE B. Knnzmz \
BY
’
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I
‘ATTORNEY.
Nov. 22, 1938.
v
G. B. KARELITZ
'
2,137,689 '
GOVERNOR
Filed June 4, 1936
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X
INVENTOR.
GEORGE ?KansuTz
BY
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
,_ 2,137,689
UNITED STATES
PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,137,689
GOVERNOR
George B. Karelitz, New York, N. Y.
Application June 4, 1936, Serial No. 83,428
Y 12 Claims.
(Cl. 264—14)
My invention relates to mechanism for con
trolling the blade pitch of an airplane propeller
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of the gov
ernor;
to keep the engine speed constant.
11-11 of Fig. 1;
There are in use at-the present time mechanical
"5 centrifugal governors driven by the engine and
operating through a relay to control the pro
peller blade pitch, the latter being adjusted so
as to keep the engine speed constant; however,
with this arrangement, the centrifugal force is
directly applied to the relay and manual e?ort is
directly exerted on the governor spring to effect
speed changer adjustments. The conditions and
\
Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view taken along th
5
line‘ III-1H of Fig. 2;
Figs. 4 to 8, inclusive, are diagrammatic sec- \
tional views showing different positions of the \
piston and centrifugal valves; and
Fig. 9 shows my improvement as applied to an 10
airplane.
'
Referring ?rst to Fig. 9, there is shown dia
grammatically the cockpit ID of an airplane hav
ing an engine ll driving a propeller, at l2, hav
environment of use necessitate a governor which
shall not require much space.
\
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken along the line
On the other
15 hand, the weights and the spring should develop
, ing blades I3, which may be feathered or turned 15
about their longitudinal axes by means of a ?uid
‘forces adequate to operate the relay. Aside from
the matter of, space, operation of the speed
changer imposes a practical limit on the spring
and, therefore, on the ?yweights. In accordance
20 with the present invention, the governing force
for the relay is supplied by a motor device, which
veloped. Further, the motor device has hy
pressure operated device or cylinder l4 turning
the blades through mechanisms l5. Oil under
pressure ,_is supplied, as is customary, from the
governor or control device l6 through the hollow 20
drive shaft (not shown). This arrangement is
already known in the art and further description
is unnecessary, it being merely required to re
member that increase in pressure turns the blades
in'one direction, for example, to decrease the 25
blade pitch, and decrease in pressure results in
turning thereof in the other direction, for ex
draulic means associated with speed changer so
ample, to increase the blade pitch.
is intimately and dependently related to the
governor, the latter‘functioning somewhat in the
nature of a control device therefor, with the re
sult that the centrifugal governor may be quite
small compared to the controlling effort de
that the manual effort required is greatly reduced.
19 C) A further object of my inventi n
to provide
equipment of this nature having these advan
tageous features of construction and operation.
A further object of my invention is to provide a
motor device rotated by the engine and operating
C: Ll a relay to control the blade pitch, the motor de
vice including an expansible and contractible
chamber whose expansion is resisted by a load
‘
My invention is concerned with improved gov‘
ernor mechanism l6 for furnishing oil under 30
pressure to adjust the blades so as to maintain
the engine speed, the mechanism ‘I6 having a
speed changer shaft I‘! provided with. a lever
l8 connected by a link 19 to a hand lever 20 in
the cockpit. With this arrangement, if the en
gine speed should decrease because of the blade
pitch being too large, then the governor furnishes
increased oil pressure to reduce the blade pitch
until engine speed is restored to normal. If the
spring, together with a ?yweight plunger carried
by the motor device andicontrolling the admis
40 sion and exhaust of ?uid to the chamber, the -
centrifugal force of the weight being“ resisted
‘engine should speed up because of the'blade
pitch being too small, then reduced pressure will
by a spring and a differential pressure force dee
be, impressed on the‘ operating device I4 and the
rived from the chamber pressure cooperating with.
the centrifugal and spring forces to secure equi-_
librium.
A further object of my invention is‘ to provide
blade pitch will be increased until the engine
apparatus, as last indicated, with a piston abut
.ment for the motor device load spring and sub
speed is reduced to normal. _Thus the control
device l6 operates to adjust the propeller to keep
the engine speed constant; and, to change the
. speed of the engine, if it is necessary to operate
ject to chamber pressure so that the‘e?ort ref- ’
quired for speed changing is greatly reduced.
These and other objects are effected by my
invention, as will be apparent from the following
description and claims taken inconnection with
the lever 20 to effect a speed changer adjustment.
The control mechanism l6 includes three es
sential parts, namely, the relay for controlling
the pressure for the pressure-responsive, blade
pitch operating mechanism, a motor device for
operating _the relay and a centrifugal governorv
the accompanying drawings, forming a part of ‘forming a part of the motor device. The relay
this application, in which:
'
includes an engine-driven sleeve or spindle whose
2
2,187,689
upper end is connected to the motor device ar
ranged in a suitable housing.
Referring ?rst to the motor device and gover
nor housing, this is shown at 2|, and it includes a
base portion 22 and a base plate 23 arranged to
?t a standard face plate 24 provided on engines
of the present type, such face plate being pro
vided with pressure and ‘supply ports; and, as
‘shown in Fig. 2, the base 22 is provided with a
10 pair of vertical pressure ports 28 connected by
a cross passage 28 so that one or the other of
said ports 28 may be connected by any suitable
means to the operating cylinder H by a suitably
registering port provided in the face plate. The
15 base 22 is further provided with a supply port 21,
also in registry with a port in the face plate, for
supplying oil under positive pressure to the inlet
of'the gear pump including gears 28 and 28 and
it is discharged from the pump through the pas
20 sage 38 having a pressure relief valve 3|, which
functions to limit the outlet passage pressure, the
valve opening in the usual way to by-pass oil back
to the inlet in case the pressure tends to exceed
25
the value determined by the valve setting.
The control-mechanism l8 includes a hollow
spindle or relay sleeve 33 having a splined end
34 for connection to the usual driving device op
erated by the engine.
‘
The spindle is made hollow to provide the in
30
terior cylindrical bore 35 having operating cyl
inder lower ports 38, intermediate pressure sup
ply ports 31, and an upper inlet port 38. The
ports 38 are connected to the cross passage 28
for the ports 28 and the ports 31 communicate
35 with the chamber 38 of the pump outlet passage.
The port 38 is connected to the recess 48, com
municating with a cylindrical port 4| opening
into the upper end of the bore 35,. the ports 38
and 4|, and the connecting recess 48 therefor,
40 and portions of the bore 35 comprising an inlet
passage for the bellows chamber hereinafter re
ferred to.
The upper end of the hollow spindle 33 has
connected thereto the hollow body 43 of the
45 motor device, the body being provided with a
cap 44 attached-thereby by screws 48. The body
43 has a cuff 48. ' The cuff 48 has a close or drive
?t with respect to the upper end of the spindle
to cover the recess 48, and the lower end 41 of
the out‘!I provides a thrust face bearing on the
hardened steel ring 48 held against rotation by
the pin 49. The telescoping upper end of the
spindle and the cuff are held together by the
pin 88.
55
,
A piston or relay valve 82 in the bore 38 has
a lower piston portion 83 arranged, when in neu
tral position, to cover the operating cylinder
ports 38, downward movement of the piston por
tion placing such ports in communication with
60 the pressure ports 31 and upward movement of
the piston portion, placing them in communica
tion with the drain space including the lower
portion of the bore below the piston portion 83.
The piston valve also has a piston portion 84
65 separating the ports 38 and 4| and a stem 85
joined at its upper end to the hollow stem 58 of
the abutment plate 81 ?xed to the lower end of
a bellows 88, whose upper end is secured to a
?ange ring 88 clamped in place between the body
70 43 and the cap 44, the bellows and the abutment
plate cooperating with the hollow interior of the
body to provide an expansible and contractible
chamber 88.
A load spring 8|, arranged externally of the
75 chamber 88, has its lower end abutting against
the abutment plate 81 and its upper end engaged
by the inverted cap abutment 82.
Fluid under pressure is supplied through the
ports 38 and 4| and their connecting recess 48
and ‘contiguous portions of the bore 38 to act on
the lower abutment or piston face of the abut
me'nt 81 to raise the latter against the force of
the load spring 8|, thereby raising the piston
valve to lower the pressure applied to the operat
ing cylinder. If the pressure in the chamber 88 10
is relieved by the passage 84, then the contrary
operation takes place, the piston valve being
moved down by the load spring to place the op
erating cylinder ports‘ 38 in communication with
the pressure ports 31 to increase the applied
pressure.
If the port 4| is opened and the passage 84 is
closed, the pressure of the bellows chamber 88
increases; if the port and passage are closed,
there is no change in such pressure; and, if the
port is closed and the passage is opened, the bel
lows chamber pressure is reduced. Control of
the port and the passage is effected by a radial
plunger 88, movable outwardly under in?uence of
centrifugal force against the spring 88, whose
force may be varied by adjustment of the nuts
25
81. The inner end portion 88 of the plunger ?ts
a guide opening 88 in the cuff 48 and is alined
with the port 4|, and the inner portion is smaller
than the outer end portion 10, which fits a cy 30
lindrical opening 1| in the body 43 and with
which the passage 84 communicates.
'
vThe outer end portion 18 is recessed at 12 so
that, with retraction of the plunger, fluid can
escape from the chamber 88 through the passage 35
84 and the recesses 12,~the escaping liquid pass
ing through the axial passage 12a and the cross
passage 12!; to the drain space including the lower
portion of the bore 38 of the sleeve 33.
The plunger 88 is of such length and design 40
that, when in neutral position, the inner end just
closes the port 4| and the recess 12 is just closed. ‘
Slight outward movement results in opening of
the portv 4| to increase the bellows chamber
pressure and slight inward movement thereof 45
from neutral opens the recess" to lower such
pressure. Assuming the ports to be in the posi
tional equilibrium shown in Fig.‘ 1, then centrifu
gal force of the plunger 88 is in balance with the
force of the spring 88 and the differential pres 60
sure acting on the smaller and larger end faces
88a and 18a of the smaller and larger plunger
ports 88 and 18, the ports 4| and 12 being sealed,
and the piston valve is in neutral with the piston
portion 83 ‘closing the operating cylinder ports
55
38 from the high-pressure supply and the drain.
Now, assume an increase in engine speed to
occur. The ?yweight plunger 88 moves out, Fig.
4, thereby opening the port 4| to open the inlet
passage to permit the passage of high pressure 60
oil from the high pressure ports 31 to the bellows
chamber 88 to compress the bellows 89 against
the force of the spring 8| raising the piston por
tion 83 to open the operating cylinder ports 38
to drain, whereupon pressure impressed on the 65
operating cylinder is reduced and the latter op-v
erates to increase the blade pitch .of the propeller,
and thereby increase the resisting or load torque
imposed on the engine, causing the latter to vde 70
crease in speed. with slowing down of the en
gine, the plunger 88 moves inward under in?u
ence of the spring and the differential pressure
acting on the plunger piston areas 88a and 18a,
the plunger closing the inlet port 4| and opening
2,137,089
3
the discharge port 12 (Figs. 5 and 6), whereupon
upper end of the load spring 5|. If the hand
the pressure in the bellows chamber is reduced
and the piston valve is moved down to close the
lever 28 is operated to cause the lever 15 to move
down, the spring force is increased and the re
operating cylinder ports 36. The reduced pres
quired bellows pressure for equilibrium is in
creased. On the other hand, if the lever is
moved up, the spring force and the equilibrium
sure in the bellows chamber results in reduction
- of the inwardly-acting differential pressure force
on the plunger, whereby the sum of such force
and the spring force is reduced and centrifugal
force causes outward movement of the plunger 65,
10
Equilibrium is again established when both the
governor ilyweight or plunger 65v and the piston
valve 52 are returned to neutral position, when
the engine speed is the same as before the dis
turbance. Hunting of the apparatus is effectively
15 resisted by the inherent friction of moving parts
and by the bellows pressure acting differentially
on the plunger 65.
-
‘
Assuming the mechanism to be in positional
equilibrium and that the engine slows down be
pressure are reduced.
An increase in spring force causes an increase
in engine speed and vice versa. With the parts
in positional equilibrium, if the lever 15 is moved 10
down, this moves the relay plunger 52 down, as
shown in Fig. 7, placing the operating cylinder
ports 36 in communication with the pressure
ports 31 to increase the pressure applied to the
operating cylinder, causing the latter to de;
crease the pitch of the propeller blades, where
upon the engine speeds up. The governor plung
er 65 then _moves out, increasing the bellows
chamber pressure to raise the piston valve, as
shown in Fig. 8. The engine speed increases 20
the plunger 65 is reduced and the latter moves until the bellows pressure is su?lcient to raise the
piston valve 52 to neutral position. This pres
inward due to the spring 65, opening the dis
charge port 12 and reducing the bellows chambervv sure is, however, applied to the differential pis
ton faces ‘Illa and 68a of the plunger flyweight
pressure. The load spring 6| thereupon moves
the piston valve 52 down to place the operating 65, and positional equilibrium is ‘established at a
cylinder ports 36 in communication with the speed higher than originally, the increased cen
pressure ports 31 and the resulting increased trifugal force of the plunger being neutralized by
pressure causes the operating cylinder to reduce the force of the spring and the increased differ
the angle of‘ attack of the propeller blades and ential force of the bellows chamber pressure
thereby to reduce the resisting torque of the applied to the plunger. If the lever 15 is raised, 30
load, whereupon the engine speeds up and the . the contrary operations occur, the spring force
increase in centrifugal force causes the plunger being reduced, the piston valve rising and re
65 to move out, closing the port 12 and cracking ducing the operating cylinder pressure to in
the port 4| to admit high pressure oil to the crease the propeller blade pitch and consequently
bellows chamber, causing the bellows to contract the resisting torque thereof, whereupon the en
and raise the piston 52 to neutral. Equilibrium gine slows down and the fly'weight plunger 65
moves in to reduce the bellows chamber pres
will again be re-established when both the plung
sure, the parts coming to positional equilibrium
er 65 and the pilot valve 52 are in neutral at
which time the engine speed will be back to at a lower engine speed because of the lower bel
normal. Here again the forces already referred lows pressure required to neutralize the piston 40
valve and the decreased centrifugal force of the
to are e?ective to minimize hunting. plunger required to balance the spring and the
Thus, it will be seen that an increase in re
sisting torque of the load causes the engine to decreased pressure differential.
To reduce the effort required to operate the
slow down, whereupon the governor driven by
the engine operates to reduce the resisting torque speed changer lever, the force of the load spring
6| is largely counteracted by' the bellows cham
so as to restore the engine speed to its normal
value. On the other hand, should the resisting ber pressure, the cover 44 having a passage 79
for conducting oil to the space 80 between the
torque decrease, the engine speeds up and oper
ates the governor to increase the resisting torque cover and the piston type ‘spring abutment 62.
The parts are so constructed and arranged 50
to restore the engine speed to normal.
From the apparatus so far described, it will be that good running balance is secured. For ex
seen that the engine-driven relay sleevé drives ample, the pin 50 is designed to be in substantial
20 cause of increase in load, centrifugal force of
25
30
40
45
50
both the pressure-developing gear pump and the
motor device, the motor device including means
.55 providing an expansible and contractible pres
sure chamber 58 whose expansion is resisted by
the load spring M and also including valve
means .for controlling the supply and exhaust
balance with the plunger flyweight 65. '
From the foregoing, it'will be apparent that I
have provided control mechanism for auto 55
matically changing the propeller blade pitch to
keep the‘ engine speed constant. The mecha
nism comprises a motor device for operating ‘a
relay to control the pressure applied for blade
pitch adjustment, the motor device being ro 60
tated by, the engine ‘and having an expansible
_ in that the governor ?yweight has piston valve
elements at its ends, the remaining features of and contractible chamber, whose expansion is
resisted by a load spring. A flyweight plunger
the governor comprising the spring and differ
ential piston faces at- the ends of the plunger so carried by the motor device controls the admis
65 that a differential pressure forcederived from‘ sion and exhaust of ?uid under pressure to the
chamber pressure may be continuouusly applied, expansible chamber, outward movement of the,
to the plunger in the same direction as the spring plunger under the in?uence of centrifugal force
being opposed by a spring. Also, the ends of
force.
"
of pressure ?uid to the chamber, the valve means
60 constituting an essential part of the governor
Referring now to the speed changer operated
by the lever 20, this embodies a lever ‘I5 in the
housing 2| and connected to the shaft H, the
lever bearing against a plunger 16 mounted in
the guide ‘I'I provided in the cover 44 and the
lower end of .the plunger bearing against the
75 cup piston 52 .forming the abutment for the
the plunger provide piston faces of different
areas continuously subject to chamber pressure 70
so that ‘a differential pressure force may- be ap
plied to the plunger in the same direction as the ‘
spring. As the work of control is done by a
motor device, it will be seen that a very large
controlling force is available, while, at the same 75
4
2,187,689
time, using a very small governor, which really
functions in the nature of a valve for the motor
device, this arrangement being possible because
the ?uid pressure of the motor device is used
directly to-provide a controlling force for the
governor. If the engine changes in speed, the
governor immediately brings about a change in
?uid pressure in the motor device, and the lat
ter results in actuation of the relay to change the
10 blade pitch, whereupon the engine changes in
speed in the other direction, the latter effect
being immediately impressed on the governor.
If the restoration should go too far, then the
device accomplishes the reverse eifect, for the
governor is seeking an equilibrium cut-off posi
tion where the centrifugal force is in balance
with the governor spring force and the differen
tial pressure force, and the blade pitch will be
chamber; and a valve aggregate responsive to '
speed of the engine for controlling said passages;
said valve aggregate including valve means in
terrupting both passages when the engine is run
ning at normal speed, opening one passage and
maintaining the other passage closed with de
crease in engine speed and opening the last
named passage and maintaining the ?rst passage
closed with increase in engine speed; and said
valve aggregate including .a centrifugal weight 10
element movable in response to speed of the en
gine and connected to the valve means, a spring
for opposing the centrifugal force of the weight
element, and differential piston means continu-'
ously subject to expansible chamber pressure so 15
as to apply a differential pressure force to the
element in the same direction as the spring.
changed until the engine can rotate at its normal
speed, at which time the governor will be ‘in
2. In an apparatus for governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, in combina
tion, means providing a source of ?uid under pres 20'
equilibrium. Furthermore, the effort required
for speed changer adjustment is greatly reduced
in that the greater part of the force overcoming
mally occupying a neutral position and movable,
the load spring force is furnished by ?uid pres- v
25 sure supplied from the expansible and contracti
ble chamber, the manual means determining the
position of the load spring abutment and pro
viding whatever additional force may be required
for moving it. '
'
30
While I prefer to have the governor plunger
move out under the in?uence of centrifugal force
to admit ?uid under pressure to the motor de
vice to operate the latterito bring about decrease
in engine speed and to move inward under the
35 in?uence of the spring force and the di?erential
pressure force to effect increase in speed, so far
as the the invention is concerned, the motor de
vice might have other relations of the load spring
and ?uid pressures to eifect its operation respon
sively to prime mover speed for the accomplish
ment of the purpose indicated. Also, while the
di?erential pressure force preferably acts in the
same direction as the governor spring ‘force, the
relation of importance is that the plunger moves
45 due to a condition of unbalance of these forces
and comes to a cut-off position with these forces
in equilibrium. My invention .contemplates,
therefore, any arrangement or relation of the
forces involved in the motor device and in the
governor which brings about modi?cation of the
driven load in such a way as to keep the engine
While I have shown my invention in but one
form, it will be obvious to those skilled in the
55 art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of
various changes and modifications without de
parting from the spirit thereof, and I desire,
therefore, that only such limitations shall be
placed thereupon as are imposed by the prior art
60 or as are speci?cally set forth in the appended
_
What I claim is:
in one or another direction, to utilize the pressure
?uid to effect a control force, a motor device op
eratively connected to the movable "element of 25
the relay and including means providing an ex
pansible and contractible chamber, a load spring
opposing expansion of the chamber, an inlet pas
sage for supplying ?uid from said source to the
chamber, and an outlet passage for said chamber; 30
and a valve aggregate responsive to speed of the
engine for controlling said passages; said valve
aggregate including valve means interrupting
both passages when the engine is running at
normal speed, opening one passage and main
taining the other passage closed with decrease
in engine speed and opening the last-named pes
sage and maintaining the ?rst passage closed with
increase in engine speed; and said valve aggre
gate including a centrifugal weight element mov
able in response to speed of the engine and con
nected to the valve means, a spring for opposing
the centrifugal force of the weight element, and
differential piston means continuously subject to
expansible chamber pressure so as to apply a 45
differential pressure force to the element in the
same direction as the spring.
.
3. In an apparatus for governing the speed of
an‘ engine subject to variable loads, in combina
tion, means providing a source of ?uid under 50
pressure, a relay including a movable element nor
mally occupying a neutral position and movable,
or prime mover speed constant.
claims.
sure, a relay including a movable element nor
.
‘
.
.
1. In an apparatus for governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, in combina
65 tion, means providing a source of ?uid under
pressure, a relay including- a movable element
normally occupying a neutral position and mov
able, in one or another direction, to utilize the
pressure ?uid to effect a control force, a motor
70 device connected to the movable element of the
relay and including means providing an expan
sible and contractible chamber, a load spring_
opposing expansion of the chamber, an inlet
passage for supplying. ?uid from said source to
75 the chamber, and an outlet passage for said
in one or another direction, to utilize the pressure
?uid to effect a control force, a motor device op
eratively connected to the ,movable element of the
relay and including means providing an expan
sible and contractible chamber, a load spring op
posing expansion of the chamber, an inlet pas
5s,
sage for supplying ?uid from said source to the
chamber, and an outlet passage for said chamber; 60
and aradialiy movable plunger having its inner
end arranged to open and close the one passage
and having its outer end arranged to open and
close the other passage; said plunger closing both
passages at normal engine speed, opening said 65
one passage with decrease in speed, and opening
the said other passage with increase in speed, a
spring for opposing outward radial movement of
the plunger; and piston faces provided at the
ends of the plunger and subject continuously to 70
chamber pressure and the area of one face being
greater than thatof the inner.
A
'
4. In‘ an apparatus for governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, in combina
tion, means providing a source of ?uid under pres- 75
5
2,187,089
sure, a relay including a movable element nor
mally occupying a neutral position and movable,
in one or another direction, to utilize the pressure
?uid to e?ect a control force, a motor device con
nected to the movable element of the relay and
including means providing an expansible and
contractible chamber, a load spring opposing ex
pansion o! the chamber, an inlet passage for
supplying ?uid from said source to the chamber,
10 and an outlet passage for said chamber; a valve
chamber, and an outlet passage for said cham
ber; a valve aggregate responsive to speed of the
engine for controlling said passages; said valve
aggregate including valve means interrupting
both passages when the engine is running at nor
mal-speed, opening the inlet passage and main
taining the outlet passage closed with decrease in
engine speed and opening the outlet passage and
maintaining the inlet passage closed with in
crease in engine speed and said valve aggregate 10
aggregate responsive to speed of the engine for _ including a centrifugal weight, element movable
controlling said passages; said valve aggregate in response to speed of the engine and connected
including valve means interrupting both passages to the valve means; a spring for opposing the
when the engine is running at normalspeed, open
centrifugal force of the weight element; differ
15 ing the inlet passage and maintaining the outlet ential piston means continuously subject to ex
passage closed with decrease in engine speed and pansible chamber pressure so as to ‘apply a dif
opening the outlet passage and maintaining the ferential pressure force to the element in the same
inlet passage closed with increase in engine speed direction as the spring; and speed-changing
and said valve aggregate including a centrifugal
20 weight element movable in response to speed of
the engine and connected to the valve means;
a spring for opposing the centrifugal force of the
weight element; differential piston means con
tinuously subject to expansible chamber pressure
25 so as to apply a di?erential pressure force to the
element in the same direction as the spring; and
speed changing means including a movable abut
ment engaging the load spring and means for
adjusting the abutment.
30
'
'
'
5. In an apparatusfor governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, in combina
tion, means providing a source of ?uid under
pressure, a relay including a movable element
normally occupying a neutral position and mova
35 ble, in one or another direction, to utilize the
Pressure ?uid to e?fect a control force, a motor
device connected to the movable element of the
relay and including means providing an expansi
ble and contractible chamber, a load spring op
40 posing expansion of the chamber, an inlet pas
sage ior supplying ?uid from said source to the
chamber, and an outlet passage for said cham
ber; a valve aggregate responsive to speed of the
engine for controlling said passages; said valve
aggregate including valve means interrupting
both passages when the, engine is running at
normal speed, opening the inlet passage and
maintaining the outlet passage closed with de
crease in engine speed and opening the outlet‘
passage and maintaining the inlet passage closed
means including a piston abutment engaging the
load spring, said motor device including a sec 20
ond expansible and contractible chamber closed
by said piston abutment, a passage formed in said
motor device and a?ording communication be
tween the chambers, and manually-operated
means engaging the piston abutment for con 25
trolling the position and for supplying whatever
extra ‘force may be required to effect its move
ment.
,
,
7. In an apparatus for governing the speed of an
engine subject to variable loads, in combination,
means providing a source of ?uid under pres
sure; a drain space into which said ?uid may be
discharged, a relay- including a hollow stem driven
by the engine and a piston valve therein, said
stem having a pressure port in communication 35
with the drain space, a second port arranged be
low the pressure port for discharge of the pres
sure ?uid externally oi‘ the apparatus, a pair of
spaced ports arranged above the pressure port
and connected by a passage formed in the stem, 40
the uppermost port of said pair being radial;
said piston valve including spaced lower and
upper piston portions, the lower piston portion
normally covering said second port and movable
' to place the latter either in communication with 45
the pressure port or with the lower drain portion
of the stem and the upper piston portion separat
ing the ports 0! said pair; a hollow body con
nected to the upper end of the stem; a bellows
within the body and having one end movable 50
with increase in engine speed and said valve ag , and cooperating with body interior to provide
gregate including a centrifugal weight element an expansible and contractible chamber; the
movable in response to speed of the engine ‘and movable end of the bellows being connected to
connected to the valve means; a spring for op
the piston valve; the upper end of said stem and
55 posing the centrifugal force of the weight ele
ment; di?erential piston means continuously sub
ject to expansible chamber pressure so as to ap
ply a differential pressure force to theelement in
the same direction as the spring; and speed
, changing means including a movable abutment
engaging the load springand means providing
for utilization of ?uid pressure under chamber
pressure to adjust the abutment.
6. In an apparatus for governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, in combina
tion, means providing a source of ?uid under
pressure, a relay including a movable element
normally occupying a neutral position and mov
able, in one or another direction, to utilize the
70 pressure ?uid to e?ect a control force, a motor
device connected to the movable element of the
relay and including means providing an expansi
ble and contractible chamber, a load spring op
posing expansion of the chamber, an inlet pas
75 sage ior, supplying ?uid from said source to
the upper pair of ports and their connecting pas
55'
sage providing an inlet passage for the chamber;
said body having an outlet passage for said cham
ber; a radial plunger carried by the body and
having its inner end formed to ?t the uppermost
radial port to open and close the latter and hav 60
ing its outer end arranged to open and close the
outlet passage; said plunger, at normal engine
speed, having its inner end covering the radial
port and having its outer end interrupting the
outlet passage and movable outwardly, due to 65
increase in engine speed, to uncover the radial
port, and, inwardly, due to decrease in engine
speed, to open said outlet passage; and a spring
arranged so that its force opposes the centrifugal
force of the plunger; said plunger having inner 70
and outer piston i'aces continuously subject to
chamber pressure and the other face being of
larger area so that a di?erential pressure force
is applied to the plunger and acting in the same
direction as the spring.
75
6
2,137,689
8. In an apparatus for governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, in combina
tion, a source of ?uid under pressure; means pro
viding a drain space; a relay affording discharge
' 5 of the pressure ?uid externallyof the apparatus
or into the drain space and providing also for in
terrupting entirely said discharge of the pressure
?uid; said relay including a sleeve driven by the
10
15
20
25
30
that it may close both passages or open either;
normally covering said lower port and movable
either; a spring for resisting outward movement
to place the latter either in communication with
of the plunger due to_ centrifugal force; and
the pressure port or the drain space; a motor de
vice including a hollow body connected to the
upper end of the sleeve and including a bellows 4,0
means utilizing chamber pressure to apply a dif
40 ferential pressure force to the plunger in the
same direction as the spring and including piston
faces at the ends of plunger, the outer face being
larger than the inner, and portions of the inlet
and outlet passages being constructed and ar
45 ranged so that chamber pressure is continuously
applied to such faces.
-
’
9. In an apparatus for governing the speed of
an engine subject to variable loads, ‘in combina
tion, a source of ?uid under pressure; means pro
50 ,viding a drain space; a relay a?ording discharge
of the pressure ?uid externally of the apparatus
or into the drain space andv providing also for in
terrupting-entirely said discharge of the pressure
?uid; said relay including a sleeve driven by the
55 engine and a piston valve in the sleeve and said
sleeve having a lower port leading externally of
the apparatus and a port disposed thereabove and 1
communicating with the pressure source, the in
terior of said sleeve below the lower port con
‘ 60 stituting a part of said drain space; said piston'
cooperating with the interior of the body to pro
vide an expansible and contractible chamber, a
load spring cooperating with the bellows and re
sisting expansion of the chamber, an inlet pas
sage including a radial port formed in the sleeve 45
for supplying ?uid under pressure to the cham
ber, an outlet passage formed in the body for dis
charging ?uid from the chamber; means for
transmitting movement of the bellows to the pilot
valve; a plunger carried by the body and guided 50' '
for radial movement by the latter; said plunger
having its inner end cooperating with said .radial
port to open and close the inlet passage and hav
ing its outer end cooperating with the outlet
passage to open and close the latter and the 5 $1
plunger having such length that it may close both
passages or open either; a spring for resisting
outward movement of the plunger due to’ cen
valve having a piston portion normally covering
said lower port and movable to place the- latter
either in communication with the pressure port
trifugal force; means utilizing chamber pressure
to apply a differential pressure force to the 60
plunger in the same direction as the spring and
including piston faces at the ends of plunger,
‘the outer face being larger than the inner, and
or the drain space; a motordevice including a
portions of the inlet and outlet passages being ,
65 hollow body connected to the upper end of the
sleeve and including a bellows cooperating with
the interior of thebody to provide an'expansible‘
and contractible chamber, a load spring cooperat
ing with the bellows and resisting expansion of
70 the chamber, an inlet passage including a radial
port formed in the sleeve for supplying ?uid un
'
the latter; said plunger having its inner end 00
operating with said radial port to open and close
the inlet passage and having its outer end cooper
ating with the outlet passage to open and close 5
the latter and the plunger having such length
a spring for resisting outward movement of the
engine and a piston valve in the sleeve and said plunger due to centrifugal force; means utilizing
sleeve having a lower port leading externally of chamber pressure to apply a di?erential pressure 10
the apparatus and a port disposed thereabove and force to the plunger in the same direction as the
communicating with the pressure source, the in . spring and including piston faces at the ends of
terior of said sleeve below the lower port con
plunger, the outer face being larger than the in
stituting a part of said drain space; said piston ner, and portions of the inlet and outlet passages
valve having a piston portion normally cover
being constructed and arranged so that chamber
ing said lower port and movable to place the pressure is continuously applied to such faces;
latter either in communication with the pressure and speed-changer mechanism including a mov
port or the drain space; a motor device including able abutment for the end of the spring opposite
a hollow body connected to the upper end of the to that engaging the bellows and means for
sleeve and including a bellows cooperating with adjusting the position of the abutment.
20
the interior of the body to provide an expansible
10. In an apparatus for governing the speed
and contractible chamber, va load spring cooper
of an engine subject to variable loads, in com
ating with the bellows and resisting expansion bination, a source of ?uid under pressure; means
of the chamber, an inlet passage including a providing a drain space; a relay affording dis
radial port formed in the. sleeve for supplying charge of the pressure ?uid externally of the 25
?uid under pressure to the chamber, an outlet apparatus or into the drain space and providing
passage formedin the body for discharging ?uid also for interrupting entirely said discharge of
from the chamber; means for transmitting move
the pressure ‘?uid; said relay including a sleevev
ment of the bellows to the pilot valve; a plunger driven by the engine and a piston valve in the
carried by the body and guided for radial move
sleeve and said sleeve having a lower port lead- 30
ment by the latter; said plunger having its inner ing externally of the apparatus and a port dis
end cooperating with said radial port to open posed thereabove and communicating with the
and close the inlet passage and having its outer pressure source, the interior of said sleeve below
end cooperating with the outlet passage to open the lower port constituting a part of said-drain
and close the latter and the plunger having such » space; said piston valve having a piston portion 35
35
~ length that it may close both passages or open
'
by the body and guided for radial movement by
der pressure to the chamber, an outlet passage
formed in the body for discharging ?uid from the
chamber; means for transmitting movement of‘
‘75 the bellows to the pilot valve; a plunger carried
constructed and arranged so that chamber pres- 65
sure~ is continuously applied to such faces; and
speed-changer mechanism including a movable
abutment engaging the load spring, said abut
ment being of smaller area than the bellows, and
means for adjusting the position of the abut- 70 -
ment including means for- applying ?uid under
chamber pressure thereto. ,
>
11. In an apparatus for governing the speed
of an engine subject to variable loads, in com
bination, a source of ?uid under pressure; means 75
‘7
2,137,689
providing a_ drain space; a relay affording dis
charge of the pressure ?uid externally of the
apparatus or into the drain space and providing
also for interrupting entirely said discharge of
thepressure ?uid; said relay including a sleeve
driven by the engine and a piston valve in the
sleeve and said sleeve having a lower port leading
externally of the apparatus and a port disposed
thereabove and communicating with the pressure
10 source, the interior of said sleeve below the lower
port constituting a part of said drain space; said
piston valve having a piston portion normally
covering said lower port and'movable to place the
latter either in communication with the pressure
15 port or the drainspace; a motor device including
a hollow body connected to the upper end of the
sleeve and including a bellows cooperating with
the interior of the body to provide an expansible
abutment and provided with a passage affording
communication between both chambers, and
manually-operated means engaging the piston
abutment to position the latter and supply what- ‘
ever additional force is required to effect its
movement.
'
'
12. In an apparatus for governing the speed '
of a prime mover driving a load whose resisting
torque may be varied by pressure-responsive
means, in' combination, a governor ,mechanism 10
for supplying ?uid under variable pressure to
e?’ect a control force, said governor ‘mechanism
including a chamber; a movable abutment in
the chamber and de?ning an expansible and con
tractible ?uid-pressure chamber; biasing means ‘
exerting its force on the abutment in opposition
to expansion of the expansible chamber; a valve
chamber having a port connected to the pres
and contractible chamber, a load spring cooper
20 ating with the bellows and resisting expansion of
the chamber, an inlet passage including a radial
port formed in the sleeve for supplying ?uidun
sure-responsive means, a drain passage, and a
der pressure to the chamber, an outlet passage
for placing the pressurefresponsive means port
in communication with the pressure supply port
formed in the body for discharging ?uid from the
chamber; means for transmitting movement of
the bellows to the pilot valve; a plunger carried
by the body and guided for radial movement by
pressure supply port; means for supplying ?uid 20
under pressure to the supply port; a valve in the
valve chamber and connected to the» abutment
or with the drain or, for interrupting such com-'
munication; a passage for supplying ?uid from
the supply means to said ?uid-pressure chamber
the latter; said plunger having its inner end co
to act on the abutment in opposition to the
operating with said radial port to open andclose biasing means; an exhaust passage for said ?uid
30 the inlet passage and having its outer ‘end co
pressure chamber; and speed-responsive means 30
operating with' the outlet passage to open and operated by theprime mover and effective to
close the latter and the plunger having such close both of said passages at normal prime mov
length‘ that it may close both passages or open er- speed and effective to open one passage with
either; a spring for resisting outward movement a decrease in speed and to open the other passage
35 of the plunger due to centrifugal force, means 'with an increase in speed in order to effect move
utilizing chamber pressure to apply a differential ment of the abutment and the valve to alter the
pressure force to the plunger in the same direc
pressure supplied to the pressure responsive
tion as the spring and including piston faces at means to change the resisting torque of the load
the ends of plunger, the outer face being larger in order to restore the prime mover‘to normal 40 than the inner, and portions of the inlet and out
speed; said speed-responsive means including a 40
let passages being constructed and arranged so ?yweight element, a spring opposing centrifugal
that chamber pressure is continuously applied force of the ?yweight element, and means for
to such faces; and speed-changer mechanism deriving a differential pressure force from said
including a movable piston" abutment of smaller chamber pressure and for applying it to the?y
45 area than that of the bellows engaging the load weight element in the same direction as the
spring, said hollow body having a second expansi
spring.
@
ble and contractible chamber closed by the piston
GEORGE B. KARELITZ; '
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