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Nov. 22, 1938. W. W. J. FULLER 2,137,888 MEANS AND METHOD FOR CONVERTING SPEECH INTO VISIBLE INDICIA Filed Nov. 18, 1935 @1 7 / 1; (4. 3%9-2 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 > Nov. 22, 1938. w, w, J_ FULLER 2,137,888 MEANS AND METHOD FOR CONVERTING SPEECH INTO VISIBLE INDICIA Filed Nov. 18, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 =1. L13 3-0 O :I I l I l l l l l l I l l I a -i I I :l e l l I I l l l i J Nov. 22, 1938. v w. w. J. FULLER 2,137,333 mmns AND usmon FOR convnmma SPEECH INTO VISIBLE mmcn Filed NOV. 18, 1935 w j? 7 i T l 3 Sheets-Sheet '3 * mug “L3 /_ E as I'm-‘m Patented Nov. 22, 1938 2,137,888 UNITED STATES ‘PATENT ‘OFFICE 8.181.888 J mus AND METHOD I0! CONVERTING SPEECH INTO wanna INDIQA Wallace Watt 1.‘ I’aller, Washington. D. 0. Application November 18, 1988, Isshl Na. “.45! ll Claim. (a. 170-1) This invention relates to a method and means ouit,ortoaslgnalreleased.singlestroke sweep for analysing the wave terms of spoken sounds circuit, as protested. and- for causing those spoken sounds to make a visible indication. The latter may be in the s iorm of an illuminated letter. symbol, or word sign, or on the other hand may be in the term of a permanent printed record. It is a well known fact that speech is a complex phenomenon oi pitch or frequency diilerences: 10 volume, intensity or amplitude di?'erences: and quality or number and relative strength 01' par tials or harmonics or wave form diilerences. In the sense of hearing, all three of these com ponents, and the duration or time element of 15 each, are utilized for articulation or intelligibility. It is an object of the present invention to pro vide a method and apparatus for converting in telligible sounds (primarily speech sounds) into intelligible visible indicia and, in accordance with 20 this invention, I take into account all 0! the above mentioned factors, whereas, in the prior art, as far as I am aware, only the matter of irequency ditlerences has been considered. For this reason, no operative method oi, or apparatus for con 25 verting speech sounds into intelligible visible in dicia have been produced, prior to my invention. It is the primary object of the present inven tion, therefore, to provide a method and means for converting sounds into intelligible visible tom, 30 such as word signs, letters or characters, either exhibited, illuminated or printed. It is an object of the invention to provide a method and apparatus which will make possible the conversion oi’ speech sound into visible form, 35' for instance, to enable totally dear persons to understand, visually. the spoken word. The in vention, 0! course, is not con?ned to use by the deal, as it is oi utility in converting speech into a permanent printed record. 40 According to the pinciple of this invention, speech sounds or- the like are ?rst converted into a corresponding pulsating current, for instance. by the use oi a microphone, a series of ?lters. and an audio-frequency ampli?er. This current, and an appropriate sweep circuit, control the electron beam to trace a path corresponding to the spoken sound. As is well understood, either Instead oi using a conventional cathode ray tube, in which the electron beam is projected directly onto a ?uorescent screen, merely for s the purpose oi illuminating the same, a special type 0! target is provided in my invention. The target is associated with the cathode ray tube, in the path 01' the, electron beam, and comprises essentially a mask provided with apertures of i0 novel type, as explained below, and means be hind the mask adapted to be ailected by the beam projecting through one or more oi’ the apertures. The mask is provided with apertm'es posi tioned thereon in accordance with a plurality of lo diilerent patterns, each pattern corresponding to the wave form or path traced thereon by the electron beam when actuated or controlled by a particular previously recorded sound. Each soundadaptedtobeindicatedvisuallybytheao method and apparatus or the present invention will,oicourse,causetheelectronbeamtotrace a diilerent wave form on the mask. These curves maybetracedbeiorehandbytheuseoi oil cov ered photographic plate or by the discoloring oi as the metal of the mask by the electron beam. One or more apertures may then be drilled or other wise i'ormed at convenient points ‘along each curve, care being taken to avoid forming the apertures where the diilerent sound traces cross to one another, and to‘ avoid too close a spacing of the apertures. For each sound trace, a diiler ent position, number, size, or shape of- apertures are provided. - Whenthe eleotronbeamisactuatedandcon- as trolled by a predetermined sound, it will neces sarily travel along the path previously recorded cnthemaskbyacorrespondingscundandwill be projected through the. aperture or apertures positioned on that path, but through no other 40 apertures. Since, as stated, the‘position, number, size or shape oi the apertures-are di?’erent, the eilect oithebeamproiectedtherethroughwlllbedit terentioreachsoundanditisanimportant“ feature of the present invention to provide means, which may be 0! several. diilerent types, for utilis electro-magnetic or electro-static means, that is, coils or plates, respectively, or a combination of both may be used to control de?ection. '?le voice current circuit may be connected to one pair 0! electron beam de?ecting plates or coils ingtheproiectedandscreenedbeamtoselect oi’ the cathode ray tube, and the other pair oi dicator. The ?rst, i'or convenience, may be termed the “impulse system", the second, the "charge accumulative system”. and the third, the se plates or coils associated therewith may be con 55 nected either to a signal synchronised sweep cir and actuate an apropriate visual indicator. Three alternative ways are described below for so utilising the enersy oi the electronbeam passing through the screen to select and actuate an in 2 8,187,888 " ect fluorescent” or “direct illumination sys tern". In the first two systems, I position behind the ticularly desirable in the charge accumulative system, because means must be provided to re ceive the successive charges projected through screen a charge accumulating or conducting de the screen. vice, preferably, but not necessarily, in the form of a Faraday cage. In the third, I position be impulse system, or a simple plate of material of The same device may be used in the provided with visible lndicia, such, for instance, high electron absorption coefficient may be sub stituted. The mask should be insulated from the conducting or accumulating member, and this as stenciled letters or word signs. insulation is accomplished by Spacing the mem hind the mask a ?uorescent screen, preferably 10 - For each system,‘ a slightly different form of bers apart and, if desired, connecting the mask target mask is used, although all three are bas-' ically the same. In the impulse system, each wave form or path is provided with a plurality to ground. The apertures in the mask should of apertures which differ, from pattern to pat 15 tern as to their shape, spacing and/or number. In the accumulative charge system the apertures along each sound trace diiier as regards their number or size, whereas in the third (direct il lumination) system, only one aperture is provided 20 for each sound trace, and the apertures differ from one another only in the matter of their Position. In the ?rst or impulse system, individual pulses are applied to the conductor positioned there. 25 behind as the electron beam travels over the apertures in the mask arranged on a particular wave form pattern. These pulses are ampli?ed. and may be used to actuate a high speed elec have well de?ned, sharp edges. Ii_a Faraday cage type of collector is asso ciated with the mask, its front face preferably is provided'with openings registering ‘with the 15 pattern‘ openings in the screen so that electrons projecting through the openings can enter the cage to be absorbed by the walls thereof, but so that the electrons will be restrained from being re?ected outwardly thereof. 20 In practicing my invention, it is essential that all of the sound waves traced on the target start from the same point and that all are released or set in operation by the voice itself. Each sound wave or trace will be different from the others. 25 and the apertures are so located on the difIerent traces as to take advantage of these differences trical integrator or indicator for actuating print ing keys. Thus, each path traversed by the most eillciently. When the impulse system is used, the charge absorbing and conducting element behind the 30 electron beam will create, in the circuit con nected to the target, a series of unidirectional screen may be connected through appropriate ampli?cation to_a counter or indicator of the pulses which are different from series to series in the matter of their number, duration, or 35 periodic frequency or a combination thereof. Indicators adapted to be controlled and actuated by such pulsating currents are known in the art. In the case of the cumulative charge system, type used in teletype work or any other type of indicator, adapted to be actuated by the num ber, frequency and/or duration of the successive 40 the individual pulses imparted by the electron beam to the charge accumulator behind the mask, as a result of the passage of the beam through the several openings on a particular path, are stored 1m until the end of the sweep 45 of the beam for that particular sound. At the end of the sweep, a circuit is closed from the target to ground, and the potential of the dis charge, which will be diiferent for each sound pulses may be used. The charge absdrbing and conducting member behind the screen in the impulse system is so connected that the impulses are registered on the indicator circuit immedi ately as the electron beam traverses the pattern 40 and projects through the openings thereon. In the case of the charge accumulating method, the charges resulting from the projec tion of the beam through the several openings are stored up during the entire time that the 45 beam travels across the mask, and means must be provided for discharging this accumulated charge at the end of the travel of the beam, so track pattern, is utilized to control the selection 50 of the appropriate indicator. In the direct illumination system, the beam will pass through only one aperture during its that the current may be utilized to effect the necessary selection of the proper indicating 50 traverse of a particular sound track. Positioned behind the mask is a fluorescent screen. adapted 55 to be illuminated by the electron beam when it passes through the mask. Since the spot of illumination will be different for each sound trace, the mask acts as a selector. At the points on the screen, or on the end of the tube, corre 60 sponding to the spots which will be illuminated by the beam, appropriate indicia, such as letters or other characters are positioned, so that they will be illuminated or indicated by the luminous spots on the ?uorescent surface. Consequently, 65 a letter or other character corresponding to the traces. adapted to close a circuit, by an appro priate relay, so that the accumulated current will flow from the collector to ground. By the 65 interposition of an appropriate resistor in the last mentioned circuit, the potential drop across it will be applied to an appropriate ampli?ca tion circuit to control the indicators. Alterna spoken sound will be illuminated by the elec tron beam. Thus, the spoken sound automatically con trols the actuation of a particular indicating 70 means, so that a visual indication correspond ing to it is made. As stated above, when either of the ?rst two ways is used, there is positioned behind the mask a charge receiving device which may be in the 75 nature of a Faraday cage. Such a device is par means. This means may comprise an auxiliary electrode positioned at the end of the several tively, I may use a relay tube interposed in the 60 beam sweep circuit to close the circuit from the collector to ground when the current has risen sumciently high in the sweep circuit to have moved the beam all the way across the target. with my invention, either of two circuits. 65 termed "sweep circuits" may be used to con— trol the movement of the beam across the tar get. The ?rst may be described as a voice re leased sweep circuit, which consists of a circuit adapted to cause the beam to make a single, rela 70 tively slow stroke across the target for each sound. The second is a voice synchronized sweep circuit, which is recurrent, i. e., similar to the so-called sawtooth relaxation oscillation im pulses. In this type, the beam makes a great 75 3 ans-aces plurality of strokes across the target during each sound. In the former, a constant period of time is consumed by the beam during each traverse of the target. In the latter. the sweep velocity bears a de?nite sub-multiple relationship to the voice frequencies. The voice stroke, signal released sweep circuit is preferable in certain cases, but it. must be un derstood that my invention is not limited thereto. A control electrode is located at the beginning po sition of rest to which the beam is normally di rected when no voice current is in the sound cir cuit. When a current is impressed upon this cir cuit, by the admission of a sound, the beam will 15 be de?ected by the detector plates or coils in the cathode ray tube and will then be removed from the control electrode. Such removal of the beam will make a change in the current in a circuit connected to that electrode, which, through an 20 appropriate thermionic relay, will start the op eration oi’ the sweep circuit to move the beam across the target. An electronic time delay may be inserted in this circuit, e. g., a current limiting tube, that is, one which draws a constant plate current may be used to decrease or control the sweep velocity if desired. As is well known in the art, appropriate weak couplings between the impressed voice currents and the time base circuit may be used for "look 30 ing” or maintaining a relationship between the in?nite number of variations in the number, fre quency, and duration of impulses can be worked out. As stated above. may electrical cir cults and systems for receiving and discriminating be tween electrical impulses are known in the art, and the system described below is illustrative only. Because of the shortness of the pulses and of the intervals between the pulses, it is prefer able that the electric circuit be of a nature as to permit the functioning of the counter or indi cator and/or to compensate for the time (actor of the printing mechanism used. The circuit re tains, delays or spreads out the pulses until such time as the printer is clear and releases them at a rate which mechanical keys can follow. I prefer 15 to use a gas vapor electron tube, of the thyratron type. It is essential to prevent the interpreting impulses from outstripping or getting ahead of the time limitations of the particular high speed counter or printing mechanism adapted to be 20 controlled thereby. diagramatically a number of di?erent methods and means for accomplishing the obiects of this invention. It must be understood that the draw ings are illustrative only, and are not restrictive of the invention. In the drawings: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of one form of the invention; , In the foregoing general description, mention has been made of the use of a single electron 35 beam tube in connection with this invention, but, tion; Figure 3 is an enlarged detail at one end of the cathode ray tube of Figure 2; Figure 4 is an end elevation of the device of for certain purposes, it is often desirable to use Figure 3; two or more such tubes connected in parallel. If ' Figure 5 is an enlarged detail of a cathode ray it is desired to make the apparatus capable of tube which may be used in connection with the indicating a great plurality of di?ering sounds, method and apparatus of Figure 1; 40 it is of advantage to use a plurality of electron tubes, each of which is provided with a screen having the openings thereof arranged on different patterns so that each tube controls a different group of visual indicators and is adapted to be 45 actuated by a correspondingly different group of Figure 6 is a circuit diagram of one form of the 40 invention; Figure 7 is a modi?ed circuit which may be used with the circuit of Figure 6; sounds. In such a case, the beam of electrons in each tube may move simultaneously along the same wave form, for each sound, but the mask Figure 8 is a diagrammatic elevational view of an apertured mask which may be used with the cathode ray tube; Figure 9 is a circuit diagram of a modi?catron, in which two cathode ray tubes are connected in in only one tube will have openings corresponding parallel; and 50 to each wave form, and that tube alone will be operative to control an indicator. 80 Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view of a modifica voice current and the rate of sweep or time of horizontal traverse. ' In the accompanying drawings, I have shown Figure 10 is a diagrammatic view of a novel printing mechanism. Figure 1 shows one plan of arrangement of the various elements of the invention. A tele phone transmitter or microphone l is connected to suitable ampli?cation 2, and thence to a ?lter 65 the beginning of a rather long sound, another tube at the middle portion thereof, and if desired, or series of ?lters 3. A sweepcircuit l is inter a third tube at the end of the sound. Each tube posed between the ?lter and the electron beam has associated with it a screen having a plurality : tube 6. The cathode ray device may be pro of patterns corresponding to sound waves of the vided with a metallic envelope, and includes hori zontal plates 6 and vertical plates 1 which cause 60 type that will be traced thereon as a result of Alternatively, the tubes connected in parallel may be arranged in such a circuit that they op erate in sequence so that one tube will operate at the particular sounds which will control the beams. Thus, the apparatus in accordance with this conception. will be capable of taking care of long and involved sounds. ‘ 65 Although the accumulative charge system de scribed generally above has certain desirable fea tures, it is inherently limited in the number of wave forms that can be analyzed, by reason of the fact that the amount of the charge that can 70 be stored up in the charge accumulator is de? nitely limited by the nature and size thereof, and by the fact that the selection is based simply on magnitude of charge. With the impulse sys tem, the charge absorbing and conducting mem 75 ber imposes no such limitation, because an almost de?ection of the cathode ray beam in two direc tions. Thus, the beam will trace a wave form path across an apertured mask 8. Positioned behind the mask is a collector or conductor 9, which, for instance,- may be a Faraday cage. This is connected, through appropriate ampli ?cation Ill, to an indicator or printer II. In the circuit from the ?lter 3 to_ the hori zontal plates 6, I may provide, it desired. an amplitude control device I! for the currents in 70 that circuit. In the system of Figure 2, instead of using a charge collector with the cathode ray tube, I provide a ?uorescent screen I 3 and a plurality of visual indicators i4, adapted to be illuminated 75 8,187,888 4 to make a proper indication. ls shown in I'll ure 3. the inner surface of the end face of the tube may be provided with a coating of ?uores cent material is. such as calcium or strontium tungstste. sine sulphate or the like. Ordinarily. such materials are poor conductors. and in order to increase the excited time life of the material. it is desirable to compound therewith a good con ductor to spread the ?uoreecence. Moreover. it lsdesirabletoaddatraceodieadtoincrease 10 the sensitivity of the coating. Onthesurfaceoftheendfaceofthetubel provide a plurality of visual indicia ll, which maybeintheformof dark ?guresonatrans luccnt ground or stenciled openings in a rela tively opaque coat. These ?gures may be illu minated directly by the ?uorescent material po sitioned therebehind, or, small spots may be illu minated immediately above or below each indicia. ThescreenlassociatcdwiththetubeofFig 20 ures 2 and 3 is provided with a plurality oi aper turcs it, ll’. etc.. each being adapted to illu minate a difi'erent indicia when the electron beam projects therethrough. The apertures are posi 25 tioned so that one aperture only lies on each wave form path adapted to be traversed by the beam. Thus, only one indicia will be illumi nated by each sound. Referring to Figures ti and t, a screen adapted 30 tobeusedwiththesystemofFigurel isdis closed. This screen has a plurality of openings it, It’, etc., l1, l1’, spaced along the paths It, it’, etc., adapted to be traversed by the electron beam as controlled by different sounds. As stated above. the number, sise, shape or spacing of the openings along the paths are di?erent. Consequently, the collector it. which may be in the form of a Faraday cage It. will be subjected to diflerent amounts, numbers, or frequencies oi electron charges for each wave form path trav ersed by the beam. These charges or impulses are conducted from the collector by an appro Driate circuit through appropriate ampli?cation to the indicator or printer ii. Referring to Figure 6, the microphone or tele phone transmitter i is shown as connected to a conventional resistance capacitance coupled two stage ampli?er 28. A three-stage ?lter chain a is shown connected to the output of the ampli 60 her but, of course. it must be understood that the filter chain could precede the ampli?cation. The number of ?lter units or elements shown in the chain is arbitrary, as any suitable or desired. number may be used. Although a particular 55 class of ?lter is shown. it should be \mderstood that high pass, low pass or band pass ?lters may be substituted. In circuit with the ?lters and the cathode ray tube. there is a sweep circuit 4. which, as shown 60 in Figure 6. is of the signal synchronised. re current stroke type. This circuit applies elec trical charges to the vertically disposed plates to impart horizontal movement -to the beam, to cause the beam to sweep longitudinally of the The voice current is also applied to the 65 screen. other pair of plates 0 to control the movement of the beam in the opposite direction. theretoarestoredupinthetubessuccessively and are removed therefrom successively by the ?nal tube 2!. which also restores each tube suc cessively to its former condition. These im pulses, as discharged from the tube it. serve to actuate a printing mechanism of any desired type such, for instance. as shown in Figure 10. Any equivalent circuit, adapted to perform the general function of retaining the impulses. or of 10 accommodating the inherent time delay of me chanical printing mechanism is suitable. In the circuit of Figure 6. and interposed be tween the voice circuit and the printing magnet II, there is an appropriate electronic time delay 16 It. This device is adjustable so that a printing impulse will be applied to the printing magnet it through conductors It following a predeter mined time after the initiation of current in the voice circuit. 20 Thus, the circuit II is a time delay to permit the individual impulses to be recorded on the print ing device. so that the inherent time factor of the mechanical printing device will be compensated for and each impulse will have its proper effect on the counter. The time circuit it controls the printing impulse, and delays that impulse su?l ciently to permit the printer to have been moved to the proper position before printing. If sim ple words are used, this control is super?uous. Instead of using a separate circuit for con trolling the printing impulse, that impulse may betransmittedoverthesame circuitasthein dicator selecting impulses by the use of a voice synchronized motor. clutch driven series of cams to distribute or direct the selection of a ?nal path to the printing key of a particular sound. In Figure ‘I, an alternative sweep circuit II is shown. Such a circuit is a single stroke. slsnal released circuit. In connection with this type of circuit, one may use a control electrode I‘! (Fig ure 8), associated with the mask I. when the electron beam is caused to move of! of the control electrode 21 at the position of rest by a current ?owing in the voice circuit. the tube It (Figure '1) will permit the flow 0! current through the sweep circuit, and as this current gradually increases, the beam moves. relatively slowly. across the tar get. When a predetermined potential has been thus created in the sweep circuit, the beam will have traveled all the way across the screen, and the relay 31 will close. 'I‘hereupon, a printing impulseotcurrentwill?owthroushthe wires as to the printing solenoid It associated with the indicator. Thevoicecurrent?owsintotbiscir cult through wires It, connected to the horizon tallydisposedplatesiotthe cathoderaytube. Instead of using the relay TI to initiate print ingimpulseattheendottbetraverseoithe beam across the target,van auxiliary control electrode 11' (Figure 8) maybeprovided,andinsuch a case, that electrode should be connected through an appropriate time delay circuit, such as that shown at ‘I in Figure 6 to the printing solenoid. Figure 9 discloses a preferred manner in which two_ormorecathoderaytubeslandl' maybe An ampli?er or any means or device for accel connected in parallel. In this diagrammatic i1 lustration, the signal input is represented at 40 and the sweep input at ‘I. The sweep circuits 70 l2, 48, associated with each tube may be adjusted to work simultaneously: 0!‘ to 01m!" di?ercn erating the electron motion may be used between the cage and they ?rst tube in the circuit 1!. The the same sound. Alternatively, one circuit may AsindicatedatllinFlguredacircuitis provided in which the impulses from the Fara 70 day cage II are applied, successively to the grids of a plurality of vapor discharge electron tubes. 76 known as a ring circuit, and impulses imparted tubesofthiscircuitarearrangedinamanner tiallysoastomakcadifierentwave tor-micr operate subsequently to the other, by the inter 5 aromas position of a switch in the circuit actuated b! an appropriate electronic time delay device. The term of printing mechanism. disclosed dis: wave form path, the indicator corresponding to the sound utilised to control the form thereof, aminactuating said indicator to make said indicia grammatically in Figure 10 has certain features visi e. for use with my invention. A printing drum ll is loosely mounted on a shaft 4!, and is pro vided with a coil spring l1 connected at one of gible indicia corresponding to intelligible sounds, comprising propagating such a sound, projectins 2. The method of producing a visible intelli its ends to the hub 48 and at its other end to a amovingbeamontoatarget,causingsaidbeam ment may be imparted thereto by the spring pressed pawl 5| pivoted to the actuating lever 52. A series of printing keys lit are mounted around the periphery of the drum. Below the drum ap 15 propriate means are provided for supporting and actuating, step by step, a printing ribbon 54 and of visible intelligible indicators, selecting an in‘ dicator corresponding to said sound by selection efiected by said wave form path on said target stationary part, such as a builer 49. An annular to traverse a wave form path on said target cor 10 ratchet ill is attached to the drum, so that move responding to said sound. providing a plurality 10 tratzersed by said beam, and actuating said indi ca r. 16 3. The method of producing visible intelligible a strip of paper it or the equivalent thereof. A Ti indicia corresponding to intelligible audible vertically movable, two-position printing platen II sounds, comprising providing a target having a is disposed beneath the paper. A cam ~or lug 81 plurality of active areas thereon, said areas be associated with the drum ll is positioned to close ing arranged in accordance with a plurality of contacts 58 when the drum is at rest and is in the wave form patterns corresponding to predeter start position, as determined by the butler it mined audible sounds, propagating a sound, and cooperating stop lug N. In circuit with the projecting a beam and causing the same to contacts 58 is a solenoid it, which will raise the traverse a wave form path on said target, con printing platen 58 when energized. The platen has an inclined surtace or wedge 6| which will control the position of the normally open spring pressed contacts 62, in circuit with a magnet pr solenoid ll, which is adapted to shift the posi 30 tion of lever 04 to disengage pawl II and locking detent 85 to permit the spring 41 to return the drum to start position. impulses-from the cir cuit 28 or the equivalent are applied to the coun tor-mechanism by conductors ‘I0, and through an 35 appropriate relay ‘Ii and battery 12, actuate the counting magnet ‘ll. For each impulse thus im parted, to magnet ‘II, the lever 52 will move one stroke, and the drum, through the pawl and trolling the term of said path by said sound to substantially coincide with one of said patterns on said target, and actuating an indicator cor responding to said sound by energy transmitted through the active areas 0! said pattern. 4. The method of producing visible intelligible 30 indicia corresponding to intelligible audible sounds, comprising providing a target having a plurality of isolated electron transmissive spots thereon arranged in accordance with a plurality of patterns, propagating an audible sound, pro jecting a beam of electrons onto said target, causing the same to traverse a wave form path, controlling the form of said path by said sound. and causing the same to substantially coincide printing impulses, either irom conductors it of with one oi said patterns, and using the beam the circuit of Figure 'l, or from the conductors of electrons encountering said transmissive spots 29, Figure 6, are applied to the printing solenoid 'on said target to select an indicator correspond or relay 28 to actuate the lever ‘ll which depresses ing to said sound. _ ratchet mechanism 50, BI , 65 will be moved. The the appropriate printing key 53, to print an in dicia corresponding to the sound emitted. De 5. The method of producing visible intelligible indicia corresponding to predetermined sounds, pression of the printing key It results in a down ward movement of the wedge BI and a closing of the contacts 62. Thereupon, themagnet 63 is energized and the lever 84 shifted to position to disengage the pawl BI and detent 85, to permit the drum to return to its original position. Such action closes the contacts BI and energizes the a wave form path corresponding to said sound. masking said beam during a portion of said path, and utilizing the beam during the un masked portion of the path to control the selec tion and actuation of a visual indicator corre solenoid 60, whereupon the platen is shifted to its upper position for a subsequent printing op eration, and the lever “is shifted to permit the detent and pawl‘li again to engage the ratchet. Thus, the parts are in position for the next print ing operation. ' It must be understood that any well known type 00 of impulse printer may be substituted for the novel one disclosed herein. - If it is desired to use an instantaneous volume control in connection with thisinvention, a con trol oi the type shown in United States Patent No. 1,737,830 is suitable. I claim: I. The method of producing visible intelligible indicia corresponding to intelligible audible sounds, comprising propagating such a sound, comprising propagating such a sound, projecting an electron beam, causing the beam to traverse sponding to said sound. 6. The method of producing visible intelligible indicia corresponding to predetermined sounds, comprising propagating such a sound, projecting an electron beam, causing the beam to traverse a wave form path corresponding to said sound, masking said beam during a portion or its traverse of said path and unmasking it during another portion, providing visual indicators tor a plurality of predetermined sounds, and select ing the proper indicator corresponding to said propagated sound by the beam during the un masked portion of its traverse of said path. 7. The method of producing visible intelligible indicia corresponding to predetermined sounds, comprising propagating such a sound. projecting an electron beam, causing the beam. to traverse a wave form path corresponding to said sound, 70 70 projecting a movable beam, causing satd beam to traverse a wave form path, controlling the form masking'saidbeamduring aportion of its or said path by said sound, providing a plurality of indicators, each adapted to indicate a visible indicia corresponding to an intelligible audible 76 sound, selecting, by means controlled by said thernask,andutilisingthesumoftheprojec traverse oi said path and unmasking it during other interrupted portions and thereby causing an intermittent projection of said beam beyond 75 6 8,187,888 time or said beam during the unmasked portions causing said beam to traverse a wave form path to control the selection of an indicator corre corresponding to said undulating current. a plu rality of visual indicators corresponding to a plu sponding to said sound. 8. The method 0! producing visible intelligible indicia corresponding to predetermined sounds. comprising propagating such a sound. projecting rality oi said sounds, and selector means con trolled by the beam in its traverse oi said wave form path to control the actuation of one of said indicators corresponding to the sound producing said undulating current. 12. Electron control apparatus comprising, in maskingsaidbeamduringaportionoi’its trav 10 erseoissidpathandunmaskingitduring other combination, means [or projecting a beam of 10 electrons. means ior causing said beam to tra interrupted portions and thereby causing an in termittent projection oi said beam beyond the verse-a wave form path and (or controlling the mask, and utilizing the number or duration or contour of said path. an electron absorber posi frequency oi‘ the projections oi’ the beam during tioned to be encountered by said beam. and a 15 the unmasked portions of the path to control the mask interposed between said source and said selection of an indicator corresponding to said electron absorber, said mask being imperlorate throughout the major portion oi its area and sound. 9. The method oi producing visible intelligible ’ having a plurality oi’ holes therethrough, said indicia corresponding to predetermined sounds. holes being arranged to coincide with a path or comprising propagating such a sound, projecting predetermined contour traversed by said beam an electron beam. causing the beam to traverse a of electrons under the control of said means. wave form path corresponding to said sound. thereby to eilect projection oi said beam through masking said beam during the major portion of the holes in said mask and the contact thereoi its traverse of said path and unmasking it at a upon said absorber. 13. Means for converting speech sounds into single de?nite point in its path and thereby caus visible indicia comprising means for projecting a ing a single isolated projection of said beam be yond the mask during its traverse of said path. beam of electrons, means for causing the beam to traverse a di?erent path for each sound, a screen and utilising said projection oi said beam to con trol the selection of an indicator corresponding in the ?eld of said beam oi’ electrons, said screen having a plurality of patterns oi’ periarations to said sound. 10. The method oi producing visible intelligible thereon. each pattern coinciding with a particu an electron beam. causing the beam to traverse a wave iorm path corresponding to said sound. indicia corresponding to predetermined sounds, comprising propagating such a sound. molesting an electron beam, causing the beam to traverse a wave form path corresponding to said soundI masking said beam during the major portion of its traverse of said path and unmasking it at a single de?nite point in its path and thereby caus ing a single isolated projection of said beam be yond the mask during its traverse oi said path, and utilizing said projection of said beam to il luminate a ?uorescent area to make visible an indicia corresponding to said sound. 11. An apparatus for converting intelligible sounds into visible intelligible indicia comprising 45 means for producing an undulating current cor lar path. a plurality of indicators and means so tuated by the projection of said electron beam through said screen to select an indicator corre sponding to the pattern traversed by said beam and to the corresponding sound. it. An apparatus ior converting sounds into visible indicia comprising a microphone. means for ?ltering and amplifying voice currents con trolled by said microphone, a cathode ray tube, circuits for controlling the projection oi the elec tron beam therein as to amplitude and time, a perforated screen associated with said tube. a charge selector positioned behind the screen. and a printing device adapted to be controlled by said charge selector. respondingtoaparticularsoimdmeanstorpro \ WALLACE WA'I'I‘ J. FUHER. jecting a iocussed beam 0! electrons, means for CERTIFIOAIE 01" CORRECTION. rasent _ lio u 2.157.888 e llovnaber 22, 1938 . It is hereby certified ‘that the name or the patenteelin the above mm . bored patent was erroneously Irittenandprintedas "Wallace Hatt I‘ m ler" whereas said name should have been written and printedaswailaoe H. Fuller, as shown bythe records oi‘ this office; andthat the said letters Patent shouldbe read with‘this correction therein thatthe same may eon rorn to the record oi'_the ease in the Pateht Office. . signed and sealed this llith day or February, MD. 1939. Henry Van Arsdale . (Seal) Acting Cosmissioner of Patents.