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Патент USA US2137865

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NOV. 22, 1938.
Q_ C, TRAVER
2,137,865
PROTECTIVE ARRANGEMENT
Filed May 22, 1936
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2,137,865
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
. UNITED STATES
PATENT GF'FICE
2,137,865
PROTECTIVE ARRANGEMENT
Oliver C. Traver, Drexel Hill, Pa., assigner to
General Electric Company, a corporation ot
New York
y
Application May 22, 1936, Serial No. 81,283
22 Claims. (Cl. 175-294)
My invention relates to improvements in pro
tective arrangements for electric power systems
wherein any section of the system can be pro
‘ tected independently of the rest of the system,
5 and more particularly to improvements in pro
tective arrangements of the type, disclosed in‘
United States Letters Patent No. 1,765,887, is
sued June 24, 1930 on an application filed by
E. W. M. Scott and B. H. Leeson, wherein selec
10 tive or discriminating action is obtained by an
indirect comparison of corresponding electric
quantities at two points of a system. One object
of my invention is to provide an improved pro
tective arrangement for isolating a system sec
tion so quickly upon the occurrence of a fault
as practically to avoid appreciable disturbance
to the system. Another object of my invention
is to provide an improved protective arrange
ment such that a faulty section fed from only
20 one end of the section can be quickly discon
nected from the supply. A further object of my
invention is to provide an improved protective
arrangement whereby to prevent the false op
a bus arrangement including further buses II’
and I2', not shown in Fig. 2.
For effecting the opening of the circuit break
ers, I provide at each end of the section suit
able fault responsive means such as fault de
tector relays. These may be of any suitable
type, for example, over-current, impedance, un
dervoltage, etc., but, for the sake of simplicity, 10
are shown in Fig. 2 as simple instantaneous over
current relays, one phase fault detector relay for
each phase and a ground fault detector relay.
These relays are connected to be energized in
accordance with the different phase currents and 15
the vector sum of such currents, respectively, to
suitable means such as current transformers I6
in a manner well known to the art. Each of the
fault detector relays is provided with circuit clos
ing contacts I1 connected in series in the trip 20
coil circuit but in parallel with each other. In
case more than one circuit breaker is to be
opened, as in Fig. 1, the fault detector relays
some other part of the system. These and other
objects of my invention will appear in more detail
may be provided with an additional contact I1’
from which extends a lead to the trip coil I5
of the other associated circuit breaker. This
arrangement makes it possible for one relay to
trip a plurality of circuit breakers simultane
ously from a single source and yet each breaker
hereinafter.
may be controlled from the same source by an-l
eration of circuit breakers on sound parts of a
25 system whose configuration is such that the op
eration of one circuit breaker to clear a fault
can cause an instantaneous power reversal in
30
some cases the line section may be arranged for
connection through circuit breakers I3', I4', to
.
My invention will be better understood from
the following description when considered in con
nection with the accompanying four sheets of
drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in
35 the appended claims.
' In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 illus
trates diagrammatically an embodiment of my
other manually or otherwise operated trip switch
without at the same time tripping the other
circuit breaker.
In order to prevent the opening of the circuit
breaker except in case of internal faults, I pro
vide means for keeping the trip coil circuit from
being energized under normal circuit conditions
invention shown in single phase diagram for` and also on the occurrence of external faults;
simplicity; Fig. 2 illustrates diagrammatically the as shown in Figs. l and 2. The preventive means
40 protective apparatus at one end of a three-phase
is a receiver relay, which is illustrated as of the . -"
line section in accordance with the embodiment
polarized type.
of my invention shown in Fig. 1; Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6,
its contacts I8 by suitable means such as a spring
and 7 illustrate diagrammatically other embodi
ments of my invention shown in single phase
45 diagram for simplicity; and Figs. 8 and 9 are
explanatory diagrams.
I9, but is also normally biased predominantly
in the opposite direction to keep its contacts
In the embodiment of my invention shown in
Fig. l, a section of an electric system or power
line, illustrated schematically by current con
50 ducting means I0, extends between two stations
shown as buses II and I2 through suitable cir
cuit interrupting means such as latch closed cir
cuit breakers I3 and I4 having trip coils I5. The
current conducting means I0 is drawn partially
55 in broken line to give a concept of distance. In
This relay is biased to close
open by means of a winding 20 whose energiza
tion is controlled in response to the presence or
absence of a fault on the system. For this pur
pose, the Winding 20 may have its circuit con
trolled by circuit opening contacts 2l on the
fault detector relays so that response of any one
oi these relays at one end of the section will
tend to effect the closing of the contacts I 8 of
the receiver relay. Since it merely requires the
parting of the contacts 2l to release the receiver
relay so that it can close its contacts I8, it will
45
2
2,137,865
be observed that the closing of both the contacts
I8 Aand Il can be speedily accomplished.
ance with the vector sum of the phase currents
and the voltages to ground of the phase con
For the contacts i8 to close on an internal ' ductors.
fault is exactly what is desired because the
tripping of the circuit breake.l is thereby effected,
since the fault detector relay also operates si
multaneously to close its contacts Il and thereby
complete the circuit of the trip coil. I5.
However, if the i'ault is external to the sec
10 tion oi’ the line between the buses il and i 2,
the tripping of the circuit breaker must not
occur, and in order to insure this, I provide
means for maintaining a predominant bias on
the receiving relay opposite in direction to the
15 bias provided by the spring Il.
As shown, this
preventive bias is provided for the receiver re
lay at each end, initially by means at the end
where the relay is located, and subsequently
controlled by means at the end of the section
20 where energy is ilowing out. For this purpose
there is provided at each end of the section
means for transmitting a control current and
means at each end responsive to the currents
so transmitted. Tlie particular means illustrated
25 is an electric discharge valve oscillation trans
mitter and a receiver suitably coupled to the
line I0, shown more in detail in Fig. 2. The
transmitters and receivers may all be tuned to
the same frequency, the line section conductors
30 to which the transmitters and receivers are cou
pled being provided with suitable traps 22 to
prevent external system short circuits from short
circuiting the channel of the high frequency
current protective gear.
The transmitter may
35 include suitable amplifying means such as the
amplifier valve 23.
Transmission is normally
blocked, preferably by applying a suitable bias
to the control electrode means of the master os
cillator valve 24 through suitable fault-responsive
40 means such as the circuit opening contacts 25
of the fault detector relays. The receiver relay
may be provided with a further biasing winding
26 which is connected in the anode circuit of the
receiver.
The receiver relay should of course remain
blocked only if the fault is outside of the sec
tion. This can be determined by knowing the
directions of power flow at both ends. Thus, if
power flow is into the section from the left,
50 a temporary block established by the transmit
ter at station Il should last only long enough to
iind out whether power flow is into or out of
the section at the other end. Accordingly, I
provide a fault directional relay which is ar
ranged on the occurrence of a fault with power
flow into the section to stop transmission of con
trol current at its end by applying a suitable
biasing potential to the control electrode means
of the master oscillator valve 24. Control of
60
transmission by the fault directional relay means
in this way is preferable to the control of the
anode circuit for reasons which will be explained
in more detail hereinafter.
.
While any suitable fault directional relay may
be used, I have chosen to illustrate schematically
in Fig. 2 an impedance type of polyphase power
directional relay which has a voltage restraint
element embodying two cooperating torque pro
ducing voltage windings 21, as disclosed in United
States Letters Patent 1,883,839, issued August 18,
1932 on an application filed by R. L Webb. In
addition, the fault directional relay may include
a ground power directional element embodying
a current winding 28 and a voltage winding 29,
75 respectively connected to be energized in accord
The current and voltage windings o!
the fault directional relay may be connected to
be energized respectively from the current trans
formers IB and potential transformers 30 and
3| in a manner well known to the art.
To ob
tain preferential control in case of ground faults,
the ground fault torque element may be so con
structed as to have a predominant torque over 10
the polyphase torque. In other words, the relay
is more sensitive to ground fault power ilow
in one direction than to a simultaneously exist
ing load power ilow in the opposite direction.
In order to have only power directional action
in case of faults, the voltage restraining element 15
may be controlled by the fault detector relays
through circuit opening contacts l2 in such a
way that the operation oi any fault detector
relay will deenergize the voltage restraint coils 21.
Assuming an external i'auit to the right of 20
station l2, for example, and energy flow through
the section I0 from the bus Il, then a fault de
tector relay at each station operates. The trans
mission blocking circuit is opened at each sta
tion through the contacts 25 oi' the fault de
tector relay so that each transmitter can trans
25
mit. Accordingly, each of the receiver relays
has its winding 26 energized through the local
receiver so that the opening of the circuit of
the receiver relay winding 20 by the fault de 30
tector relay does not result in a circuit closing
operation of its contacts i8. Very quickly there
after, the fault directional relay at station Il
closes its contacts to reestablish the transmis
sion blocking circuit. The direction of power $5
flow is from this station to the section as indi
cated by the arrow over the relay. In each case,
the arrow over the fault directional relay indi
cates the direction of power flow for which the
relay closes its contacts. Transmission is ac
cordingly stopped at station Il, but at station l2,
the fault directional relay does not close its
contacts and transmission continues from this
station. Each receiver remains energized and
in turn maintains the winding 28 of the asso
ciated receiver relay energized to hold its con
tacts i8 open and no tripping occurs.
45
If, however, the fault were internal, then fol
lowing the initial very brief transmission, both
of the fault directional relays will close their
contacts, thereby energizing both transmission
blocking circuits. Accordingly, all transmission
is stopped and the energization of the winding
26 of each receiver relay ceases. This results in
the opening of the circuit breaker at each end
due to the closing of the receiver relay contacts
I8, under the action of spring I9, and to the fact
that the tripping contacts I1 of the fault detector
relay are already closed. This results in the open
ing of the circuit breaker at each station. If
the structure of the system is such that no energy
can be supplied from station I2 into the section,
for example, then the transmitter at station l2
remains blocked because the fault detector relay 65
does not respond. Consequently, no transmission
beyond the initial amount at station H between
the opening of the fault detector relay contacts 25
and the closing of the fault directional relay con
tacts can occur, and the circuit breaker at sta
tion Il is tripped. It will be obvious that the
operations herein set forth are just the same if
power flow is from right to left, except that the
order of events at the two stations will be inter
2,187,865
changed insofar as operation is dependent on the
direction of ilow of power.
The embodiment of my invention shown in Fig.
3
arrangement shown in Fig. 4, except that higher
speed of fault clearing is possible. If two cir
cuit breakers are to be controlled with the ar
3 is essentially the same as that shown in Figs. 1 ' rangement shown in Fig. 5, then two valves 38
and 2, except that I have illustrated the receiver
relay as having a single winding 2|) which is
normally energized across a portion of the anode
source through the circuit opening contacts 2| of
the fault detector relay. In order to limit the cur
10 rent in the winding 2li, a resistance 33 may be
used. Thus, regardless of whether the winding
20 of the receiver relay is in a circuit across a
at each station may be used with their anode cir
cuits for the respective circuit breakers and all
other elements in parallel.
The advantages of all grid control of the trans
mitters in the protective arrangements illustrated
will be apparent from the following considera» 10
tion of Figs. 8 and 9. It will be assumed that
the system section includes two parallel portions
or lines ’Ill and I0' or the equivalent thereof, each
of which is provided with a protective arrange
ment such as shown in the arrangements here 15
tofore described. It will be further assumed
that a fault occurs as indicated at X, and that
'I'he embodiment of my invention shown in ` initially the directions of power ilow are as in
Fig. 4 differs from that shown in Fig. 1 in that a dicated by the arrows in Fig. 8. Consequently,
single set of contacts 2| on the fault detector the fault directional relays at A, B, and C apply 20
relay controls the receiver relay winding 20 and a biasing potential to the control electrodes of
turns on the local transmitter. To prevent the the master oscillator valve of the transmitter at
fault directional relays, shown as separate phase each of these points, and no transmission occurs
at these three points beyond the first brief period
and ground fault directional relays, from reener
gizing the receiver relay when the fault directional between the. opening of the fault detector con
relay turns off the transmitter, I connect suitable tacts and the closing of the fault directional relay
contacts. Therefore, the circuit breakers at A
valve means, such as a rectiiler 34, between that
and B will be tripped, but the circuit breaker at
one of the contacts 2| to which the winding 20
B may open first. Transmission is in progress
is connected and the grid of the master oscilla
tor valve of the transmitter, and further connect at D, since the contacts of the fault directional 30
relay at D are open. Tripping is accordingly
the common lead 35'from the fault directional
relay contacts between _the rectifier 34 and the blocked at C and D. Immediately following the
grid. In this embodiment of my invention,- the opening of the circuit breaker B, a reversal of
trip circuit includes the contacts of the directional power ñow occurs at D and C,'as shown in Fig.
relays in parallel with each other, each in series 9, if power is available from the right because
the fault is still being fed- through the circuit
with the contacts I8 of the receiver relay.
In order to prevent any possibility of tripping breaker at A. If transmission were stopped at
the circuit breaker through the contacts 2| of D before it is started at C, it is most probable
the fault detector relay and the contacts I8 of the that the circuit breakers at these points will be
receiver relay, a suitable resistance 36 may be tripped falsely. However, since the fault direc 40
included in series with the rectifier 34, as shown. tional relay at D has had its contacts open and
The value of this resistance is such as not to pass requires time to close to block transmission
enough current to trip the circuit breaker. An whereas the fault directional relay at C has its
additional contact I8' may be provided on the contacts closed and does not require so much
time to open to start transmission, no interval 45
receiver relay to which a lead 31 may be run to
another trip coil, where more than one circuit without transmission will occur due to the slower
opening of the circuit breaker at A because it
breaker is to be operated, as explained in con
nection with the contacts l1’ of the fault detector will require a longer time for the fault direc
tional relay at D to close its contacts than it will
relay in Fig. 1. 'The operation of this embodi
ment of my invention will be apparent from the for the corresponding relay at C to open its 50
Consequently, transmission is not
foregoing in connection with the description of contacts.
part of the anode source and through the contacts
2| or in the receiver anode circuit, its energiza
15 tion can be maintained at the right value. The
operation of this embodiment of my invention
will be apparent from what has preceded.
20
25
30
35
40
45
Figs. 1 and 2.
stopped on the line l0’ until such time as the
'
In order to obtain faster tripping operation, I
may use as a receiver relay means suitable elec
tric discharge valve means, such as the double
grid valve 38 shown in Fig. 5. The trip circuit is
in reality the anode circuit of this valve and
includes in series in the anode circuit the trip
coil I5 and the contacts of the phase or the ground
60 fault directional relays, the contacts of the latter
relays being in parallel with each other. Nor
mally, the valve 38 is maintained nonconductive
by a. suitable bias on one of its grids 39 through
the contacts 2| of the fault detector relay which
also biases the transmitter as in Fig. 4.
In case
of faults, the valve 38 is maintained nonconduc
tive by a suitable bias on its other grid 40 derived
from the local receiver, except in case of internal
faults when the valve becomes conductive to en
ergize the trip coil. In order to prevent a short
circuit of the tripping source through the nor
mally closed contacts 2| of the fault detector
relay, a suitable resistance 4| is connected as
shown. The operation of this embodiment of
my invention is similar to that of the protective
fault is cleared by the opening of the circuit
breaker A and the fault detectors have reset.
This overlap in transmission of blocking current 55
at two stations on a sound section does not occur
in protective systems wherein the plate circuit
is closed to start transmission and opened to stop
transmission, since in this case there can occur
an interval during which there is no transmis 60
sion and false tripping may occur in this interval.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated
in Fig. 6, the trip circuit, like the arrangement
shown in Fig. 5, is in reality the anode circuit of
an electric discharge valve 42 having the con 65
trol electrode 43, which is energized by the re
ceiver through a grid resistance 44 to block
tripping under certain fault conditions; that is,
unless the fault is inside the section. As shown,
the trip circuit includes the circuit closing con
tacts of a tripping fault detector relay and» the
contacts of a fault directional relay which may
combine both phase and ground fault response
as the directional relay of Fig. 2. Of course,
in any of the illustrated embodiments of my in
4
3,187,885A
vention showing phase fault and ground fault
directional relays, these relays may be combined
in a single relay as shown in Fig. 2. Further, I
add a starting fault detector relay for control
ling the transmitter. This relay may have cir
cuit closing contacts for controlling the anode
circuit of the transmitter directly, as shown on
the left side of Fig. 6, or circuit opening contacts
to control the transmission blocking circuit, as
10 shown on the right side of Fig. 6, with a suit
able resistance 45 inthe grid circuit of the mas
ter oscillator valve. Since the valve 42 is nor
mally conductive, it must be rendered noncon
ductive before the tripping fault detector relay
ing the energization of said control circuit includ
ing a fault-responsive relay connected to be en
ergízed from the power circuit, means biased
under normal conditions of the power circuit to
prevent the energization o! said control circuit,
means tending to remove said bias on the occur
rence oi' a fault on the power circuit, and means
for maintaining said bias ii' the fault is outside
of said circuit section including an oscillation
transmitter at the other end of said circuit sec
tion having a master oscillator electric discharge
valve, and means for applying a positive poten
tial to the anode of said valve only on the occur
rence of a fault, and a receiver at said one end
and either oi the fault directional relays can
close their contacts. This can be done by hav
tuned to the frequency of said transmitter.
ing the starting fault detector relay> faster in
circuit including circuit interrupting means at
action than the slower one of the tripping i'ault
detector or fault directional relays.
In case of a fault, transmission is started al
most instantaneously by the starting fault de
tector relay which should have the quickest pos
sible contact action. Accordingly, the receivers
at each end are energized andthe valve 42 ren
dered initialli7 nonconductive. If the fault is
a through fault, then the fault directional relay
at one station, depending 'upon the direction of
power flow in the station, will remain open, and
transmission will continue from this one station,
thereby holding the valve 42 at each station non
conductive and thus preventing tripping at the
other station where the fault directional relay
operates to close its contacts.
In case of an
internal fault, all transmission is blocked and
one or both ends will be tripped, depending on
whether power can flow into only one end or
into both ends of the section.
The embodiment of my invention shown in
Fig?? is analogous to the arrangement shown
in Fig. 6, in that both tripping and starting
fault detector relays are provided, the starting
fault detector relay again controlling the anode
circuit of the transmitter. Instead of the elec
tric discharge valve receiver controlled means,
ï provide a two-coil receiver relay whose wind
ings 2G and 26 are controlled in the same man
ner as in the arrangement shown in Fig. l. Both
phase and ground fault,.vdirectional relays may
be used as shown or a single directional relay
50 containing both features, as pointed out in con
nection with the description of Fig. 2.
While in all cases I have illustrated the con
trol currents as transmitted over the system
phase conductors in the form of carrier cur
rents, it will be understood by those skilled in
the art to which my invention pertains that any
suitable means of communication between the
relays at the ends of a line may be employed,
as, for example, an auxiliary circuit, space trans
60 mission, and the like. The control currents may
also be of any suitable frequencies and even di
rect current can be used.
While I have shown and described my inven
tion in considerable detail, I do not desire to
be limited to the exact arrangements shown, but
seek to cover in the appended claims all those
modifications that fall within the true spirit and
scope of my invention.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
70 Letters lë‘atent of the United States is:
1. A protective arrangement for an electric
power circuit including circuit interrupting
means at one end of a section ot the power cir
cuit, a control circuit for effecting the opening of
75 said circuit interrupting means, means for eii’ect
2. A protective arrangement for an electric
one end of a section of the circuit, means for
euecting the opening oi' said circuit interrupting
means including » faint-responsive means con
nected to be energized from the circuit, means for
preventing the opening of the circuit interrupt
ing _means under predetermined circuit condi
tions, means tending to eliminate the preventive
action ot said preventing means on the occur
20
rence of a fault on the circuit, and means for
maintaining the preventive action of said pre
venting means ii' the fault is outside of said cir
cuit section including an oscillation transmitter
at the other end of said section having a master 30
oscillator electric discharge valve provided with
a control electrode means, a receiver at said one
end tuned to the frequency of said transmitter,
means at said other end for normally applying
to the control electrode means of said valve a 35
potential such as to prevent the operation of the
transmitter including fault-responsive means
connected to be energized from the power circuit
operative on the occurrence of a fault on the cir
cuit to remove said potential whereby to permit 40
said transmitter to transmit to said receiver, and
directional relay means for restoring said poten
tial during the existence of the fault when en
ergy flow at said other end is into said circuit
section.
3. A protective arrangement for an electric
power circuit including circuit interrupting
means at one end of a section oi' the power cir
cuit, a control circuit for effecting the opening of
said circuit interrupting means, means for efl'ect- ,
ing the energization of said control circuit in
cluding a fault-responsive relay connected to be
energized from the power circuit, means biased
under normal conditions oi' the power circuit to
prevent the energization of said control circuit,
means tending to remove said bias on the occur
rence of a fault on the power circuit, and means
for maintaining said bias if the fault is outside of
said circuit section including an oscillation trans
mitter at the other end or said circuit section 60
having a master oscillator electric discharge valve
with a control electrode and an anode whose po
tential is continuously positive, a receiver at said
one end tuned to the frequency of said transmit
ter, fault-responsive means at said other end con 65
nected to be energized from the power circuit for
normally applying a blocking potential to the
control electrode of said valve whereby normally
to prevent the operation of said transmitter op
erative on the occurrence of a fault on the cir
cuit to remove said bias whereby to permit said
transmitter to transmit to said receiver, and di
rectional relay means for restoring said control
electrode bias during the existence o! the fault 75
2,137,865
when energy ilow at said other end is into said
circuit section.
4. A protective arrangement for an electric cir
cuit including circuit interrupting means at one
5
energize the anode circuit, means for rendering
said valve means nonconductive on the occur
rence of a fault on the power circuit until said
end of a section of the circuit, means for con
power directional fault-responsive means has op
erated including a second fault-responsive means
trolling the opening of said circuit interrupting
connected to be energized from the power circuit
means including fault-responsive means con
and means at the other end of said section for
transmitting a current toA said one end if the
direction of energy iiow in the circuit is from
the section to said other end, and means ener 10
nected to be energized from the circuit and elec
tric discharge valve means, means for rendering
10 said valve means nonconducting for a time after
the occurrence of a fault on said circuit, and
means for rendering said valve means conducting
after the expiration of said time unless the fault
is outside the circuit section.
5. A protective arrangement for an electric cir
15
cuit including circuit interrupting means at one
end of a section of the circuit, means forcontrol
ling the opening of said circuit interrupting
means including fault-responsive means con
20 nected to be energized from the circuit and nor
mally nonconducting electric discharge valve
means, means for maintaining said valve means
nonconducting for a time after the occurrence of
a fault on said circuit, and means for rendering
gized by said transmitted current for maintain
ing the valve means at said one end noncon- '
ductive while the faulty condition prevails.
9. A protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting means at 15
one end oi'A a section of the circuit, means for
controlling the opening of said circuit interrupt
ing means including fault-responsive means> con
nected to be energized from the circuit and an
electric discharge valve having two control elec 20
trodes, means for applying to one o! said control’
electrodes a potential for rendering the valve non
conducting under normal conditions of the cir
cuit operative to remove said potential on the
25 said valve means conducting after the expiration ' occurrence of a fault on the circuit whereby to 25
of said time unless the fault is outside the circuit
tend to render said valve conductive, and means
section.
for maintaining said valve nonconducting if the
~
6. A protective arrangement i'or an electric cir
cuit including circuit interrupting means at one
30 end of a section of the circuit, means for control
fault is outside` of said circuit section, including
means including fault-responsive means con
means at the other end of the section for trans
mitting a current to said one end when the direc 30
tion of energy ilow in the circuit is from the see
tion to said other end and means at said one end
nected to be energized from the circuit and elec
tric discharge valve means, means for rendering
for applying to the other control electrodes of said
valve a potential for maintaining the valve non
ling the opening of said circuit interrupting
35 said valve means nonconducting for a time after
the occurrencel oi’ a fault on said circuit, and
means including a single power directional relay
responsive to both phase and ground faults 4for
rendering said- valve means conducting at the
40 expiration of saidtime unless the fault is outside
the circuit section.
7. A protective arrangement for an electric cir
cuit including circuit interrupting means at one
end of a section of the circuit, means for control
45 ling the opening of said circuit interrupting
means including fault-responsive means con
nected to be energized from the circuit and an
electric discharge valve means, means for main
taining said valve means nonconducting under
normal conditions of the circuit including means
operative to maintain the valve means tempo
,rarily nonconducting on the occurrence of a fault
on the circuit with energy flow into the section
at said one end, and means for further maintain
ing said valve means nonconducting for said
direction of energy flow if the fault is outside of
said circuit section including means at the other
end of the section for transmitting current to
said one end when the direction of energy ilow
60 in the circuit is from the section to said other end
and means at said one end responsive to said
transmitted current.
8. A protective arrangement for an electric
power circuit including circuit interrupting means
65 at one end of a section of the power circuit,
means for controlling the opening of said cir
cuit interrupting means including an electric dis
charge valve means, power directional fault-re
sponsive means for controlling the energization of
70 the anode circuit of said valve means connected
to be energized from said power circuit and op
erative under normal circuit conditions to pre
vent the energization of said anode circuit and
under abnormal circuit conditions with energy
75 now into the section from said end to tend to
conducting including means responsive to said 35
transmitted current.
10. A protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting meansA at
one end of a section of the circuit, means for
controlling the opening of said circuit interrupt 40
ing means including fault-responsive means con
nected to be energized from the circuit and an
electric discharge Valve means, means for main
taining said valve means nonconducting under
no'rmal conditions of the circuit operative to 45
maintain the valve means nonconducting for a
time after the occurrence of a fault on the cir
cuit and means for further maintaining said
valve means nonconducting if the fault is outside
of said circuit section including means at each 50
end of the section for transmitting current to said
one end when the direction of power flow in the
circuit is out of the section at either end and
means at' said one end responsive to said trans
mitted current.
55
11. A protective arrangement for an electric
power circuit including circuit interrupting means
at one end of a section of the power circuit,
means for controlling the opening of said circuit
interrupting means including electric discharge 60
valve means, a ñrst fault-responsive means for
controlling the energization of the anode circuit
of said valve means connected to be energized
from said power circuit and operative under nor
mal circuit conditions to prevent the energization
65
of said anode circuit and under abnormal condi
tions to tend to effect the energization of said
anode circuit, means including a second fault
responsive means connected to be energized from 70
the power circuit for rendering said valve means
nonconductive on the occurrence of a fault on the
power circuit until said first fault-responsive
means has operated, and means for maintaining
said valve means nonconductive when there is a 75
6
2,137,865
flow of power out of the other end of the circuit
one end for transmitting a control current, a
section.
circuit closing directional relay means for stop
ping the transmission o! said control current on
`
l2. A protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting means at
Ul
one end of a section of the circuit, means for con
trolling the opening oi said circuit interrupting
means including fault-responsive means con
- nected to be energized from the circuit and an
means, means for applying to said control elec
trode means a potential for rendering the valve
nonconductive under normal conditions of the
including means at said other end for transmit
ting a control current, and means for controlling
said transmitting means including directional re 10
lay means connected to be energized from the
circuit and operative to eiïect transmission at
circuit operative to remove said potential on the
occurrence of a fault on the circuit whereby to
said other end when lts contacts are opened.
16. A protective arrangement for an electric
tend to render said valve conductive and means
circuit including circuit interrupting means at
for maintaining said valve nonconductive if the
fault is outside ci said circuit section including
trolling the opening of said circuit interrupting
electric discharge valve having control electrode
means at the other end of the section for trans
mitting a current to said one end when the di
rection oí energy iiow in the circuit is from the
section to said other end, and means at said one
end for applying to said control electrode means
a potential for rendering the valve nonconduc
tive including means responsive to said trans
~
the occurrence of power ilow into the section at
said one end, and means for maintaining the
biasing action on said preventing means when
power flow is out of the section at the other end,
mit c
”'f current.
i3. s; protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including ci
one end of a section oi' the circuit, means for con
means including. fault-responsive means con
nected to be energized from the circuit and an
electric discharge valve means, means for ren 20
dering said valve means nonconducting under
normal conditions of the circuit, means operative
to maintain the valve means nonconducting for
a time after the occurrence of 4a. fault on the
circuit with power now into the section at said 25
one end, and means for rendering said valve
interrupting means,
means conducting at the expiration of said time
means for' eontroliing tl'ie opening of said circuit
unless the fault is outside the circuit section.
l?. A protective arrangement for an electric
interrupting means including receiver' relay
means, means for rendering said receiver relay
means normali;
?iective in the opening oi said
circuit interrupt _ig means and means for main
taining saidL receiver relay means ineffective
under predetermined circuit conditions, includ
ing means for transmitting a control current
for controlling said receiver relay means and
means for contro"ing said transmitting means
sai receiver relay means including a recti
lying means and a fault detector relay means
connected to be energized from the circuit and
having a single contact means controlling a cir
cuit to said receiver relay means and a circuit to
said transmitting means through said rectiiying
means.
¿l protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting means at
one end of a section oi the circuit, means for con
trolling the opening of said circuit interrupting
means ¿niluding electric discharge valve means,
fault responsive means for normally rendering
said discharge valve means nonconducting in
cluding fault detector relay means and fault
directîonal relay means operative to complete
Contact controlling operations at different times
and teni-.Ang to render said valve means conduct
ing on the occurrence of a fault with power ñow
into the section at said one end, and means for
maintaining said valve means noncondueting
during the time between the operations of said
relays when power ilow is into the section at said
one end, and means for rendering said Valve
means conducting at the expiration of said time
unless the fault is outside the circuit section.
l5. A protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting means at
one end of a section of the circuit, means for ef
iecting the opening of said circuit interrupting
means including fault-responsive means connect
ed to be energized from the circuit, means biased
70 under normal conditions of the circuit to pre»
vent the opening of said circuit interrupting
means and means for maintaining the bias on
said preventing means on the occurrence of a
fault on the circuit With power ilow out of the
75 section at said one end including means at said
circuit including circuit interrupting means at 30
one end of a section of the circuit, means for ei'
iecting the opening ci’ said circuit interrupting
means including fault-responsive means con
nected to be energized from the circuit, means
biased under normal conditions of the circuit
to prevent the opening of said circuit interrupting
means and means for maintaining the bias on
said preventing means on the occurrence of a
fault on the circuit with power flow out of the
section at said one end including means at said
one end for transmitting a control current, and
a circuit closing directional relay means for stop
ping the transmission of said control current on
the occurrence of power flow into the section at
said one end.
18. In combination, a polyphase alternating 45
current circuit and circuit interrupting means
therefor, means for controlling said circuit in
terrupting means including a channel of com
munication between two points of the circuit,
means for controlling said channel of communi
cation including at each of said points a com
bined power directional and ground fault re
50
sponsive relay connected to be energized from the
circuit to have a preferential ground fault re
66
sponse, and means controlled by said relays for
selectively controlling the energization of said
channel of communication in accordance with the
location of a fault within or without the section
of the circuit between said points.
19. In combination, an electric circuit and cir
cuit interrupting means therefor, means for con
trolling said circuit interrupting means including
a channel of communication between two points
of the circuit, means for controlling said channel
of communication including at each of said points
a power directional relay responsive to both
phase and ground faults and connected to be
energized from the circuit, said relay being more
sensitive to ground fault power ñow in one d1
rection than to the simultaneously existing load
power ñow in the opposite direction, and means
controlled by said relays for selectively control
ling the energization of said channel of com
70
munication in accordance with the location ot a 75
2,137,865
fault within or without the section of the circuit
between said points.
20. A protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting means at
one end of a section oi’ the circuit, means for
controlling the opening of said circuit interrupt
ing means including-a trip circuit, an electric
discharge valve means having its output circuit
connected to be energized from the circuit for
rendering said valve means conducting only on
the occurrence of a fault on said circuit within
the circuit section.
22. A protective arrangement for an electric
circuit including circuit interrupting means,
means for controlling 'the opening of said circuit
interrupting means including receiver relay
in series relation in said trip circuit. and means ` means, means for rendering said receiver relay
means normally ineñective in the opening of 10
10 including fault responsive relay means at both
said circuit interrupting means and means for
ends of the circuit section connected to be ener
gized from the circuit for rendering said valve maintaining said receiver relay means ineffective
means effective to energize said trip circuit only under predeteremined circuit conditions includ
ing means for transmitting a control current for
on the occurrence of a fault within said circuit
controlling said receiver relay means, and means 15
15 section.
21. A protective arrangement for an electric for controlling said transmitting means and said
circuit including circuit interrupting means at receiver relay means including a fault detector
relay connected to be energized from the circuit
one end of a section of the circuit, means for
and having a single contact means controlling
controlling the opening of said circuit interrupt
a circuit to said receiver relay means and a cir
20 ing means including fault-responsive means con
cuit to said transmitting means and a valve means
nected to be energized from the circuit and nor
mally nonconducting electric discharge valve in the circuit to said transmitting means.
means, and means at both ends oi’ the circuit
section including fault responsive relay means
OLIVER C. TRAVER.
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