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Патент USA US2137875

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Nov. 22,1938.
Filed Oct. 22, 1957
s Sheets-Sheet 1 -
' mvamon'
Emu-m A. (ZR/w”
Filed 001;. 22, 1957
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Nov. 22, 1938 .
Kenneth A. Harmon, Longmeadow, Masa, assign
or to Wico Electric Company, West Spring?eld,
Mass... a corporation of Massachusetts
> Application October 22, 1937, Serial No. 170,403
(Cl. 171-209)
2 Claims.
a sleeve l0 adapted to fit in a socket of an internal
combustion engine in the same manner as the
This invention relates to improvements in high
tension magnetos, such as are suitable for use as
usual timer-distributer unit used in battery igni
an ignition‘ means for multi-cylinder internal
tion systems. The driving shaft H has a bearing
in this sleeve and extends below it carrying an
element 02 for coupling engagement with a shaft
of the engine. The magneto casing has a seat 13
which is adapted to rest on and be supported by
the end face of said socket. The sleeve I0 is held
in such socket by suitable means (not shown), 10
engaging in vthe circumferential groove it of
combustion engines.
The general object of the invention is to provide
in a high tension magneto an improved arrange
ment of parts, characterized by compactness and
enabling the magneto to be made small in size
and at the same time powerful and efficient.
The invention, for example, enables the mag
neto to be of such small dimensions that it may be
mounted on and driven from the internal combus
tion engine in the same manner as the timer
- sleeve ill.
The magneto casing is constructed in three
generally cylindrical sections l5, l6 and ll,
distributer units now employed with the battery
is ignition systems of automobiles.
mounted one upon the other in superposed and 15 ' ‘
also in coaxial relation. Usually the upper sec
tion l'i carries a distributer cap l8, made of insu
Another object of the invention is to provide a
high tension magneto, in which the stator is com
posed of a plurality of coils and cores mounted in
a circular series around the magneto drive shaft
go with the axes of coils, cores and shaft in substan
tiaily parallel relation, and in which the rotor,
driven by the shaft, is composed of at least one
lating material and mounted on, section ll for
convenient removal in any of the usual and well
known ways. The sections l5 and I‘! which may 20
be made or“ iron or other metal or any other suit
able material, have annular ?anges such as l9 to
?t into and engage the cylindrical outer wall of.
and preferably two multi-polar magnets of high
the intervening section it, whereby the several
coercive force and very small size, one magnet-be
25 ing located above and cooperating with the upper
ends of the cores and the other being located be;
sections are centralized one with another. These 25
three sections are firmly held together by a series
of cap screws ill (Fig. 6), which pass through sec»
tions 15 and it and thread into section II.
low and cooperating with the lower ends of the
The middle section it is advantageously made
A further object of the invention is to provide a
so high tension magneto which is designed for manu
facture in quantities at low unit cost.
Other objects will appear as the detailed de
of bakelite or similar material, molded in the 30
form shown. It has a lower end wall 2| and, up
standing centrally therefrom, a sleeve 22 in the
upper end of which is inserted a bearing 23 for
shaft H. The upper end of sleeve 22 and the
upper end of the outer‘ cylindrical wall of casing 35
section It are formed with seats, upon which rests
a top closure plate 24 of annular form,-such
plate being preferably also made of bakelite. The
parts l6, 2!, 22 and 24 form a closed'annuiar
scription proceeds and will be pointed out in the
appended claims.
The invention will be disclosed with reference
to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a full size, sectional elevational view of
a magneto embodying the invention;
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 are cross sectional views taken
40 on the lines 2--2, 3-43, and 4-4, respectively, of
Fig. 1;
chamber in which all the coils of the magneto 40
are housed. The cores for these coils, as well as
other non-coil-carrying cores pass through this
Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view taken on the line
chamber and have their ends projecting slightly
5-—5 of Fig; 1, showing the timer mechanism;
above the top wall 24 and slightly below the bot
tom wall 2|.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on
45 the line 6-6 of Fig. 2;
Fig. '1 is a fragmentary exterior elevational view
with parts broken away to show the mounting of
the cores;
Referring to Fig. 4, the cores and coils are ar
ranged in a circular series. There are a plu
rality, eight in this case, of cores 25 spaced at
equal angular intervals around shaft H and at
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional elevatlohal“ equal radial distances therefrom. Alternate cores 50
50 view taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 2; and
of the series carry coil units,-—each such unit com
Fig. 9 is a wiring diagram showing theelectrical prising ‘a primary coil 26 and a secondary coil 21.
As will be seen‘from Fig. 1, the axes of these cores
Referring to these drawings: the magneto has and coils parallel the axis of shaft II. The cores
been illustrated as of the so-called timer type, may be ?xed in their housing in any suitable way. 55
55 having on the bottom part of its casing (Fig. 1)
One desirable way is to make that portion of each
core, which lies between the end walls 2| and 24;
circular section of shaft H loosely puss. Ma
trix metal 40 is cast in each such hole and arolmd
the non-circular part of the shaft to hold each
slightly wider than the portions of the core that
pass through said walls. For example, the two » magnet thereto. This particular holding means
outer laminations of each core may be made
is purely exemplary and the magnetic rotors
shorter as shown in Figs. 6 and 7, whereby shoul
may be fixed to the shaft in any other suitable
ders 28 are formed. The walls 2| and 24 are way.
formed with holes to fit the ends of the cores and
The upper section I] has a horizontal wall
the shoulders abut the inner faces of the two end 2 41, having a central opening in which the hollow
walls. Then, when the cap screws 20 are tight
hub 42 of a timer plate I! is mounted on ball 10
ened, the ?ange B9 of section ll will press the top bearings 44. This mounting enables the timer
wall 24 against the upper shoulder 28 of each core plate to be shifted angularly relative to shaft I!
25 and force these cores downwardly until the for spark timing purposes by any suitable means
lower shoulder 28 of each engages the bottom
(not herein shown), in a manner well understood
wall 24.
in the art. It will‘be understood that plate 42 15
Also located within the casing section I6 is is normally stationary but capable of being an
a high ten°sion conductor in the form of a circu
lar band of metal 29 (Fig. 1) which is slipped
into thecoil housing from its upper end and
20 pressed downwardly until it seats on a shoulder
formed on the inner wall of section l5. This
band has struck out therefrom at suitably spaced
intervals, spring ?ngers 30 adapted to engage,
' one with each, the high tension terminals 3!
25 of the secondary coils. The section i6 is formed
with an integral upstanding socket 32 (Fig. 8) to
receive a high tension conductor and within the
socket is a" metal part 33 with which said con
ductor is adapted to make contact. A spring-34
30 connects part 33 with the band 29.
gularly shifted for varying the timing of the
spark. The upper end of shaft ll extends
loosely through the hollow hub 42 and has fixed
thereto a cam 45 for actuating the breaker point
mechanism, opening and closing them in proper
timed relation with the breaks in the magnetic
circuit eifected by movement of the magnetic
rotors m and m’. Any suitable breaker point
mechanism may be used for the purpose.
An exemplary form of breaker point mecha
nism is shown in Fig. 5. It includes relatively
?xed and movable breaker points I‘ and 41, the
former being stationarily but adjustably mounted
on timer plate 42 and grounded thereto and the 30
latter being fixed to one end of a lever ll of
cores 25 are set into the holes in wall 2i; the insulating material pivotally mounted on a stud
coils 26 and 21 are slipped over the proper cores; ' l9 and having its other end located so as to be
the necessary electrical connections are made;
35 then the space within the coil housing is filled engaged by cam 45. A spring II serves to move
In assembling the parts the lower ends of the
with waxor other suitable material; and the
cover 24 is applied. This complete unit is then
slipped over the shaft, which has been previously
the lever 48 into engagement with the cam‘and
also as an electrical conductor to connect breaker
point 41 to a terminal 6|, fixed to an insulating
block 52 secured to plate 43. A condenser 64 is
mounted in section I5 and onto its seat on the 7 also mounted on this plate and has one terminal
40, latter. The cap screws 20 are then applied to
grounded thereto, the other terminal being con
clamp the casing sections together.
- nected by a metal piece I! to terminal II.
The rotors are permanent magnets suitably
A distributer is provided above the timer and
?xedto shaft ll. The latter has a shoulder 36
comprises a series, eight in this case, of terminals
to engage a seat formed on the inner face of the
45 bottom wall of section l5. This shoulder 20 and
- 56,‘ mounted in cap II and having sockets ‘I to
a collar 31, ?xed to shaft ll Just below the lower
and a brush 58, fixed to the upper end of shaft I I.
The inner end of brush 5| is connected to a ter
end of sleeve lli, hold the shaft in position ax
ially. .The magnets are made of special steel
of such~a class that very high ‘coercive force can
be obtained from magnets of very small dimen
sions. The magnetic rotors, as herein shown,
are formed by casting. Each has as many arms
38 as there are cores, alternate arms being of
opposite polarity (Figs. 2 and 3). The arrange
ment provides the equivalent of a circular series
of horseshoe magnets (four in
case) having
the inner ends interconnected. The neutral
points of each magnet lie nearest to the shaft l I
and the arms of the magnets point outwardly,
60 terminating with integral pole shoes 25 .for co
operation with the ends of cores 25. The upper
magnet marked 11:. is mounted with its pole shoes
receive the usual spark plug wires (not shown),
minal 58 in cap lI,—'-such terminal having a
socket ‘62 to ‘receive one end ofa high tension
wire, the other end of which is received in socket
I2 and connected to terminal 22 and thus to the
high tension terminals .of all the secondary
The electrical connections are shown in Pig. 9.
The several primary coils 2! are connected in
series and one terminal of one end coil of the
series is grounded.
The other end coil of the -
series is connected by a wire ‘I to the terminal
II and thus to the movable breaker point 41
and the insulated terminal of the condenser II.
The primary coils are thus connected in a series
39 downturned toward and into‘ close proximity
with the upper ends of cores 25. The lower
magnet marked m’ is mounted with its pole shoes
39 upturned toward and into close proximity
circuit which can be opened and closed by the
with the lower ends of cores 2!. The arms ll of
minal of each being grounded and the other ter
mine] of each being connected, as described, to
the lower magnet m’ lie directly beneath the
disengagement and engagement, respectively, of
the breaker points 46 and 41. ‘The secondary
coils as shown, are connected in parallel, one ter
arms of the upper magnet m but the arrange-. the terminal 22 in socket 22. The parallel con
ment is such, as will be clear from a comparison nection of the secondary coils is nothowever, 70
of Figs. 2 and 3, that beneath each pole shoe
of magnet m is a pole shoe of oppositepolarity
essential. The various wire connections between '
on the magnet m’.
comprising the parts I‘, 2|, 22, 24, and only the
The magnets, as herein "shown, each have a
central hole therethrough through which a non
the coils may be made within‘ the coil housing,
wirelll and a ground wire need pass outside the
housing. The high tension terminal 32 is con
2,137,375 _
nected to terminal 59 of the distributer by a
wire 82.
The operation of the magneto will next be de
scribed. Assuming that the magnets m and 111.’
have been moved backwardly (clockwise) until
which by reason of high quality rather than large
dimensions, produces all the ?ux that is needed.
The magnets, though small, are of exceedingly
high coercive force. The arrangement lends
itself to the use of two magnets in series in each
they are positioned so that their pole shoes 39 of the four magnetic circuits. Some means has
overlie and underlie, respectively, the ends of ‘ to be provided for interconnecting adjacent cores
cores 25, four magnetic circuits are then estab
lished,--one through each vset of generating coils.
10 For example, ?ux from each north pole of magnet
m will ?ow down through a non-coil-carrying
coreji to a south pole of magnet m’ and thence
from an adjacent north pole of magnet m’ up
wardly through a coil-carrying core‘ 25 to a south
pole. of magnet‘ m. As the rotors turn in a
counterclockwise direction, they will eventually
assume the positions illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3
in which the magnetic circuits just described,
will be broken at four points by air gaps 63 and
other magnetic circuits will be established in an
opposite direction through each set of generating
coils. Thus, flux from each north pole of magnet
m will now pass downwardly through a coil carry
ing core 25 to a south pole of magnet m’ and
25 from an adjacent north pole thereof, ?ux will
pass upwardly through a non-coil-carrying core
25 to a south pole of magnet m. Thus, at the
moment illustrated'in Figs. 2 and 3, a magnetic
circuit in one direction through each coil has just
30 been broken and a me gnetic circuit in the oppo
site direction just established,—thus securing a
at their lower ends and, while such means might
merely be magnetizable material, it is advantage
ously made of permanently magnetic material
because of the added supply of ?ux thereby
The invention thus ailords an exceedingly com
pact arrangement of parts in a high tensionv
magneto, with all moving parts kept to as low
weight as feasible and the heavier parts,—the
coils and cores,—1ocated stationarily between the
two rotors andv packed closely around the shaft.
What I- claim is:
1. A‘magneto‘, comprising, a driving shaft, a
pair of rotors ?xed thereto in axially spaced rela
tion and each comprising a plurality of radially
extending arms, a stator mounted between the
arms of the two rotors and surrounding said
shaft, said stator comprising a circular series of
cores equal in number to the arms of a rotor, each
core‘ mounted in substantially, parallel relation
with said shaft and having its ends located in
inductive relation one with the arms of one rotor
and the other with the arms of the other rotor, 30
at least one of said rotors being a permanent
reversal of ?ux and therefore a larg " ?ux change.
magnet with alternate arms of opposite polarity,
At this moment, the cam 45 separates the breaker
points 46 and 41 and a spark is produced. There
will be eight such breaks and ?ux reversals dur
ing each revolution of shaft II and the breaker
point cam has eight projections to cause an open
and coil units mounted one unit on alternate cores
of the series and each comprising a primary and
a secondary coil.
2. A magneto, comprising, a driving shaft, a
pair of rotors ?xed thereto in axially spaced rela
ing of the primary circuit at each of said breaks. . tion and each comprising a plurality of radially
‘It will be noted that the construction aifords extending arms, a stator mounted between the
40 a compact arrangement of parts. The coils are arms of the two rotors and ‘surrounding said
placed as closely as possible to the drive shaft shaft, said vstator comprising a circular series of‘
and for a given size of coil the diameter of the cores equal in number to the arms of a rotor,
casing is as small as it is feasible to make it in a ‘ each core mounted in substantially parallel rela
- high tension magneto, where both primary and tion with said shaft and having its ends located
secondary coils are used. The coils are packed in inductive relation one with the arms of one
so closely together that no room is available for rotor and the other with the arms of the other
rotor, each of said rotors being a permanent
coils on four of the cores. While these last men
tioned four cores might also be. equipped with .magnet with alternate arms of opposite polarity,
coils, if desired, this would mean an increase in , each arm of one rotor being of opposite polarity
diameter of the magneto casing, with the result to the corresponding and opposed arm of the .
that it might be too bulky for the timer-type other rotor, and coil units mounted one on alter
mounting. The coils constitute the limiting ‘nate ‘cores of the series and each comprising a
factor here.
No di?lculty is presented in get- ' primary and‘a secondary coil.
ting the magnets within the desired space limita
tions because they are made 0K special steel,
KENNETH a much‘.
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