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Патент USA US2137736

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Nov. 22, 1932;.v -
‘G, W’WATKINS
2,137,736
EDUCATIONAL DEVI CE '
Filed Dec. 21, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
P15
~16 .
f/we W.‘
WW2
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
, 2,137,736
UNITED STATES
I
PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,137,736
EDUCATIONAL DEVICE
Grace W. Watkins, Aurora, 111., assignor to The
Strathmore Company, Aurora, 111., a corpora
tion of Illinois
Application December 21, 1935, Serial No. 55,498
17 Claims. (Cl. 35.—43)
The invention relates to educational devices of respectively, use of the problem sheet and par
the type wherein problems to be solved are sub- tial solution of the problems, the solutions only
mitted to the students, and the general aim of
the invention is to provide a new and improved
Cl device in which the problems may be easily sub
mitted onr‘pro‘blem sheets which are not de
stroyed by use but may be preserved for submis
sion to other students, in which the answers are
_ written and preserved on a temporary writing
10 means until correction thereof and then may be
quickly erased and'the writing means used in
other work, and in which correction of the stu
dents’ answers may be easily and quickly made.
Another object of the invention is to provide
15 a device of this character in which a problem to
be solved is presented on a substantially trans
parent sheet which is used in conjunction with
an overlying ?exible transparent sheet on which
the student writes his solution to the problem
without permanently marking the sheet and an
underlying means which preserves a mark made
by the pressure of the student’s writing instru~
ment, whereby the problem sheet is protected
while in use.
Another object is to provide a novel article
for use in connection with a temporary writing
instrumentality, which article is in the form of a
problem or an answer sheet or sets of these sheets,
these sheets being individually insertable in such
an instrumentality and being characterized in
that they permit a solution written on the instru
mentality to be seen therethrough and in that
at least the problem sheet permits a line of im
pressure to be transmitted to the underlying sur
face substantially the same as though the shee
were not present.
‘
A further object of the invention resides in the
provision of an improved temporary writing
after removal of the problem sheet, and use of
the answer sheet to check the solutions.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional
view on an enlarged scale of a device having a -
problem or answer sheet incorporated therewith.
Fig. 8 illustrates a series of representative prob
lem sheets.
'
Fig. 9 shows an answer sheet for the problem
sheets illustrated in Fig. 8.
While the invention is susceptible of various
modi?cations and alternative constructions, I
have shown in the drawings and will herein de
scribe in detail the preferred embodiment, but 15
it is to be understood that I do not thereby in
tend to limit the invention to the speci?c form
disclosed, but intend to cover all modi?cations
and alternative constructions falling within the
spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in 20
the appended claims.
In the educational system for-which the pres
ent device is adapted, problems of various kinds
are submitted to a class by means of problem
sheets, one being given to each student. Here
tofore, the students placed the answers, as the
problems were solved, in a work book which was
submitted to the instructor or otherwise correct
ed. The problem sheets were returned to the
instructor but they were usually so marked or 30
mutilated during use that replacement thereof
for the next class was required. This procedure
was costly and the work books, being suitable
for but, a single use, further increased the ex
pense.
.
-
,
The present invention embodies, in conjuncu
tion with a problem sheet, writing means having
an underlying part upon which writing or other
means embodying novel means for preventing ac
40 cidental loss of written matter, and means for
marks may be produced merely by the impres
determining the positions of problem and answer
overlying member. The underlying part is pref
sheets associated therewith.
erably in the nature of a temporary writing de
vice capable of having the writing thereon erased
almost instantly and without damage thereto so
that the device may be repeatedly used. The
'
'
Other objects and advantages will become ap
parent in the following description and from the
accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a. face view of a temporary writing '
means forming a part of the present invention,
parts being broken away for better illustration. 1
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal side edge view of the
writing means shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of said writing
means showing lsolutions ofproblems and the
manner of erasure thereof.
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are fragmentary face views of
the educational device showing, successively and
sion force exerted when a user writes upon an
overlying member is thin, tough, flexible and
smooth, whereby a writing instrument moved
thereover will not noticeably affect the surface,
but accurate impressions will be transmitted
therethrough to the underlying part. The over
lying member moreover is transparent to permit
a problem on a problem sheet placed thereunder
to be readily seen, and the problem sheet is also
transparent so that a solution presented by the
Underlying part will be seen in its proper position
35
5,137,736
2
relative to the problem. The undamaged prob
lem sheet may subsequently be removed without
affecting the written solution and a sheet bear
ing the correct answers substituted therefor to
facilitate correction of the solutions.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, I10
(Figs. 1 and 2) designates generally a form of
temporary writing means which is preferably em
ployed. This means includes a base ll of a rigid,
10 ?rm material such as heavy cardboard having
one surface thereof covered with an evenly dis
tributed coating of a colored impressionable ma
terial which may be a dark waxy material hav
ing a somewhat tacky nature; Overlying the
coated surface of the base is a semi-opaque im
pression sheet H which is adapted to adhere to
the base when pressed thereagainst and through
out the adhering areas to become transparent so
that the base shows clearly through such areas.
Preferably a thin, ?exible sheet of a material,
such as Celluloid, having the surface next the
base lightly sand blasted or otherwise treated to
‘ render the sheet semi-opaque and capable of ad
- herence to the base, is employed, although tissue
26 paper and similar materials may be used.
Overlying the semi-opaque sheet is a trans
nating the location of the name of the student
and other information, to be used if the writ
ing means does not carry a tab IS. The prob
lem sheets are of substantially transparent ma
terial, such as thin, transparentized paper.
In use, the student is handed a problem sheet
which he inserts in the writing device between
the transparent sheet I3 and the semi-opaque
sheet I2 (see Fig. 7). The problem is thus pre
sented as though printed on the transparent 10
sheet and the student may without dif?culty work
on the solution. When a solution is reached,
the student writes it upon the transparent sheet
but the visible result is produced by the ad
herence of the semi-opaque sheet to the base 15
along the lines of impression. During this stage,
the device appears as shown in Fig. 4, the solu
tions of the student being indicated at 22.
Upon completion of the problem, the student
removes the problem sheet and returns it un
20
damaged and unmarked to the instructor for
subsequent reuse. The solutions written by the
student remain ‘unchanged as shown in Fig. 5,
and the writing means may then be collected for
correction.
To facilitate correction, an answer 25
sheet 24 bearing the correct answers to each
parent ?exible writing sheet l3‘ of Celluloid or ' problem may be provided, this sheet also being
like material. This sheet I3 is smooth and rela
tively tough to withstand wear, yet is amply yield
ing to permit a user to write thereon and produce
adherence between the base and semi-opaque
sheet along the line of pressure without using
undue force. With a sheet of Celluloid or the
like, a stylus may be employed or the user may
write with "an ordinary pencil since the pencil
will not mark the writing surface.
The temporary nature of the device is de
rived from the fact that all impressions may be
substantially transparent. Such a sheet is illus
trated in Fig. 9 and the answers are designated
by the numeral 25. The instructor, in using 30
the answer sheet, preferably inserts the answer
sheet between the transparent and semi-opaque
sheets and by quick comparison easily corrects
the work.
If desired, each answer occupies the
approximate position of the problem to which
instantly obliterated by merely separating the
semi-opaque sheet from the ,base. Accidental
it relates and it has been found advantageous
to offset the position of the answers so that they
will be located at one side of but adjacent to the
solutions written by the student. In this em
bodiment, the answers are printed to be posi 40
separation would be decidedly undesirable in the
present instance and a novel‘ and simple means
for preventing such action is provided. Thus,
as best shown in Figs. 1 and 7, the semi-opaque
sheet is secured to one edge of the base, herein
means as shown in Fig. 6. Where the problem
and answer sheets are to have this correlation,
the writing means preferably includes means for 45
the bottom edge, by such means as a line of
metallic staples H and an overlying edge bind
ing l5 of fabric or paper. The outer transparent
sheet I3 is secured to a different edge, in this
instance the top edge, by similar staples and
binding to extend across the base in a different
direction than does the semi-opaque sheet.
Hence, the transparent sheet binds the semi
opaque sheet smoothly and ?rmly in place and
56 accidental displacement of the semi-opaque sheet
relative to the base is prevented even though the
transparent sheet is shifted as the user writes.
thereon.
3
The semi-opaque sheet does not extend quite
to the top of the base, as may be seen in Figs. 2
and '7, and if desired an inserted transversely ex
tending tab l6 may be provided with spaces
thereon, as shown at I‘! (Fig. 1), for the owner’s
name and the like.
To erase writing from the
65 device, the transparent sheet I3 is turned up
wardly and the semi-opaque sheet turned down
wardly away from the base, as shown in Fig. 3.
A notch [8 may be provided in one edge of the
base to enable a user to grasp the semi-opaque
70 sheet readily.
In Fig. 8, a set of problem sheets 23 is shown.
The problems on the sheets in each set are iden
tical and the sheets may carry one or more
problems I 8, together with appropriate direc
75 tions 20. They may also provide spaces 2! desig
tioned immediately above the student’s solutions
when the answer sheet is placed in the writing
designating the proper position of each of said
sheets. Herein the junction of the transparent
sheet and the base serves this purpose.
From the foregoing, it will be evident that a
new and improved educational device has been 50
provided which is economical from the stand
point of saving in problem sheets and work books
and is also easy and convenient to use. Many
different problem and answer sheets may be used
with each writing instrumentality and the prob
lem and answer sheets may accordingly be sup
plied in sets of various combinations either with
a writing instrumentality or for use with an in
strumentality which has previously been sup
plied. Moreover, the present device enables the 60
instructor to check the students’ initial accuracy,
since partial erasures are not possible. While
mathematical problems of a relatively simple
nature have been shown herein, it is to be under
stood that problems in many subjects other than
mathematics may be presented in the same man
her and that the present invention may be used
in instructing pupils of all ages. Moreover, the
invention is capable of wide-spread use in other
environments than that of pure instruction.
70
I claim as my invention:
1. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, temporary writing means including a
dark-colored impressionable base member, a ?exi
ble semi-opaque impression sheet secured to said 75
2,137,786
base at one side edge to extend thereacross and
adapted when impressed against said base to
adhere thereto and make visible the line of im
p'ressure, said line being erased by separation of
said base and impression sheet, a transparent
and ?exible writing sheet having a smooth writing
surface and secured to said base at another side
edge to extend across said base and said impres
sion sheet in a different direction whereby to bind
10 said impression sheet against accidental separa
tion from contact with said base, a substantially
transparent problem sheet adapted to be inserted
between said impression and writing sheet and
bearing characteristics thereon presenting to the
15 user through said transparent writing sheet a
problem to be solved, and a substantially trans
parent answer ‘sheet adapted to be substituted
for said problem sheet after the user has entered
his solution by writing it upon said writing sheet
20 and causing corresponding adherence between
said base and impression sheet, said answer sheet
bearing the correct solution to the problem in a
position at one side of said written solution for
ready comparison therewith, said writing means
25 having means for correlating the association of
said problem and answer sheets therewith to ap—
proximately the same relative position.
2. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, temporary writing means including a
30 dark colored impressionable base member, a ?exi
ble semi-opaque impression sheet secured to said
base at one side edge to' extend thereacross and
adapted when impressed against said base to
adhere thereto and make visible the line of im
35 pressure'; said line being erased by separation of
said base and impression sheet, a transparent
and ?exible writing sheet having a smooth writ
ing surface and secured to said base at another
side edge to extend across said base and said im
40 pression sheet in a different direction whereby to‘
bind said impression, sheet against accidental
separation from contact with said base, a substan
tially transparent problem, sheet adapted to be
inserted between said impression and writing
45 sheet and bearing characteristics thereon pre
senting to the user through said transparent writ
3
problem is presented substantially as though car
ried by the writing sheet and the solution written
by the user on the writing sheet and made visible
by the corresponding adherence of the impression
sheet to the base appears substantially as though
written on said writing sheet and remains un
changed after the problem sheet has been re
moved.
4. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, writing means including coacting mem
bers, one of which carries a dark colored im
pressionable material and the other is
opaque, said members being capable
pressed together to adhere and show the
of adhesion, a smooth transparent member
lying said semi-opaque member and having
10
semi
when
areas
over 15
?exi
bility to permit transmission"therethrough of
writing pressure to cause adherence between said
coacting members, a problem sheet having char
acteristics thereon presenting a problem to be 20
solved and adapted to be removably inserted be
tween said transparent and‘semi-opaque mem
bers, said problem sheet being substantially trans
parent so that the solution written on said trans
parent member and made visible by the ad
herence between said coacting members may be
25
seen by the user, and an answer sheet presenting
the correct solution to the problem 'on said
problem sheet adapted to be inserted in place of
said problem sheet, said answer sheet being sub 30
stantially transparent so the previously written
solution may be seen and having said correct
solution located at one side of the corresponding
written solution for ready comparison.
.
5. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, writing means including coacting mem
bers one of which carries a dark colored impres
sionable material and the other is semi-opaque,
said members being capable when pressed together
to adhere andshowthe areas of adhesion, a smooth
transparent member overlying said semi~opaque 40
member and having ?exibility to permit trans
mission therethrough of writing pressure to cause
adherence between said coacting members, a
problem sheet having characteristics thereon pre~
senting a problem to be solved and adapted to be 45
removably inserted between said transparent and
semi-opaque members, said problem sheet being
substantially transparent so that the solution
ing sheet a problem to be solved, and a sub-stan
ltially transparent answer sheet adapted to be
substituted for said problem sheet after the user
50 has entered his solution by writing it upon said
written on said transparent member and made
writing sheet and causing corresponding ad
50'
herence between said base and impression sheet, visible by the adherence between said coacting
members may be seen by the user, and an answer
said answer sheet bearing the correct solution sheet presenting the correct solution to‘ the
to the problem for compariso'n with the solution problem
on said problem sheet adapted to be in
_
55 written by the user.
sorted in place of said problem sheet, said answer
3. An educational device comprising, in com
sheet being substantially transparent so the previ 55
bination, temporary writing means including a ously written solution may be seen and compared
dark colored impressionable base member, a ?ex
with the correct solution.
ible semi-opaque impression sheet secured to said
6. An educational device comprising, in com
60 base at one side edge to extend thereacross and bination, writing means including coacting mem
60
adapted when impressed against said base to
bers one of which carries a dark colored im
adhere thereto and make visible the line of im
pressionable material and the other is semi~
pressure, said line being erased by separation of opaque, said members being capable when pressed
said base and impression sheet, a transparent together to adhere and show the areas of ad
65 and ?exible writing sheet having a smooth writ
hesion, a smooth transparent member overlying
ing surface‘ and secured to said base at another said semi-eopaque member and having ?exibility 65
side edge to extend across said base and said to permit transmission therethrough of writing
impression sheet in a different direction whereby
to bind said impression sheet against accidental pressure to cause adherence between said coact~
ing members, a problem sheet having character
70 separation from contact with said base, a sub
stantially transparent problem sheet adapted to istics thereon presenting a problem to be solved 70
be inserted between said impression and writing and adapted to be removably inserted between
sheet and bearing characteristics thereon pre
senting to the user through said transparent
75 writing sheet a problem to be solved, whereby the
said transparent and semi-opaque members, said
problem sheet being substantially transparent so
that the solution written on said transparent
member and made visible by the adherence be
75
2, 187,786
tween said coacting members may be seen by the
user.
7. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, means presenting a surface adapted to
preserve and present a visible mark of a color
contrasting with the remainder of said surface
made thereon by pressure of a writing instrument,
an overlying and transparent member of ma
terial ?exible to transmit pressure of a writing
10 instrument to_ said means without substantial
permanent distortion of said member, and trans
parent sheets adapted to be successively inter
posed between said means and transparent mem
ber, the ?rst used of said sheets having a problem
15 thereon for solution and the second used of said
sheets having the correct solution of said problem
thereon.
8. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, means presenting a surface adapted to
20 preserve a visible mark of a color contrasting with
the remainder of said surface made thereon by
pressure of a writing instrument, an overlying
’ and transparent member of material ?exible to
transmit pressure of a writing instrument to said
means without substantial permanent distortion
of said member, and a substantially transparent
sheet for temporary insertion between said means
and said transparent member and having a
problem to be solved thereon.
80 9. An educational device comprising, in com
bination, means presenting a surface adapted to
preserve and present a visible mark of a color
contrasting with the remainder of said surface
made thereon by pressure of a writing -nstrument,
an overlying and transparent member of material
?exible to transmit pressure of a writing instru
ment to said means without substantial perma
nent distortion of said member, and a substan
tially transparent sheet removably interposed be
tween said means and said transparent member
and having a problem thereon to be solved, said
problem and the answer thereto written by the
user appearing substantially as though presented
on said transparent member but said answer being
actually preserved and presented by said means
so that said sheet bearing the problem may be
removed and separated from the written answer.
10. In a device of the character described, the
combination of an impressionable base of rela
tively dark color, a semi-opaque sheet secured
to said base near one edge and extending across
the surface of said base, said sheet being adapted
to adhere to said base along lines of impression
and‘ where adherence occurs to become trans
combination of an impressionable base of rela
tively dark color, a semi-opaque sheet substan
tially the area of said base and secured thereto
at the lower edge to extend otherwise loosely
toward and nearly to the top edge, said sheet being
adapted to adhere to said base along lines of im
pression and where adherence occurs to become
transparent so that the base color shows there
through, a ?exible writing sheet of transparent
material secured to the base at the top edge there 10
of to extend downwardly approximately to the
lower edge in overlying relation to said .semi
opaque sheet, and means for determining the posi
tion of a sheet inserted between said semi-opaque
15
and writing sheets.
13. For use in an impressionable base type
educational device of the character, described, a
set of substantially transparent problem sheets
having identical problems thereon to be solved,
said sheets being separate for distribution indi
through of writing pressure to cause an impres
sion on an impressionable base type surface posi
25
tioned beneath the same.
14. In an educational device or the like, the
combination of a writing instrumentality includ
ing a substantially transparent member provid
ing a writing surface and underlying means
adapted to record and present for view through 30
said‘ member the lines of impression produced
by a writing implement upon said writing sur
face, and a set of problem and answer sheets,
the problem sheet having thereon characteristics
which designate an act to be performed, said 35
answer sheet having thereon characteristics ar
ranged in the same relative position on the sheet
as the characteristics on the problemvsheet and
designating the correct solution to the problem
presented on the problem sheet, said problem
sheet being adapted for insertion between said
member and the underlying means and having
the characteristics of being sufiiciently ?exible to
permit lines of pressure made on said member
to be transmitted therethrough to said underlyé
ing means so that the user's solution of the prob
lem may be recorded and being su?iciently trans
parent to enable the recorded solution to be visi
ble, said answer sheet being adapted for associa
tion with said instrumentality to place the proper
answer adjacent to the user's written solution
for comparison and being su?iciently transparent
to enable the user to see the written solution
therethrough when the answer sheet is superim
parent so that the base color shows therethrough, - posed upon said instrumentality. .
and a smooth ?exible transparent sheet secured
near one edge to extend across the base in a
different direction to protect said semi-opaque
sheet against accidental separation from said
base.
' 11. In a device of the character described, the
combination of an impressionable base of rela
tively dark color, a semi-opaque sheet substan
tially the area of said base and secured there
to at the lower edge to extend otherwise loosely
toward and nearly to the top edge, said sheet being
adapted to adhere to said base along lines of
70
impression and where adherence occurs to become
transparent so that the base color shows there
through, and a ?exible writing sheet of trans
parent material secured to the base at the top edge
thereof to extend downwardly approximately to
the lower edge in overlying relation to said semi
opaque sheet.
12. In a device of the character described, the
20
vidually to users and made of material having
su?icient ?exibility to permit transmission there
15. In a device for educational purposes or the
55
like, the combination with a temporary writing
instrumentality having a dark colored impres
sionable base, an overlying semi-opaque sheet
adapted to be pressed into adherence with said
base to cause the lines of impressure to become
visible through said sheet, and a second substan
tially transparent sheet providing a writing sur
face and through which pressure may be trans
mitted to produce such visible lines of impres 66
sure, of a sheet adapted for insertion between said
semi-opaque and second sheets and bearing char
acteristics for coordination with visible matter
produced upon the instrumentality by the user,
the insertable sheet being of such character that 70
lines of impressure are visible through said in
sertable sheet and the pressure applied to said
writing surface will-produce the lines of impres
sure substantially the same as though the insert
able sheet were not present.
76
2,137,736
16. An article of manufacture for use in con
nection with a temporary writing instrumental
ity of the character in which an impresison made
on an outer transparent writing surface member
is recorded on an‘ underlying impression mem
ber, comprising a sheet bearing characteristics
indicating an act to be performed and recorded
on said instrumentality by the user, said sheet
being capable of insertion between the writing
10 surface member and the impression member, said
sheet being su?'iciently ?exible to permit lines of
pressure on said writing-surface member to be
transmitted therethrough to produce a corre
sponding reproduction of said lines on the im
15 pression member; and said sheet being su?iciently
transparent to permit the reproduced lines on
the underlying impression member to be seen
therethrough.
»
17. As an article of manufacture, a part of
20 ‘a device for educational or like purposes com
prising a set of problem and answer sheets pre
senting indicia, which designate, as to the prob
5
lem sheet, an act to be performed and, as to the
answer sheet, the result derived by proper per
formance of such act; said problem sheet being
capable of insertion between the writing-surface
member and the underlying impression member
of a temporary writing instrumentality and be
ing characterized in that an impression made
on the overlying writing-surface member will be
reproduced on the underlying impression mem
ber and be visible to the user substantially the
same as though the sheet had not been inserted,
said answer sheet being characterized in that
the impression previously made on the instru
mentality may be seen therethrough when said
sheet is associated with said instrumentality in
overlying relation to said impression member,
said answer sheet having the indicia thereon ar
ranged in substantially the same order and po
sition as the corresponding problem indicia to
facilitate comparison of the proper answer and 20
that derived by the user.
’
GRACE W. WATKINS.
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