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Nov. 22, 1938. - ~ c. .=_ 5m > 2,137,730 ENGINE Filed Aug‘. 16, 1937 Sheets-Sheet 1 Nox'r. 22, 1938. c. F‘ SMITH 2,137,730 ENGiNE “ Filed Aug. 16, 1937 0 27 6.5 s Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 22, 1938. 2,137,730 C. F, SMITH ‘ ENGINE Filed Aug. 16, 19's? \\ \ \ \ 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 \\’\\ \ \ \\\ \\\! I ‘ Nov. 22,’ 1938. Q .=_ SMITH 2,137,730’ ENGINE Filed Aug. '16, 19:7 v m» ' 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 Nov. 22, 1938. c‘ F. SMITH 2,137,730 ENGINE Filed‘ Aug. 16, 19:57 a Sheets-Sheet 5 ‘Nov. 22, 1938. c. F. SMITH 2,137,730 ENGINE ‘ Filed Aug. 16, 19:57 a Sheets-Sheet e o ' W ‘i,’ ‘a § \K . g § . ‘a \ \b \‘e‘ \Q @1149 ‘Q w R‘ s . o 4 .Z/T/é/vro/c; é/f'ro/r? 07/717” . " I Nbv. 22, 1938. c. F. SMITH ‘ 2,137,730 ENGINE Filed Aug. '16, 1957 ,8 Sheets-Sheet '7 NOV. 22, 1938. c’ F_ SMITH 2,137,730 ENGINE Filed Aug. 16, 1957 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 ‘Patented Nov. 22, 1938. ; _ ‘j 2,137,730 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ' ' 2,137,730 Clifton F. srfiltqlfllifmphis, Tenn. ' Application August 16, 1937, Serial No. 159,206 9 Claims. (01. 121-117) This invention relates to reciprocating engines employing a plurality of cylinders and pistons, the impulses for which pistons maybe furnished either by steam from an external source, or by 1. internal combustion. ‘ ' . ' The present vembodiment, which is especially adapted for aeronautical purposes, has been con?ned, both in the drawings and the speci?cations, to an internal combustion engine. It will be ;a distinctly’ understood, however, that the con- Fig. 8 is an elevation looking in the direction of the arrow VIII of Fig. 6. Figs. 9 to 16, inclusive, are diagrammatical views showing the sequence of movements of the various parts of the engine shown in Figs. 1 to 5, 5 inclusive, a single cylinder, a single piston, and a single piston rod having been substituted for the pairs of cylinders, Piston and Piston rods of 'Figs- 1 t0 5‘ Figs-17 to 21,1nc1usive. show diagrammatically 10‘ struction outlined in a number of the claims is as readily applicable to a steam engine and is the Sequence of movements of the Various Parts 01’ the type of engine Shown in Figs- 6 t0 8, in intended to be so construed. It primarily relates to an engine construction i in which the stroke is relatively long as compared clusive, single pistons, cylinders and piston rods having been Substituted f0!‘ Pairs 88 in F188- 9 to 16- II with the bore of the cylinder and to the means by Which the transfer of power impulses of the pigton to the crank shaft is accomplished_ The primary object of the invention is to provide an engine which is simple in construction, durable, light in weight and capable of pmduc_ ing maximum power with minimum vibration A further object is to provide novel means in a long stroke cylinder construction for transferring the power-impulses of the (gyhnders to a crank shaft, and to provide such a means which Referring now to the drawings, and particular-' iv to Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, l0, II are a pair of opposed cylinders having a common longitudinal‘ axis. i2, 13 are a second pair of cylinders having also a common axis, these four cylinders being In connected to a crank case M and constituting one group of cylinders. I6, I‘! and I8 are three of the four cylinders of a similar group of cylinders Spaced laterally from the ?rst group and con‘ ‘ nected to the same crank case I 4 which, how- 25 ever, is shown in two parts, the longitudinal axes is adaptable to a multiple cylinder construction. The means by which the foregoing and other objects are accomplished and the method . of b their accomplishment will readily be understood from the following speci?cations on reference to the accompanying drawings, in wmch__ Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation at right angles .to the crank shaft taken on the line I_,_I of Figs_ 5; 3 and 4, and along the longitudinal center line of one group of the cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine, in which all the cylinders are paraneL Fm 2 1s a sectional elevation taken along the nne n__n of Figs 3 and 4 and exterior to the same group‘ of cylinders‘ .1318. 3 a sectional taken along the line of‘ the eight cylinders being parallel- The 0y!‘ inders ill to I13, inclusive, are respectively pro vided with pistons '9' 2°’ 2' and 22- these Pistons having the usual ‘Piston rings 23- Cynnders' I‘ to is’ inclusive’ and the unshown cylinder’ are similarly provided with pistons, none of which are Shown’ but which are identical in construe‘ tion and action with pistons I 9 to 20, inclusive. Piston l9 and 20 are connected together by a‘ rigid plsifon rod 2‘ and pistons 2' and 22 by a similar piston rod 25.- 26 is a block, preferably in two halves, in which ‘a transcommuter-link pin 28 of a connecting rod, or transcommuter link 29, is journalled.‘ 30 are bolts securing the piston 40 rOdS and to the and securing the - III-I11 of Fig. 1. . o ‘ halves of the block together to complete the link Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation taken on the line IV--IV of Figs. 1, 2 and 3,_being along the crank ' shaft. ' Din bearing- At its Opposite end the link has a ‘bearing 3| which journals a crank pin 32. h 33 is a crank disk which carries the crank pin“ and 45 Fig. 5'is an enlarged sectional elevation taken as on the line V-V of Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is a sectional elevation of a modi?ed is integral with, or securely ?xed on, a crank shaft 34. The shaft 34 is journalled in a bearing 35, carried by one head 36 of the crankcase M. 50 form of the engine in which‘ two groups of cylinders are assembled with their longitudinal, axes‘ at right angles, the view being taken as on line The transcommuter pin 28 projects through the block 26 and has secured to its projecting. end a transcommuter arm 31. The arm 31 is VI-VI of Fig.‘ 7. - positioned parallel‘to the transcommuter link 29 > ‘ a I / - Fig. ‘Tie a sectional elevation on an enlarg scale taken as on the line VII-VH'o'f Fig. 6. and constrained to remain in such position, as by a key 38. 39 is a transcommuter arm pin - I 2,187,780 projecting transversely from the transcommuter others of the cam 33 than those engaged by the arm 31 at its opposite end. levers IOI. ' The effective length of the transcommuter link 23 is identical with the crank pin radius and the effective length of the transcommuter arm 31 is double each of these. The second group construction duplicates the ?rst group, 50, 5| being the piston rods of the second group of cylinders. 52 is the journal upward on opposite sides of the cams 30. Each of the levers is connected by a link I I 0, a rod 1 I I, which passes out of the housing 95 through a stuffing box II 2, and by a ?exible cable II3 to a rocker arm II4, which operatively engages the block; 53 the transcommuter link pin; 55 the end of a valve stem II5, a similar cable and 10 _ I06 and I01 are additional pivot pins from which similar pairs of levers, I03, I03,‘ extend transcommuter link; 55 the crank disk; 55 the rocker arm being .provided obviously for each crank pin; ‘and 51 the crank shaft. 50 is the valve. H5 is a bracket supported at one end by crank shaft bearing and 53 the second crank -‘ the housing 95 and at the opposite end by a valve case head. 30 indicates a fragmentary portion stem housing I", which projects from the head 15 of a propeller secured to the shaft 51. BI is the II8 of the cylinder I2, similar valve housings transcommuter arm duplicating the arm 31, and projecting from each of the other heads and 32 the transcommuter arm pin corresponding to similarly supporting additional brackets. II 9 is the pin 33. Both the pin 33 and the pin 62 are a pivot pin for the rocker arm Ill and for a sec hollow. They are coupled together, as by a bolt ond rocker arm I20, these two arms operating 03 on which at least one of them is free to turn, it being readily seen that a stud, secured in one the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinder I2 and being guided in their movements bythe of the pins and journalled in the other thereof, housing In. will accomplish the same purpose. The two pins 33 and 32 so coupled are preferably‘ journalled in a shoe 54, which shoe is slidably mounted be The engine here shown is the four cycletype, each cylinder having an exhaust valve I30 and an intake valve I3I. I32 are the exhaust pipes 25 and I33 ‘the intake manifolds, which lead from the carburetors I34 to the cylinders. tween guides 55, which guides are disposed at right angles to the longitudinal axes of the cylin ders and of the crank shafts. The guides 65 are In Figs. 6 to 8, inclusive, two groups of cylin preferably carried by a diaphragm 55 which is ' ders have been arranged with their axes at right disposed between the two halves of the crank case angles instead of parallel, as before described. 30 I4, these halves being ?anged for the purpose. In this arrangement, designated as X motor, the The crank case heads 36 and 53 and the inter - cylinders, and many of the other parts, may be mediate diaphragm may be secured in any usual identical in construction and function with those or well known manner, as by bolts, which to heretofore described, and these parts have been reduce the detail are not here shown. .», given the same numbers with the letter “A” as ‘l0 and "II are‘ half time shafts for the group a su?ix. of cylinders I0 to I3, inclusive, and ‘I2, 13 half time shafts for the other group of cylinders. Mounted on the shaft ‘I0 and secured, as by 40 aykey ‘I4, is a gear ‘I5, and similarly mounted and secured on the shaft ‘II is a gear ‘I5, which gears both mesh with a pinion ‘II of one half relative pitch diameter which is mounted on shaft 34 and secured thereto by a key 18. Similar gears ‘I9 and 80 and meshing pinion 45 0i are respectively secured on the half-time shafts ‘I2 and ‘I3 and the shaft 51. 32 is a distributor driven by the half-time shaft ‘I0, which dis tributor is suitably wired to spark plugs 83 on the cylinders I0 to I3, inclusive. 3‘ is a second dis tributor suitably wired to spark plugs 35 on the other group of cylinders. . 33 are cams mounted on the shaft ‘I0, these cams being secured as by the joint key 3 I. 32 are spacer disks alternating with the cams 30. 33 are similar cams similarly secured on the shaft ‘II, and 34 the alternating spacers. 35 is an enclos ing housing. The cams '30 andv 33 actuate the valves of the cylinders‘ III to I3, inclusive, and a similar group of cams mounted on the half time shafts ‘I2, ‘I3, actuate the valves of the opposite group of cylinders. I00 is a pivot pin on which is mounted a pair of levers, IOI, these levers depending past the cams 93. Preferably IOA, IIA, I2A and I 3A are the cylinders con- ' stituting one group, and ISA, ISA, HA and I 8A are the cylinders constituting a second group at right angles, these groups being connected to a 40 joint crank case “A. ISA, 20A, 2IA and 22A are the pistons of the ?rst group, the pistons of the second‘ group not being shown. Pistons ISA and 20A are connected together by a rigid piston rod 24A, and the pistons 2IA and 22A by a similar 45 rod 25A. 26A is the journal block, the two piston rods and the block being rigidly secured together by bolts 30A. 32A is the crank pin, 33A the crank disk which carries this pin, and 34A the 'crank shaft which isjournalled in the bearing 50 35A, carried by one head 35A’ of the crank case “A. - 50A, 5IA are the piston rods of the second group of cylinders I5A to ISA; 52A is the halved journal block. 55A is the crank disk; 55A the 55 crank pin, which has the same throw as the crank pin 32A; 51A the crank shaft and 59A the second crank case head. The piston rods 24A, 25A are connected to the crank pin 32A through a .transcommuter link 60 I50, one end of which is journalled on the crank pin 32A. Integral with. and projecting from the opposite end of the link I50, is a transcom muter link pin I5I, which is )journalled in the journal block‘ 20A. ' > 65 each of these levers has a heel I02, which pro The piston rods 50A, 5IA are connected to the jects between a pair of the disks 92 to position . crank pin 58A through a transcommuter link the lever along the pin I00, these heels not pro I52, one end of which journals on the crank pin iecting into the path of the cams 00. The lower 58A. Integral with the opposite end of the link end of ‘each lever lies between a pair of the disks I52 is a transcommuter link pin I53, which is 70 34 and against a cam 33. I03 is an oppositely journalled in the journal block 52A. - disposed pivot pin from which an additional pair Link pins III and I53 are integrally secured to of levers I04 depend, these levers lying on the a transcommuter bar I53, this bar and the links opposite sides of the cams 33 and alternating I50, I52 being thereby joined into a unitary trans “is with the levers "I, so that levers I“ engage commuter. In this transcommuter the center 75 3 2,137,730 lines of the pins IiI and I5! and ,0! the bearings for the‘ crank ‘pins 32A, 56A lie in the same plane and are parallel, the distance between the pin |<§,I and its related bearing for the pin 32A, and commuter link 29. have moved the crank arm 33, between the pins I5I\ and I53 is equal to twice tive direction. In these movements tra'nscom 'muter arms 31- and GI have shifted the trans forty-?ve degrees from‘its first-shown position. ‘ Similarly. piston J, through rod M, has-moved block 52 and its journalled pin toward thecrank . the distance between the pin I53 and its related shaft 51 (aligned with shaft §4),_and through bearing for the pin ‘56A, are each equal to-the theltranscommuter link 54 has moved the arm crank radius of these pins, and the distance‘ - forty-?ve degrees also, though in opposite rela this radius. . v The valve and ignition mechanism is identical with that‘beforedescribed and need not be'fur vther described’. . '- y l ‘ It will be understood that with both types each commuter arm pins 39 and 62 outward along the 10 guides 65, and the pins 39 and 62 being coupled together by the bolt 63 (Fig. 3) and being "jour nalled in a joint shoe 64, are compelled to move group of four cylinders functions as a ‘complete . concurrently and to interchange power-impulses 15 1 unit and that an engine‘ of this time maybe so‘ and timing between the two piston groups and built. It will also be understood that single their shafts, providing a means- whereby ‘the ] opposed cylinders, having a common longitudinal ' power of both groups may be available from either axis, may‘be used instead ‘of ‘opposed pairs‘ as shown, particularly where two cycle or steam is 20 used. Advantage has been taken of this fact I to simplify the diagrammatic drawings, Figs. 9 to 16, inclusive, of the parallel, cylinder type and the drawings 1'7‘ to 21, inclusive, of'theiX motor type. In Figs. 9 to 16, -the pair of cylinders III, 25 I2,~are represented by a single cylinder C, cylin ders II, I3 by cylinder D, cylinders I5, H by cylinder E,~'and cylinder‘ I 6, III by cylinder F; similarly each pair of pistons issrepresentéd by 1a single piston G, H, J, and K, respectively, and each pair of piston rods by'a single rod Nfand M, respectively. The crank disks 33 and 55 have been replaced by their equivalent crank similarly numbered. arms , . . In Figs. 17 to 21, inclusive, N, P, Q and R are cylinders representing the pairs of cylinders;' S, - T, U and V‘thepistons and W and Y the piston I Crank arms v33A and 55A have been used in stead ot the equivalent vcrank disks. 40 _ t ‘ Operation of parallel cylinder :motor In operation, referring to_ Fig. 1, the rigid as sembly comprising the four pistons, I9 to 22, the piston rods 24 and 25 and the journal block 26' are shown as starting toward the left, as under the impulse from a ?red charge in the cylinder . II. At the same time a charge is being com the shaft 34 or the shaft 51. 5 ' , v In Fig. 11 the two crank arms 33, 55 reach a ninety degree position and the'transcommuter arm pins 39, 62 the outer limit of their travel in the guides 65; the pistons have reached mid stroke and are travelling twice as fast as the crank pins. . In Fig. 12 both crank shafts-have travelled one 25 hundred and thirty-?ve degrees, and the coupled transcommuter-arm pins 39, 62 are returning along the guides 65. In Fig.v 13 one hundred and eighty degrees have been reached, the transcommuter-arm pins 39, so 62 are aligned with the crank shafts 34, 51 and 'moving from above to below the same, and the power-impulses have transferred from cylinderv D to cylinder C, andirom cylinder E to cylinder 35 In Figs.'14, 15 and 16 the cycle continues, re turning to that shown in Fig. 9, the action corre sponding to’that' of Figs. 9 to 12, respectively. Referring to Fig, 11 or Fig. 15 (the crank arms. being at ninety Idegrees) , it will be noted that the 40 tran’scommuter link 29 overlies the crank arm 33,‘ " so that the transcommuter link pin journalledf in the block 26 (the pin 28 of Figs. 1 and 3) is concentric with the shaft. 34. Should a single cylinder group engine stop in such position, it 45 would be possible,v but for the transcommuter arm 31, and the guides 65, toturn the shaft ‘34; pressed in cylinder In, a charge is being drawn the crank arm as and the link 29, the link pin 'into cylinder l3 through intake valve I3I, and a turning in the block 26 and transmitting no move-~ 50 spent charge is being exhausted from cylinder I2. ‘ ment to the piston rods or pistons, though ob 50 As the block 28 moves toward the crank shaft 34, viously movement of the pistons would shift the the transcommuter link 28 forces the crank pin block 26 and impart movement to the crank arm ~32 upward turning the shaft 34.‘ Concurrently and shafts, and for proper action the transcom the shoe 64 is moved by the pin 39 outward be muter arm 31 is essential. 5 ‘tween the guides '65, and at right angles to the ‘ Operation of X motor line of piston travel. At one end of the stroke either the cylinder 20 or 22 gives a power-impulse, The rigid assemblycomprising the four pistons and at the opposite end, one of the pistons I9, 2 I, I9A to 22A, the=piston rods 24A and 25A and the . gives an impulse. 60 - ‘ . e complete cycle of operation thus accom plished is .diagrammaticallyshown in Figs. 9 to to, inclusive. In Fig. 9 all the pistons are at one or the other ends of their respective ~strokes, pis ton H-‘and piston‘ J being ready to ‘move toward 65 the crank shafts 34,51, and pistons‘ Gand K be ving correspondingly in position, to begin move ment away from the shafts. The crank arms 33 and 55 are omdead center and all pins in line; As, movement begins piston-impulse acting‘ 70 through transcommuter links 29 and 54- on crank arms 33, 65, turns them respectively counter clockwise and clockwise, In Fig. 10, the block 26 and thepin journalledtherein (pin 2B,_Figs. 1. . and 3) , have been moved by piston H and rod L 15 toward the crank shaft 34 and through the trans journal block 26A, move as one unit under sue cessive impulses on the four pistons, and the cross 60 positioned assembly moves similarly. - , In Fig. 6 piston 20A is shown as moving down ward and toward the left under the action of a ?redicharge; piston. I9A as compressing an addi tional charge; piston 22A as drawing in a charge; 65 andv piston 2 IA as exhausting a ?red charge, thus giving two impulses each revolution for these four cylinders and the additional four cylinders I5A to ISA giving" two additional impulses per revolution. - ' ' - In Fig. 17 piston S, acting through piston rod W" on journal block 26A and transcommuter pin I5I, transmits power through the transcommuter link I50 to the crank arm 35A and to the crank shaft 34A, and‘throu'gh the transcommuter bar 70 4 2,187,780 ISA, the transcommuter link pin I53, the trans commuter link I52 to the crank arm “A and the crank shaft 51A. Concurrently expansion in cylinder R acting through piston V and piston rod ‘ Y on link pin tion. I53, adds power in the same direc » ' ‘ In Fig. 18 the crank arms 33A, “A have moved forty-?ve degrees from the position shown in Fig. 17, piston S continues its thrust at increasing 10 angularity with regard to transcommuter link I II, and piston V approaching the end of its stroke is still exerting thrust on pin I53. ' In Fig. 19 crank shafts 33A and 55A are at ninety degrees to their original position and all pins are again in alignment. [Piston V has com pleted its stroke, Piston T is in ?ring position and becomes the primary power piston; and pis ton S is at mid-stroke exerting its thrust at right angles to transcommuter link I50. 20. In Fig. 20 the crank arms have completed one hundred and thirty-?ve degrees of movement vfroni Fig. 17. Piston S is approaching completion of its expansion stroke. Piston T is acting under expansion. Piston U is approaching the end of 25 the compression stroke. In‘ Fig. 21 the crank arm has completed one ' hundred and eighty degrees travel from the posi so radius of said pin, a transcommuter arm of equal length with said link extending from said link beyond said crank; and guide means rigidly car ried by'said crank case, at right angles to said. crank shaft and to the axesvof said cylinders, said means reciprocably receiving the end of said arm. , 4. An engine, includinga crank case having axially aligned bearings at its opposite ends, crank shafts, each journalled in a‘ said bearing, crank discs carried each by a said shaft, and crank pins of equal throw. carried each by a said disk; four cylinders in axially aligned pairs spaced apart, extending along parallel lines out 20 ward from said crank case, pistons reciprocably mounted, one in each said cylinder, a pair of pis ton rods, one for each said aligned pair of cyl inders, each rod rigidly connecting the pistons .of its respective said cylinders, bearing means,. 25 each carried by a said piston rod intermediate its length, transcommuter links, each equal in ‘tion shown in Fig. 17. Piston S has completed its ' length to the throw radius of said crank pins, expansion stroke, piston T is acting under expan each connecting a said crank'pin and a said pis sion, piston U is in firing position and is the pri ton bearing, said links having each a rigidly ex-. 30 mary power piston; and piston V is on its com tending transcommuter arm of.equal length, and pression stroke. meansmpivotally connecting the extended ends of In the subsequent half cycle, pistons W and V said arms. ‘ successively become the primary power pistons es 35 tablishing a continuous flow of power on both - crank shafts. What I claim is: 40 ders each having a piston reciprocably mounted therein, a piston rod extending past said crank member and rigidly connecting said pistons, a link journalledgat one end on said crank pin and at its opposite end journalled to said piston rod, the length of said link being equal to the crank . _ 5. An engine, including a crank case having axially aligned bearings at its opposite ends,. crank shafts; each journalled in a- said bearing, crank members carried each by said shaft, and 1. An engine, including a pair of axially aligned , crank pins of equal throw carried each by a said cylinders having each a piston reciprocally member; four cylinders in axially aligned pairs mounted therein, a piston rod rigidly connecting spaced apart, extending along parallel lines out 40 said pistons‘, a bearing on said rod, a shaft, a crank member connected to said shaft, a crank pin carried by said member, a link having one end- journalled on said crank pin and the op ward from said crank case, pistons reciprocably mounted, one in each said cylinder, a pair of piston rods, one for each said aligned pair of cylinders, each rod rigidly connecting the pistons posite end rotatably secured to said piston rod of its respective said cylinders, bearing means, bearing, the length of said link being equal to each carried by a said piston rod intermediate its 45 the crank radius, said link having a rigid exten- ‘ length, transcommuter links, each equal in length sion of equal length, and a guide reciprocably re to the throw radius of said crank pins, each ceiving the end of said extension, said guide ex- . 50 tending across the axis of said crank shaft at right angles to said axis and the axis of said cyl'i , inders and being a rigid part of said engines. 2. An enginenincluding four cylinders in axi v I ally aligned pairs, said cylinders having each a 55 60 ' 65 ,. piston reciprocabiy mounted therein, piston rods, connecting a said crank pin,and a said piston bearing, said links having each a rigidly extend 50 ing transcommuter arm of equal length, means pivotallyconnecting the extending ends of said arms, and guide means rigidly secured to said crank case at right angles to said cylinder axes and crank shafts, said means extending later 55 ally outward from the axis of said cranku shafts and reciprocably receiving said arm connecting each‘ rigidly connecting a said pair of pistons, a bearing rigidly secured between and securing said piston rods together, a shaft extending at right .‘means. angles from the axes of said cylinders and rods, 6. An engine, including a crank case having crank means including a crank pin carried by axially aligned vbearings at its'opposite ends, crank said shaft, 9. link having'its opposite ends jour shafts, each journalled in a said bearing, crank nalled on \said pin and in said bearing, said link members carried each by said shaft, and crank and said crank means being of equal length, said . pins of equal throw carried each by a said mem-v link having a rigid arm of equal length extend ' her; four cylinders in axially aligned pairs spaced ing beyond said crank pin’; and a guide reciproca apart, extending along parallel lines outward bly receiving the end of said arm3 said guide from said crank case, pistons reciprocably mount 65 being at right ‘angles to said shaft and to‘ the ed, one in each said cylinder, a pair of piston vaxes of said cylinders and‘ being a. rigid part of rods, one rod for each said aligned pair of cyl said‘engine. v‘ ~ - indera'each rigidly connecting the pistons of its 3. An engine including a crank case, a shaft respective said cylinders, journal bearings, each journalled in- said case, a crank member secured carried. by a\said piston rod intermediate its 70 on said shaft, a crank pin projecting from said - length, transcommuter links, each equal in length member, a pair'of cylinders in axial alignment extending from opposite sides of said‘crank case 76 at right angles to said crank shaft, said cylin to the throw radius of said crank pin, said links being journalled respectively‘ each on a said crank pin and having each a transcommuter pin 5 9,187,780 journailed in a said piston bearing, said links having each a rigidly extending transcommuter arm, said arms being of equal length, and rig idly secured each on a said transcommuter pin ‘and respectively extending each from its said pin parallel with said transcommuter link twice the length of said link, each said transcommuter arm having a hollow pin projecting laterally at its inner end toward the complementary pin of 10 the other said arm,-a bolt passing through said to and projecting from opposite sides of said crank case in a plane at right angles to said crank shafts, a complementary pair of axially aligned cylinders secured to and projecting from said case in a spaced parallel plane, the said cylin der axes being at right angles, each said cylin der having a piston reciprocably mounted there in; a pair of piston rods, one for each said aligned _ pair of cylinders, each said piston rod rigidly connecting itsrelated pair oi’ pistons, each said 10 hollow pins and rotatably securing said pinsto piston rod having a journal bearing midway its gether; a guide rigidly carried by said crank case length and a transcommuter for coupling said and disposed between said arms, said guide be ing at right angles to said shafts and said pis crank pins ,to' their related piston rods, and the ,engine units thus formed together, said trans ton rods, and a shoe reciprocably mounted in said guide and journalled on said hollow pins. 7. An engine, including a crank case having axially aligned bearings extending from opposite commuter, comprising a connector bar having a ll pair of pins adapted to journal in said piston rod bearings, said pins respectively being at opposite ends of said bar and extending rigidly in opposite directions at right angles therefrom, and a pair of links spaced from said bar, rigidly secured ends thereof, shafts, each journalled inv a said bearing, each said shaft having a crank disk within saidcase and a crank pin projecting from each to a said pin and extending‘ along and par said disk, the crank radius of said pins being allel with said bar, each said link having a hear equal; a first pair of axially aligned cylinders ing adapted to journal a said crank pin, the secured to and projecting from said crank case length of said links being equal to the crank in a plane at right angles to said crank shafts, _'l‘8.d1ll$ and the length of said bar to the crank a complementary pair of axially aligned cylinders diameter. - 9. An engine, including a crank case having spaced parallel plane, the said complementary‘ axially aligned bearings extending from oppo site ends thereof, crank shafts, each journalled cylinder axes being at right angles to the ?rst 30 said cylinder axes; each said cylinder having a piston reciprocably mounted therein; a pair of piston rods,‘ one for each said aligned pair of - cylinders, each said piston rod rigidly connect ing its related pair of pistons, each said piston 35 rod carrying a bearing intermediate its length,’ a pair of parallel transcommuter links, each ly ing between a said crank disk and a related said in a said bearing, each said shaft having a crank disk within said case and a crank pin project ing from said disk, the throw of said pins be ing’ equal, a‘ilrst pair'of axially aligned cylin ders secured to and projecting from opposite sides of said crank case in a plane at right an gles to said crank shaft, a complementary pair of axially aligned cylinders similarly secured to length of said links being equal and equal to the and projecting from said case in a spaced par allel plane, the said cylinder axes being at right angles, each said cylinder having a piston re ciprocably mounted therein; a pair of piston rods, one for each said aligned pair of cylinders, each crank radius; and a transcommuter connector said piston rod rigidly connecting its related pair piston rod and being journalled on a said crank pin, said links having a rigidly extending trans- ' 40 . secured to andpprojecting from said case in a commuter 'pin extending therefrom through its respective said piston rod bearing, the effective rigidly secured to and joining the projecting ends of said transcommuter pins, said connector ly ing between said piston rods and parallel to both said transcommuter links. » 8. An engine, including a crank case having axially aligned bearings extending from oppoe site ends thereof, crank shafts, each journalled in said bearings, each said shaft having a crank disk within said case and a crank pin projecting from said disk, the throw of said pins being equal, a ?rst pair of axially aligned cylinders secured of pistons, and having a journal bearing inter mediate its length; a pair oi.‘ links in parallel, each 45 journalled on a said crank pin and having a pin, joumalled in a respective said journal bearing, the eifective length of said links being each equal to a crank pin radius, and means rigidly se cured to said link pins, compelling said links to remain, in parallelism, the effective length of said means equalling a crank diameter. cmr'ron vr‘. SMITH.