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Патент USA US2137698

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Nov. 22, 1938.
R. c. PIERCE
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2,137,698
MANUFACTURE OF RESILIENT SPRINGS
Filed April 17, I1936
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Nov. 22, 1938,
RQ c. PIERCE
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2,137,698
MANUFACTURE OF RESILIENT SPRINGS
Filed April 17, A1956
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2,137,698
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,137,698
MANUFACTURE 0F RESILIENT SPRINGS
Robert C. Pierce, Niles, Mich., assignor to Na
tional Standard Company, Niles, Mich., a cor
poration of Michigan
Application April 17, 1936, Serial `No. 74,844
11 Claims.
L)
This invention relates to resilient springs and
their manufacture, and is illustrated in connec
tion with the manufacture of a resilient spring
from an open-mesh braid of steel Wire.
The novel spring, manufactured as herein de
scribed, consists of an open-mesh braid of steel
-wires passing alternately over and under each
other diagonally across the braid and formed
with spring reverse bends at the edges of the
(Cl. 140-91)
illustrative constructions shown in the accom
panying drawings, in which:
Figure l is a side elevation of a braid-spreading
machine, partly broken away to show parts which
would otherwise be hidden;
Figure 2 is a top plan View thereof;
braid, the resilience of the entire spring being
the sum total of the resilience of all of these
bends.
Preferably the braid is made of high
carbon (e. g. .65% or above) cold-drawn steel
wire, although very good results can also be ob
tained by using wire above .45% or .59% carbon
and heating it and quenching in oil, to temper
it, after the spreading operation described below.
Preferably the material used is standard wire
braid, and the open-mesh construction is in that
20 case secured by running the braid through a
novel machine having means, such as two sets
of differentially driven rolls, for spreading the
braid widthwise. The faster-driven rolls engage
the braid ñrst, and cause it to spread width
25 wise in shortening itself sufficiently to pass be
tween the slower rolls. Means, such as spaced
parallel plates between which the braid passes
from the faster to the slower rolls, prevents
buckling during the spreading operation.
p
For some purposes it is desirable to have the
l30
spring in relatively short sections, with the ends
of the sections in the compact form of the origi
nal unspread braid. To this end, the machine
may be provided with means for periodically
spreading
the second set of rolls apart, thereby
35
interrupting the spreading action. This leaves
unspread portions, through which the braid is
afterwards cut.
l
l
The second set of rolls is under heavy spring
pressure, to compress beyond the elastic limit
of the steel the bends in the wire at the edges
of the braid, to “set” them permanently and
thereby transform them into a series of little
separate springs acting cumulatively.
vIf the
45 pressure is to be heavy enough to make it desir
able, the second set of rolls may either be made
with the surface of one sufñciently yieldable to
insure pressure directly on the bends in the wire,
or one roll may have the part engaging the body
50 of the braid slightly smaller in diameter than
the parts acting on the edges of the braid.
The above and other objects and features of
the invention, including various novel construc '
tions and desirable particular arrangements, will
be apparent from the following description of the
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a similar ma
chine provided With means for periodically inter
rupting the spreading action;
Figure 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Figure 3,
showing the guide plates preventing buckling of
the braid;
Figure 5 is an exaggerated plan View of the
braid as it passes through the machine;
Figure 6 is a diagram showing the braid of Fig 15
ure 5 in side elevation, withthe positions of the
rolls indicated;
Figure 'l is an elevation showing the braid-en
gaging parts of the second set of rolls when suf
ñcient pressure is to be applied to necessitate 20
larger roll diameters at the edges of the braid
than across the body of the braid;
Figure 8, 9, and 10 are sections showing before
compression, from different points of view, one of
the reverse bends of the wire at one edge of the 25
braid; and
f
Figures 11, 12, and 13 are similar views showing
the bend after compression.
Y
‘ The material which I prefer to use, in the man
ner described below, is a ñat braid I0 of wires 30
Ywhich pass alternately over and under each other
diagonally across the braid, with reverse bends
at the edges, all of the wires extending for the
full length of the braid. Preferably the wires are
of cold-drawn high carbon steel, for example
.65% carbon steel, which can be “set” in the de
sired spring formation by compressing the bends
at the edges of the spread braid beyond the
elastic limit of the steel, without further treat
40
ment of the steel.
However, good results can also be obtained by
using a steel of .45% or .50% (or higher) carbon,
and tempering it after it leaves the spreading
machine, by heating it and then quenching in oil.
The braid is fed between a ñrst or feeding pair 45
of rolls I2 and I4, then between parallel spaced
guide plates I6 which guard against buckling,
and then between a second or pressure set of rolls
I8 and 20 which are driven more slowly than the
rolls I2 and I4. The rolls I2 and I4 are drivably .50
interconnected by gears 22, and the rolls I8 and
20 by gears 24.
The ñrst set of rolls is driven by means such as
a sprocket chain 26 passing over a sprocket 28 on
the end of one of the rolls, and the second set
2
2,137,698
is driven by a sprocket chain 30 passing over a
sprocket 32 on the end of one of those rolls. The
sprocket chains 26 and 30 are driven in any de
sired manner, preferably by means operated by an
electric motor (not shown).
Where it is desired periodicallyy to interrupt the
spreading action, the modification of Figure 3
may be used. In this figure all parts correspond
ing to parts in Figure 1 are indicated by the same
reference characters increased by 100.
,
In this modified machine, the rolls H8 and |20
are normally urged together by heavy springs 40
acting on pivoted levers 412 carrying the roll Il8.
Periodically a cam 44, driven by suitable gearing
15 46 interconnected to be driven synchronously with
the gearing for the rolls l2-I4-I8-20, rocks a
lever 48 on a shaft 50 having ñxed thereon arms
connected by links 52 to the levers 42. This rocks
the roll H8 periodically away from roll |20, to
have unspread sections 54, through which the
braid is afterwards cut.
As shown on an exaggerated scale in Figures 5
and 6, the braid is spread widthwise slightly wider
than its final width, and heavily compressed while
held so spread. As illustrated in Figures 8-10
showing a reverse bend at one edge of the braid
before compression, and Figures 11-13 showing
the same after compression, these bends are com
pressed beyond the elastic limit of the steel, and
30 form a series of little wire springs whose cumula
tive total forms the entire spring. After leaving
Ihe rolls I8-2ll, the braid contracts slightly width
wise, as exaggerated in Figure 5, to its final width.
If desired, one or both of the rolls |8-2û may
be faced with material, such as vulcanized rub
ber, which will yield sufficiently where the braid
wires cross each other to insure that the edge
wires are adequately compressed.
Or, if preferred, one or both rolls may be of
40 two diameters, as shown for rolls 2 |8-220 in
Figure 7, so that for the body of the braid they
are spaced apart a distance equal to the diam
eter of two wires While at the edges they are
spaced apart a distance equal to the diameter of
a single Wire.
Finally, if cold drawn spring wire has not been
used, the braid is tempered by heating and
quenching in oil.
An expanded braid spring as described above
50 may be used to form slats for Venetian blinds
and is particularly useful in the manufacture of
furniture to form a support for the vseats of chairs
and the like. It is also adapted for use in a great
many other places where a certain amount of
55 elasticity in tension is desirable.
While illustrative machines have been de
scribed in detail, it is not my intention toI limit
the scope of the invention by that description, or
otherwise than by the terms of the appended
60 claims. This application is in part a continua
tion of my application No. 41,199, ñled September
19, 1935.
The article and method disclosed herein are
claimed in application No. 232,265, filed Sept. 29,
65 1938.
I claim:
l. Apparatus for use in making Venetian blinds
or the like comprising means for feeding a braid
of wires each of which extends continuously from
one end of the braid to theA other and which passes
alternately over and under each other and which
are formed in reverse bends at the edges of the
braid, and means for spreading the wires of the
braid fed thereby to form relatively large spaces
75 between them and- means to'give a permanent set
to said bends when the Wires are spread whereby
the wires will remain spread.
2. Apparatus of the class described compris
ing a pair of driven rollers for feeding a ñat braid
of Wires each of which extends continuously from
one end of the braid to the other and which passes
alternately over and under each other and which
are formed in reverse bends at the edges of the
braid, a pair of rollers driven more slowly than
the ñrst rollers and spaced therefrom and be
tween which the braid passes, and parallel plates
on opposite sides of the braid between the two
pairs of rollers preventing crosswise buckling of
the braid and insuring that the difference in speed
of the two pairs of rollers will cause widthwise
expansion of the braid, said second named rollers
being constructed and arranged to give a perma
nent set to said bends when the braid is expanded
widthwise.
3. Apparatus of the class described comprising 20
means for progressively spreading widthwise a
wire braid, and means for periodically interrupt
ing the spreading action of the spreading means.
4. Apparatus of the class described comprising
differentially-driven sets of rolls for progressively 25
spreading widthwise a Wire braid, and means for
periodically separating the rolls of one set to inter
rupt the spreading action of said rolls.
5. Apparatus of the class described comprising
differentially-driven sets of rolls for progressively 30
spreading widthwise a wire braid, means between
said sets for preventing buckling of the braid, and
means for periodically separating the rolls of one
set to interrupt the spreading action of said rolls.
6. Apparatus of the class described comprising '
differentially-driven sets of rolls for progressively
spreading widthwise a wire braid, parallel spaced
guide plates between said sets for preventing
buckling of the braid, and means Vfor periodically
separating the rolls of one set to interrupt the 40
spreading action of said rolls.
7. Apparatus of the class described comprising
differentially-driven sets of rolls of which the
Yfirst set is driven faster than the second and which
are constructed and arranged to spread widthwise
a wire braid the rollers of the second set being
spaced apart a smaller distance adjacent their
edges than at their center portion to engage a
single thickness of Wire at the edges of the braid
-with suiìcient pressure to give it a permanent
set.
8. Apparatus of the class described compris
ing differentially-driven sets of rolls of which
lthe first set is driven faster than the second and
which are constructed and arranged to spread ;
widthwise a wire braid the rollers of the second
set being spaced apart a- smaller distance ad
jacent their edges than at their center portion
to engage a single thickness of wire at the edges
of the braid with sufficient pressure to give it a
permanent set, and means between said sets for
preventing buckling of the braid.
9. Apparatus of the class described compris
ing diiîerentially-driven sets of rolls- of which the
first set is driven faster than the second and
which are constructed and arranged to spread
widthwise a wire braid consisting of wires each
extending diagonally back and forth across the
braid and over and under the other wires and
having at the edges of the braid bends which are 70
inclined to the plane of the braid., the first set of
rolls gripping the braid sufficiently to force it to
spread widthwise as the slower second set of rolls
holds the braid back but which do not substan
tially affect said bends inv the wires at the edges 76
2,137,698
3
of the braid, in combination with means for apply
ing suiiicient pressure to the rolls of the second set
to “set” said bends in the Wire at the edges of the
spread braid so that the spread braid forms a
resilient spring.
1G. Apparatus of the class described compris
ing means for forming an open-mesh braid of
wires each of which extends continuously from
ing means for forming an open-mesh braid oi
wires each of which extends continuously from
one end of the braid to the other and which pass
alternately over and under each other and which
one end of the braid to the other and which pass
alternately over and under each other and which
nently to “set” said bends and form a resilient
spring of said braid, said compressing means in 10
cluding rolls spaced apart a distance equal to the
diameters of two wires throughout most of the
Width of the braid, and spaced apart a distance
equal to the diameter of a single wire at the edges
of the braid.
ROBERT C. PIERCE.
are formed in reverse bends at the edges of the
braid and which are formed with relatively large
open spaces between the wires, and means for
compressing said braid heavily enough perma
nently to “set” said bends and form a resilient
spring of said braid.
11. Apparatus of the class described compris
are formed in reverse bends at the edges of the
braid and which are formed with relatively large
open spaces between the wires, and means .for
compressing said braid heavily enough perma
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