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Патент USA US2137936

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Nov. 22, 1938.
_ E_-K_ BENEDEK
I
VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP OR MOTOR
Filed April 19, 1955
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2,137,936
Nov. 22, 1938.
‘
“
E. K. BENEDEK
VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP OR MOTOR
Filed April 19," 1935
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2,137,936
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4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Nov.22,1938.
Z13Z936
E.K.BENEDEK
VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT vPUMP‘ OR MOTOR
Filed April 19, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Patented “Nov, 22‘, 1938 ‘
4
‘UNITED’ ‘STATES PATENT oEFicE "
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OR
1
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'
.
‘ Elek'iK. ‘Benedek, Bucyrus, Ohio
7 Application April 19,_1935,‘ Serial No. ‘11,312- ,
10 Claims.
(01. 103-74161)» ->
compensating forthese components of eccentric
ity. At low pressuresand upon starting,'assum--v
This invention relates to variable displacement
pumps and motors of the rotary radial piston
ing that the structure is driven as apump, the
typeand is an improvement in'the structure de-' '
scribedv in and a continuation in part of my co
barrel tends to lead until the spacers engage the
wall of the'openings, as there is not su?icient A5} _
5 pending application Serial No.1'726,961, ?led May
’ 22, 1934.
‘
.
rolling frictional resistance to drive thereact
>
In my said copending application a driving re- ’
lation is effected between the piston carrying bar~ '
rel, or primary rotor, and the reactance rotor
ance ‘rotor up to ‘speed: Usually this engagement
is effected under a sharp impact with resultant
‘noise anddirect vibrations ,and impact stresses. ‘
10 by means of a plurality of coupling bolts carry
ing ?xed spacers, which bolts and spacers co
operate‘ also in the assembly of the reactanoe
rotor to provide the proper spacing of the come
ponent parts thereof relative to the barrel whilev
l5 connecting the'parts of the reactance rotor to
When operated at high' speed, these initialvibra- 10“
tions often cause harmonic vibrations in the '
high speed parts with additional noise, wear and
deterioration. 'The' same istrue-upon stopping
in whichinstance the reactance rotor, already up ' .
to speed tends to overrun and lead the-barrel.
- 15
The principal object of the present invention is
is provided with a. radial coupling ?ange having _ to improve the coupling of my copending applica
a plurality of circumferentially spaced, radially tion in _a manner such that these impact stresses, .
gether. As therein disclosed, the impeller barrel
vibrations and noises are, to a large extent,
ciprocate and by which they are guided during eliminated, or greatly reduced so that quiet and
reciprocation. Between adjacent notches. suit ‘efficient rolling contact is-maintained between 1
able axially extending holes are provided in the the driving couplings thus provided and the
rotors, with accompanying reduction' of fric-i
?ange throughvwhich the coupling bolts and co
operating spacers extend, the diameter of each vtion, vibrations and stresses which might result
'
25 '
25 hole being so related to the diameter of the spacer therefrom.
directed notches in which the piston heads re
and bolt extending therethrough 'as to provide a
free movement of the spacer in the hole during
certain strokes of the pump. Thus binding, due
. to-the radial and tangential‘ components of ec
30 centricity, is eliminated. Further, the holes are
-
such and ‘so related to the spacers that at the
maximum' stroke position the ‘spacer will engage
35
the circumferential wall de?ning the hole and
effect a positive driving coupling contact there
between, the line of contact progressing around
the entire circumference of the hole once during
each revolution of the barrel.
. '
This structure, while suitable in many appli
cations of the pump,'has certain disadvantages.
40 Necessarily, when the pump is operating at other
than maximum stroke, the same spacers cannot’
contact the circumferential wall of the hole con
tinuously throughout a complete revolution of
the barrel. During such lesser strokes and dur
45 ing starting and stopping of the pump or motor,
the reactance rotor and barrel necessarily tend
to lead and lag with respect to each other more
than necessary to compensate for the components
of eccentricity, due to low frictional driving
50‘ forces. ' This is_not so objectionable when the
pump is operating at high pressure or has at‘
tained its speed, as the rolling frictional resist
ance between the piston assemblages and the re
actance rotor is sufficient to maintain the barrel ‘
and rotor in the proper rotating relation while
Another object is to provide a" quiet, positive
driving .coupling between the rotors for use in
connection with larger pumps and motors where
in the space, size of parts, forces to be withstood
and initial costs are such as to'justify its use an
-
30v
the larger initial expenditure entailed.
A correlative object‘of the invention is to ef
fect both more quiet and smooth operation while
at the same time reducing friction and maintain- '
ing more e?icient timedrelation between the bar-- 35
rel 'and'reactance rotor.
'
Other objects and advantages will become ap-. -
parent from the following speci?cation wherein
reference is' made to the drawings in which
Fig. l is‘ a horizontal longitudinal sectional 40 .
view of a pump or motor embodying the‘ princi
ples of the present invention and is taken on a
plane indicated by the line l.—l of Fig.,2;' ..
a
Fig. 2 is a vertical cross sectional view of the
pump'or motor takengenerally on a plane in- 45
dicatedby the line 2--2_in Fig. _l, the pistons
which are 'shown in elevation being viewed from
the line 2a--2a and the anti-friction mounting
of the reactance rotor being omitted for clear
ness in illustration;
_
_
50
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross sectional view similar
to Fig. 2 showing the barrel and reactance rotor .
at maximum eccentricity;
v
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
relative motions of the axis'of the driving CO“: 65
2
2,187,936
pling with respect to the cooperating coupling
manner fully described in my copendlng appli
hole in the barrel ?ange in various adjusted ec
centric positions or the barrel and reactance
cation. The barrel, in turn, is provided with a
plurality of circumferentially spaced radially ex
rotor;
tending piston cylinders I2 which, through ports
‘
.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view of the
primary rotor and ?ange shown in assembly with
- a modi?ed positive coupling member for use beg"
tween the primary and secondary rotors in con-‘ .
' nection with larger pumps and motors;
10
'
Fig. 6 is a cross sectional view taken on a plane
indicated by the line 5—6 in Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary cross sectional view of a
I4, communicate with the barrel bore in position
for cooperation successively with the valve ports
I0 and I I as the barrel rotates.
_ The‘ barrel is provided with an integral radially
extending ?ange I5 disposed in the plane of the
cylinders I2, preferably midway between its ends. 10
A series of radially extending cylindrical guide
ways or notches I6, are provided in the ?ange I5,
. portion of the barrel and ?ange of the pump‘or
one such guideway for each cylinder. Carried in
motor in assembly with ‘a modi?ed semi-positive
coupling means'illustrating another form of the
the respective'cylinders are reciprocable pistons
Il, each having an enlarged head'IB, the lead
ing and trailing edges of which engage the cor
responding’leading and trailing walls of the cy
lindrical guideways I6.' Both the walls of the
guideways and the corresponding edges of the pis~
' present invention;
.
'
‘Fig. 8v is a cross sectional view taken on a
plane indicated by the line H of Fig. '1;
Figs. 9, 10, ‘11 and 12 are respectively frag
20 mentary end elevations of slightly modi?ed forms
of the non-positive driving coupling means illus
trated in Fig. 2;
.
Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are respectively longi
tudinal sectional views of the non-positive driv
ing couplings illustrated in Figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12_
ton heads are arcuate about the axis of the par-. 20
ticular piston so that the pistons are free to ro
tate about their own axis unconstrainedby said
guide walls while being constrained against
transverse‘ oscillation by the partially embracing
margins of the walls of thegui'deways. Each pis
ton head I8 is provided with a bore extending
' respectively;
Fig. 17 is a sectional view corresponding to Fig.
16, showing anti-friction needle rollers in cooper
ation with the coupling bolts for the’ transmis
sion of driving torque between the rotors;
Figs. 18 and 19 are respectively a side eleva
- tion, partly in section, and a top end elevation of
a coupling bolt for use in connection with the
present invention; and
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I
,
Figs. 20 to 22 inclusive are respectively a. side
elevation and respective end elevations of a lock
ingl bolt for cooperation with the coupling bolt
illustrated in Figs. 18 and 19. -
Referring to Fig. 1, the pump or motor may
40 comprise a rigid housing I, having an end wall.
and an integral circumferential wall, the latter‘
being ‘designated 2.
The opposite end of the
_ housing is closed by a suitable removable weight
supporting. and plate I. A valve pintle 4 is ?x
45 edly mounted in one end of the housing I and
parallel'to the axis of the barrel, that is, trans
versely of the ?ange I5 and entirely unconnected
with the cylinders. In each bore is mounted an
operating crosspin I9 which protrudes at its ends 30
axially beyond the sides of the piston head with
which associated, capillary anti-friction needle
bearings 20 being provided for'rotatably mount
ing the crosspin therein. The central portion of
each crosspin, engaging the needle bearings III,
is preferably of larger diameter than the pro
truding end portions for a purpose later to be
described. In Figs. 2 and 3, the end retaining
washers for the needle bearings are omitted for
clearness in illustration.
40
For reciprocating the pistons during rotation of
the barrel, a reactance rotor is provided, the re
actance rotor comprising a pair of matched rings
23 and 24. Since the rings 23 and 24 are the
same-in form and function, being merely oppo 45
protrudes axially thereof toward the end plate
sitely disposed with'respect ,to each‘ other, the
3. Within the housing is mounted a piston car
rying rotor or barrel 5 which is supported near
each of its ends in anti-friction, radial and axial
ring 23 only will be described in detail.
The ring '23 is provided with an outer axially
extending circumferential shoulder 25 and a
radially extending ?ange 26 having a shoulder 26a 50
facing toward the piston assemblages. The
thrust bearings 6, arranged one set near each end
of the barrel. From the end of the barrel adja
cent the plate 3 extends the main impeller shaft ' shoulders 25 and 26a engage the inner bearing
‘I which is preferably integral with the barrel and race 21 of vanti-friction bearings 28 when the rings
protrudes through a bore in the plate>3 to the are in assembled condition. Spaced inwardly
outside.
The barrel is provided with the usual toward the piston assemblages from the radial 55
55
valve bore which receives and hydraulically ?ts shoulder 26a. and parallel therewith is av radial
the pintle l, elastic de?ection .of the pintle being shoulder 29 which terminatesat its radially in
50
‘so
prevented by hydrostatic balance of the pintle
ward limit in an axially extending ?ange 30 hav- '
which, in turn, is made possible by the use of
ing an. external circumferential shoulder 30a.
The bearing race 21 is of su?lcient length ‘axially 60
suitable sets of capillary needle bearings 8 and
9, arranged one set at each‘ end of the valve por
tion‘oi the pintle. By the use of these needle
bearings the barrel bore and pintle are held con
centric'with respect to each other and, permit the
65 pressure ?uid to enter readily in the slight clear
'. ance space afforded therebetween, thereby re
70
so that when it is received on the shoulder 25
with its outermost end in engagement with the
‘shoulder 26a, its opposite marginal portion over
hangs the shoulder 30a, and de?nes'therewith an
annular trough or groove opening toward the 65
opposite ring 24 and in which are received the
lieving not only the needles but the sets of bear- 7 adjacent protruding ends of the crosspins l9.
ings 6 from the in?uence of destructive'unbal
This groove, designated 32 in Fig. 2, provides one
anced hydrostatic loads which would be present of the operating grooves for the crosspins. The
ring 24 is identical with the ring 23 but, when in 70
The pintle',in turn, is provided with the valve assembled condition to form the reactance rotor.
ports I0 and II which communicate with suit
is disposedoppositely thereto and coaxial there
otherwise.
_
'
>
able sets of longitudinallyextending ducts respec- . with, thus providing the other operating groove
tively, in the pintle, and through these ducts with
75 the ?uid conduit system of the apparatus in a
for the crosspins. Obviously, these grooves are
continuous circumferentially and are coaxial, one 75
3
the pump.
Suitable shiftingv rods 39 are screw
threaded into the housing‘ 35 for shifting the
housing, lock screws 40 being provided for secure
ing the rods 39 in place and preventing them from
receiving the-protruding ends of the crosspins or
rollers at one side of the piston assemblages and,
the other receiving the protruding ends at the
other side. Since the bearings 23 are received in
becoming unscrewed and disconnected.
suitable grooves in their races so as to withstand
axial displacement the inner race ‘21 at its end
For per- -
mitting access to the screws 40, bores 4| and 42
are provided 'in the housing‘ 2 ‘and ‘stator 35
adjacent the pistons is in slightly spaced relation
to the?ange l5 so that friction therebetween will respectively, which are aligned with the screws
be eliminated, this spaced relation being main- '40'when the stator assembly is in its center posi
tion, these bores-being closed by caps or plugs 4la 10
races 21 are thus ?rmly secured to the ring 23 by after the screws 40 are fixed to prevent any grit
appropriate press fit‘ so as to prevent axial dis- " or foreign. matter getting into the casing. Thus
placement of the races ‘21 and 34. The races 2'! the screws may be tightened or unscrewed by a
‘constitute axially spaced rings the inner surfaces . screw driver at will in position.
of which overhanging the associated shoulders 30:; _ .In assembling the structure, the rings 23 and 15
10 tained by the spacers hereinafter described. . The
‘act as reactance surfaces for cooperation with the ' 24 are disposed in cooperating relationship'with
the crosspins IS in a manner illustrated in Fig. 1.
The rings, however, are provided with a plurality
pins I9.
,
‘The bearings 28, in turn, are mounted in a of axially aligned circumferentially spaced holes
grooved external race 34 which is mounted on an 43 and 44 respectively, the holes 44 being provided 20
with threads. The holes43, at their outer ends,
internal circumferentially extending bearing sur
face of the reactance rotor housing or stator '35, are counterbored so as to form shoulders for en
gaging the under portions 45a of the heads of cou
the stator having an inwardly protruding circum
ferential boss 35 for strengthening it between the pling bolts 45. The sets of bores are disposed one
bearing races and ?rm positioning shoulders for between each pair of adjacentlguideways l5, and 25.
the outer races 34 of the large bearings. The boss ~ the holes 43 are aligned axially with respect to the
‘reduced diameter ‘end portions of the cross
36, however, is preferably of slightly‘ less width , holes 44 for receiving the bolts 45. The holes 43
axially of the stator than the distance between ' and “are positioned radially of the rings 23 and
24 so that they extend through‘the grooves 32.
When the bolts 45 are inserted through-a coop~
.30,
34 ‘will not engage rigidly the boss 36 and be crating pair of aligned holes 43 and 44, tubular
stressed out of normal operating alignment with spacers 41 are slidably and snugly received
thereon, the spacers being of suf?cient diameter
the races 21 but will be free to ?oat axially. ‘Cor
respondingly, the shoulders 30 are of such dimen , so that the end portions thereof are received in
sion axially relative to the protruding ends of the the ‘operating grooves 32. The spacers are of the
35
the races 34 so that when the rings 23 and 24 are
30 drawn together in operating position, the races
C:
proper length so that the ends abut the shoulders
pins 19 that slight axial clearance is provided
of less diameter than the central portions shoul
29 ‘of the opposite grooves when installed, thus
positively ?xing the relative spacing of the rings
23 and 24 from each other. By forming the
tions ofthe race rings 21 and the rings 23 and 24
spacers 'arenecessarily placed in the proper posi
lie alongside the'pistonportions l8, and the shoul-.
ders formed at the junctures of the large diameter
cross pin portions and the reduced diameter end
portions engage the radial face portions of the
the ends of the spacers, Instead of separate
between the ends of the pins and the sho'ulders'29.
By forming the protruding endsof the crosspins
spacers of accurate length, accuracy in the assem 40
40 ders are provided at the junctures with the large '. bly is assured. In the act of assembling, the
portion. The innermost ends or radial face por
tion and the bolts 45 inserted therethrough with
their threaded ends engaging the threads of the
hole 44 for drawing the rings ?rmly against 45
race rings 21 and the rings 23 and “without
clearance so that the pins are guided during their
rolling motion by these shoulders and not by the
spacers, bolts threaded at both ends with enlarged
central portions forming, in effect,- integral
radial shoulders 23 of the ring 23. The shoul
set forth hereinafter, but such are not as- effective 50
for.assembly purposes. The rotor and barrel as
semblages may then be rotated until the action'is
ders between the large and small diameter por
tions of the crosspin provide a‘ rolling shoulder
engagement for constraining the > pins to fixed
axial position within, the plunger portion while
spacers, may be used and locked at each end as
found free from any binding action on the bear
ings, whereupon lock bolts 49 may be screwed into
providing proper rolling engagement. By ‘this ‘the holes 44 and against the ends of the bolts 45 v55
for holding them securely in the proper adjusted
reduction of the size of the pins at the end por
‘
tions a reduction in the diameter of the reactance positions.
Referring next to Figs. 1, 2 and- 3 specifically,
rings and'in the diameter and size of all the parts
of the pump cooperating therewith ‘ may be the radial ?ange of the barrel is provided inter,
mediate ‘adjacent piston head guideways IS with
60 effected and centrifugal and‘ inertia forces,
reduced. .Retainer washers,-better illustrated in a series of circular holes 50 having axes extend
Fig. 1,- are pressed into the bores of‘ the heads l8 ing parallel to the barrel axis, one such hole
at both ends of the needle bearing to retain the being provided for each coupling bolt 45'so that
the bolts 45 extend through these holes. The holes
needles therein and provide liquid tight cham
bers' for lubrication thereon.
_
50 are so circumferentially deployed that when
v The adjustable housing'35, in'turn, is provided
the‘reactance rotor and barrel ‘are concentric,
with diametrically opposite plane bearing sur
‘which isv the neutral position of the pump, the
faces 38 which are engaged by complementary ?at
axes of the holes are superimposed upon‘ the .
' bearing surfaces on the interior of the circumfer
axes of the bolts 45 and the bolts and spacers 41
ential wall, 2 of the pump housing for mounting
the same and the reactance rotor therein so that
may extend therethrough from one ring to the "
it may be shifted from concentric to its eccentric
utilize the bolts 45 as coupling means between the
positions with'respect to the barrel while its axis
is maintained parallel to the axis of rotation of
reactance rotor and the barrel. This is especially
desirable at lower pressures and at eccentricities
smaller than the maximum eccentricity. The
the barrel to effect the reversal of the ?uid ?ow of
other. As hertofore explained, it is desirable to
4
2,187,986
bearings 20- antifrictionally mount the pins IS in
the respective plunger bores with less frictional
' a sleeve or bushings as hereinafter described may
resistance to rotation than the resistance to rota
resilient material which will withstanddeterio
tion of the ends of the pin relative to reactance
24-—21. Therefore, at high pressures, the rolling
frictional engagement between the crosspins l9
ration by oil. v "Mica-ta” and ?bre bushing as well
as leather may be used without anti-friction ele
ments or rollers because they are shock absorb
ing in themselves. Steel rollers, however, do not
have the shock absorbing qualities but “Hyatt"
and their operating grooves 32, due to large radial
piston loads, are su?icient enough to effect positive
driving relation of the rotors while the ends of
the crosspins are-rolling to and fro on the races
21 to effect the-proper relative movement thereof
for compensating for tangential components of
eccentricity. At reduced pressures and at reduced
stroke, however, this rolling frictional engage
ment may be insufficient to impart the proper
synchronous speed ‘to the reactance assembly,
especially upon starting and until the two have
been brought up to operating speed by thepres
sure. Therefore, if this rolling frictional resist
be leather, mica, “Micarta,” “Formica” or other
.
bearings are formed of spirally wound steel springs
and do have the required silencing and shock ab
sorbing qualities. The anti-friction elements are
desirable in the larger type of pumps and, if size
permits, it is desirable to use the rim or outer ring
described. In smaller pumps, however, where
space is at a premium andthe forces are small,
the shock absorbing bushings hereinafter de
scribed may be used instead of anti-friction roll
ers. _The anti-friction rollers have an additional
advantage, however, due to the fact that they en
ance were relied on solely for the driving connec
gage the walls of the holes 50 under rolling im
tion, the reactance rotor would tend to lead the
pact, thus shock and noise is additionally 're- '
duced. - However, when the simple bushings are
barrel upon slowing down and to lag behind the
barrel when starting. As a result, the coupling “used they must be shock absorbing due to the fact
bolts 45 or spacers 41 would strike the circum
ferential walls of the circular holes 50 with con
that'the friction on their supports is such as to '
‘ preclude any appreciable 'antiefriction action. It
siderable impact, often su?lcient to'directly dam
is desirable, of course, that the anti-friction roll
age the parts, always creating noise, and often. ers be used when the~structure is such as to war
producing vibrations which, at high speed, cause rant the cost as in‘the cheaper structures using‘
damaging natural vibrations in the structure. In the bushings there is some slight sacri?ce in e?l-'
30 addition, at maximum eccentricity when the ciency. When the device is used as a_ motor,‘ '
pump developes ‘its maximum power, the greatest however, it is almost imperative to provide for
tangential ' forces are imposed on the pistons.
easy starting and great e?iciency and anti-friction
Consequently, more positive drive is desirable for
relieving the. piston of the full torque transmitting
roller bearings is preferred. Thus any shocks are
36 stress. Forythis purpose, at the maximum stroke,
anti-friction roller assemblages are provided on
the coupling'bolts 45 to contact with the walls of
the holes 50. These assemblages are ,of such-over
all dimensions, relative to the diameter of the
40 holes 50 that at the maximum eccentricity of the
reactance rotor and barrel, the rollers on the
driving engagement in the form of ' complete
absorbed due to the resiliency of the rollers theme
selves, the damping action of ?bre bushings, 'to
the oil ?lm maintained therebetween, and be
tween them and the rim and between the rim
and hole wall. In all cases, the oil absorbed in.
the rollers or between the bolts and the sleeves 40
will be partially squeezed out under impact, thus
coupling bolts remain permanently in rolling con ~ affording a cushioning effect for silencing opera
tact with the circumferential walls de?ning the tion. The bearings used in any instance may be
‘openings 50, and roll thereabout, completing one
circuit for each revolution of the barrel.
Thus
a positive drive between the barrel and the react- _
ance rotor is e?ected at “this stroke adjustment.
shock absorbing material, the particular choice
depending upon the speed and torque pressures
to
be’withstood.
‘
.
-
,
45
'
Referring to Fig. 10, “Hyatt” roller bearings are
Having provided this positive drive effective at , illustrated without an outer raceway or-rim, with
maximum eccentricity, it is apparent that .when thestationary spacer forming theinne'r race.
Figs. 9‘and 13 illustrate the‘ use of a coil spring
50 a lesser eccentricity is utilized, the relative path
of the rollers on the bolts 45 would not’ be in
60 for a similar purpose, a cooperating sleeveil
rolling engagement with the walls defining the
openings 50. Thus there is no' coupling connec
tion between thebarrel and reactance rotor at
55 the reduced eccentricity. Therefore,_uponv start
.ing and stopping, the lead and lag of the rotors
would create impacts between the rollers on the
being provided. The spring itself forms the spacer
for; the assemblage. The spring derives a great
portion of its shock absorbing quality by its abil
ity to'maintain a complete and heavy capillary
oil ?lm thereon which must ?rst be gradually dis
charged. Further, due to its yieldability, the
shock is‘additionally reduced.
pins 45 and the walls of the openings 50. In
order to eliminate any severe impacts ‘and to
damp vibrations and reduce the noise,vthe rollers
thus provided on the pins mu‘st'be such as'to ab
resisting hardened material to withstand the driv
sorb or relieve such impacts.
ing force of the torque and a cooperating spacer
.
Referring to Figs. 1 .to 3, a set of "Hyatt”
roller bearings are provided for this purpose.
, at Each of these‘ rollers comprises a set of hollow
spiral roller bearings 52, each of which bearings is
provided with an axle 53 mounted at its ends in
retainer rings 54. In such instances while the
spacer is ?xed on the bolt “the bearings may
70 roll about the spacer as an inner race. An outer
race forming, in effect, a rim 56 is also provided
and directly engages the wall of the hole 50: The
rim 56 is preferably made of hard wear resisting
material such as is commonly used ‘for races of
76 anti-friction bearings. The rollers when made as
In Figs. '11 and 15 there is illustrated a leather '
bushing 64, having an outer rim 65 made‘ of wear 60
66.
This likewise provides a shock absorbing
quality due to the resiliency of the leather and to
thelarge amount of oil which canbe absorbed 65
thereby and subsequently be expelled under im
pact while gradually relieving the shock. The
bushing 64 will rotate' in the spacer 66 and be in
rolling contact with the wall of the hole 50, thus
forming a semi-anti-friction coupling as dis 70
tinguished from the rollers which are freely anti
fiiction. It should be noted that in all instances.
in which the spacer is also used, since the clear
ance betweenlit and the coupling bolt is slight, an '
additional capillary oil ?lm is provided for reduc- 75
2,137,980
ing the impact stress due to gradually squeezing
02. Therefore, the consecutive positions of 0
out of the ?lm. The same is true as to the‘ oil
which necessarily is on the outer surface of the
the barrel and. the particular eccentric center
and S and I are. not only on centers de?ned by
of the reactance rotor but in case of synchronous
I coupling rollers.
rotation they must be on parallel radius vectors,
In Figs. v12, 16 and 1-7, the use ‘of capillary
cageless needle roller bearings for. this purpose
isrillustrated.‘ In Fig.1 17, the'bearings 68 operate .
within a race‘ 69' and on a spacer 69a on the bolt
. 45. In Fig. 16, an inner spacer 10' is provided
’
as
illustrated.
>
>
It is apparent that while the positive coupling
is e?ected at maximum eccentricity, it ‘is not
effected normally at an intermediate eccentricg
' ity. At maximum eccentricity, therefore, there
stances, the impact is primarily relieved‘ due ‘to will be no lead or lag as the rollers 52 will be
10, in addition to the outer-race 10a. In both in
the anti-frictioncontact during the impact and
effecting positive driving connection, while at
lary oil ?lm between the'bearing traces and co‘
effecting primarily the driving connection by
virtue of their rolling frictional engagement with 15
the reactance rotor through their crossheads and
crosspins respectively. It is apparent, therefore,
the partial squeezing out of the tenacious capil-, . intermediate eccentricities the pistons will be
.m
operating parts. These bearings, however, may
likewise be made of ?brous or more resilient
I material for this particular purpose.
In order to better appreciate the operation of
the coupling means, it is illustrated diagram
20 matically in Fig._ 4. .Therein is shown‘the rela
tive positive of a roller at maximum and at in
termediate eccentricities during a complete rev
olution thereof. For the purpose of illustra-'
,tion, the different positions of the vaxis of the
25 ‘bolt 45 or rollers areshown rather than any point
on the circumference of the corresponding roller.
At zero eccentricity of the pump, the coupling
bolts and the holes 50 are concentric during
the entire revolution of the rotor’ and barrel
30 together when" they .are rotating at the same
angular speed. At maximum eccentricity the
axis of thercoupling bolt will describe a circle
as indicated by the solid line‘circles in Fig. 4, with
~ respect to the barreli this circle corresponding to
the-circles 50, allowance, of course, being .made
.‘ for the additional diameter of the rollers.
At a
stroke lessthan the maximum eccentricity, the
axis of‘ the "coupling bolt will describe a smaller
that by the construction described, the positive
driving connection can be obtained at maximum
eccentricity only, thus relieving the pistons from 20
the maximum driving force operating at the long
vest lever arms whereas the disadvantages result
ing from ‘noise and impacts which will be occa
'sioned at lesser ‘eccentricities' remain to be elim
inated.- The. anti-friction rollers hereinbefore 25
described will anti-frictionally coact with the
walls de?ning the“ holes .50 as well as with they
coupling bolts or spacers so that a smooth and
e?icient silent drive can be obtained at all speeds
and pressures.
‘
‘
30
It should be noted that in the present struc
ture, which is assumed to be a medium size pump .
'with corresponding horsepower output, that the
holes 50 do not extend to the outer limit of the
radial ?ange l5 but are set inwardly therefrom an
so that bridge portions, indicated at I511, are
n
provided, thus rendering the ?ange unseparated
between the crosshead guideways and extremely
circle indicated by the dotted line circle in Fig. strong and furnishing a sufficient body of ma
4. It is while the bolts are relatively moving terial to prevent distortion of the ?ange or those
along this smaller circle that most of the impacts portions thereof forming the guideways It for
.- and stresses referred to may result. While the the pistons heads during heat treatment of the
bolt is moving along the larger 'solid line circle rotor. This is a very essential feature of this
40
it will take all the driving torque and relieve the / design in order to keep the crossheadsproperly
?tted in their guideways and keep said guideways 45
concentric-.with the cylinder bores.~ .In larger
however, it is easier to provide suillcient
otherwise stress the pistons and crossheads. pumps,
metal otherwise as sui?cient space is allowed so
More particularly, O1, O2 . . O12 represent twelve
successive positions of the center of one of ‘the. that it will not be absolutely. necessary to provide
holes 50 which are rotating about the stationary this bridge 15a. In such instances, a structure 50.
axis v(J1 of the pintle, 01 being in the line of the suchas illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, may be, uti
lized to advantage‘ for the purpose of positive
dead center position of the pistons. At maxi
coupling means. In. this’ structure, the ?ange
mum eccentricity, S1, 7S2 .
S12 represent the
of the barrel, indicated at 15, may be provided;
axis of the coupling bolt\ during the revolutions with
radial notches 16 which extend entirely to 55
of the rotor. .01, is the axis of thebarrel or pin
the outer periphery of the‘?ange ‘l5 and open
tle, C2 theaxis of the reactance rotor, the dis
therethrough, thesenotches being spaced between
tance therebetween, being the maximum eccentric
pistons from the driving torque and. resultant
bending moment for any pressure which would
ity. I C represents an intermediate eccentricity in
which the axis of the reactance rotor will be in
to C. Starting with the 'position‘1 to the‘left, “des-‘
ignated O1, and plotting the relative movements
of S1 and the .circle representing hole 50, it is
apparent that during one complete revolution of
the rotor andv ‘barrel at maximum eccentricity,
65 S1 will travel in a circle about the point,O1, as
‘
‘ indicated by the various positions of S and 0'.
If
. i the notches provided for guiding the piston heads.‘
In ‘each of the notches is a radially-reciprocable
coupling element 'l'l which, due to its recipro 60
catory >movement, may compensate for radial
components of eccentricity duringthe concurrent
rotation of the barrel and rotor. In each of the
coupling elements 11, there is provided an elon
gated opening 18, the radially outward and in 65
ward walls of which de?ne guideways'extending
of the rotor}? ,The coupling bolts ‘I9,
the eccentricity is an intermediate eccentricity, "tangentially
corresponding to the'c’oupling bolts 45, are pro-_
\ as indicated by C; the axis of the coupling bolts
vided intermediate their ends with squared por
will then describe a path as indicated."v by the tions
an of proper dimension to allow tangential 70
points'I,
the
various
position
during
the
revolu
70
reciprocation
thereof in the openings 18 and have
tions being designated 11,12 .' . . I12. Thus in
surfaces
'cooperable
with the guiding surfaces of
, the consecutive positions of 0, I and S, each
‘moves along a different circle, 0 moving about the ‘openings sov that the bolts 19 can oscillate
a circle with center at 01,‘ I along a circle with tangentially ‘relative to the heads ‘I1 while effect
center at C, and S along a circle with center at ing positive coupling relation between the rotors.
15
6
2,137,988
Consequently, tangential components of eccen
tricity between the rotor and barrel can be com
pensated for through the passage 18 and-cross
for maintaining'a capillary oil ?lm therebetween.
2. In a rotary, radial piston, variable stroke
pump or motor, a barrel having a plurality of
bolt while the radial component is concurrently - radial cylinders, an adjustable rotary reactance,
provided for through the sliding head 11. Thus
a positive drive is provided and maintained ’at
all times through the medium of the coupling
bolts, and this ?oating connection may relieve
the pistons from undue stress‘at all times.
In Figs. 7 and 8 an arrangement corresponding
radial pistons in the cylinders and cooperated
with the reactance for reciprocation thereby,
means connecting the pistons and reactance for
relative oscillation tangentially of the path of ,
rotation and torque transmitting relation, said
reactance comprising‘two axially separable por 10
to that in Figs. 5 and 6 is illustrated except that ' tions positioned at‘opposite sides of the plane of
it is adapted to the smaller structures in which the pistons, said barrel having axial circular pas
sufiicient metal is not provided in the barrel sages between the pistons opening endwise of
‘flange and in the 'very limited space required for the barrel, coupling elements connecting the re
15 providing the radial slots or notches ‘l8. Inthe actance portions'together for rotation as a unit,
latter instance, the, barrel ?ange, designated 82, said coupling elements extending axially of the
is provided with an opening 83 corresponding barrel and through the passages, spacers carried
10
to the hole 50. ' -Mounted on anti-friction bear
ings 84 within the hole 83 _is a rotary driving ele
20 ment 85 which is free to rotate relative tothe
?ange and independently thereof about an axis
on the coupling elements and cooperating there
with and with the reactance portions for con
straining the reactance portions to ?xed axially 20
spaced relation to each other, rollers mounted
parallel to the barrel axis. The element 85 is \ on said spacers respectively, and resilient cush
provided with‘ a slot 81 corresponding to the slot ioning means operatively interposed between and
18 referred toin Fig. 6,-in which is received the engaging the rollers and walls of the associated
25 squared portion 88 of the coupling bolt ‘88. Thus
passages for reducing the noise otherwise inci
as the rotors rotate the element 85 may rotate dent to impacts of the rollers and associated pas
relative to the barrel so that slot 81 is disposed sage walls.
_
at various angles to the radius of rotation of
3. In a rotary radial piston,.variable stroke
the barrel through the axis of the element 85'. pump or motor, a barrel having a plurality-o1
30 Concurrently the coupling bolt 89 may shift‘along radial cylinders, an adjustable rotary reactance,
the slot regardless of the rotated position of the radial pistons in the cylinders and cooperated 80
element 85 for compensating for both compo
with the reactance for ,, reciprocation thereby,
nents of eccentricity. By this semi-?oating con
means connecting the pistons and reactance for
nection a semi-positive drive may be maintained relative oscillationtangentially of the path of
35 at all times within a limited space and both com
rotation and torque transmitting relation, said
' ponents of eccentricity provided for while main
tainingfthe coupling engagemment; In such in
stance, however, the coupling bolt 89 must be
' rotatable about its own axis or the squared por
40 tion 88 must be made separately and be mounted
for rotation on the bolt instead of integral there
with. Since the element 85 must rotate to ac
commodate itself to the proper working position
as the barrel revolves, this action offers some re
45 sistance to the movement of the member 88 along
.the_slot 81 so that sudden impacts are damped
thereby.
._
1
Having .thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a rotary radial piston pump or motor
including a barrel, piston assemblages carried
thereby, a reactance rotor, means mounting said
rotor for adjustment to di?erent positions where-'
reactance comprising two axially separable por
tions positioned at opposite sides of the plane
of the pistons, said barrel having axial passages
between the pistons openings endwise of the
barrel, coupling elements connecting the react 40
ance portions together for ‘rotation as a unit,
‘said coupling elements extending, axially of the
barrel and through the passages, cushioning roll
ers carried on the coupling elements and engage
able with the walls of the associated passage;
for reducing the noise otherwise incident to im 45
pacts of the coupling elements and associated
passage walls, and each roller comprising a set
of elongated resilient roller bearings.
4. In a rotary, radial piston pump or motor,
including a barrel having a plurality of radial 50
cylinders, pistons in the'cylinders respectively, av
reactance rotor, means mounting the reactance
axis parallel to the barrel axis with axially spaced _ rotor for movement to different positions where
55 annularlportions disposed alongside the opposite
in the rotor is eccentric to the barrel with its
axis parallel to the barrel axis, said rotor com 55
sides 01’ the piston assemblages and having\an>
prising axially separable and spaced portions dis
nular troughs therein for receiving piston actuat
ing pins included in the said piston assemblages, posed alongside opposite sides of ‘the plane of
a radial ?ange on said barrel received between the the pistons and accommodating the outerend
60 said spaced annular‘portions and having, a series portions of the pistons therebetween, means con
necting the outer end portions of the pistons with 60
of circumferentially spaced circular holes there
through extending parallel to the barrel axis, the reactance for reciprocating the pistons and
coupling elementsrconnected at the ends to the transmitting torque between the reactance and
barrel through the pistons, a radial ?ange on
rotor and extending through ‘said holesrespec
~65 tively with their axes parallel to the barrel axis, the barrel accommodated between said spaced
roller means carried on said elements and coaxial portions of the reactance and having a series of
therewith and disposed in said ?ange holes, and circumferentially spaced holes therethrough ex
said roller means being smaller in diameter than tending parallel to the barrel axis and between
their associated holes and‘ being ~so related in size vthe pistons, coupling elements each connected at
70 that (the roller means are continuously in rolling its ends to the spaced portions of the reactance
70
engagement with the circumferential walls. of rotor for connecting said portions for rotation
the holes "at the maximum. eccentricity of the together as a unit and extending through said
barrel and rotor for driving the reactance rotor holes respectively with their axes parallel to'the
by the bar ,el, each of said roller means including barrel axis, roller means carried on the coupling
75 a set or anti-friction rollers spaced apart slightly elements and coaxial therewith and disposed in
75
in the'rotor is eccentric to the .barrel with its
_
2,187,986
said ?ange holes, resilient cushioning means op?
eratively interposed between and engaging each
ing the ‘rings from axial separation, means for
locking said bolts in position, sleeves on said bolts
roller means and the cooperating holejwall for
and coacting at their ends with the rotor portions ,
reducing noise otherwise incident to impactsof -
for spacing the rotor portions from each other,
and roller‘ cushioning means carried on said‘
than maximum stroke, said roller means being sleeves and in rolling engagement with the walls
smaller in diameter than the associated holes and ’of‘ said openings continuously during maximum
, the rollers and cushioning means being so related stroke oi! the pump or motor.‘
'77 In a rotary” radial pisto'nxpump or motor,
in size with respect to the associated holesthat
10 the cushioning means are continuously in rolnng. a rotatable barrel having a plurality orT radial
engagement with the circumferential walls of cylinderapistons in the cylinders respectively,
the holes at maximum eccentricity or the barrel ,_ valve means for the cylinders, each piston having
, and rotor for driving the rotor by the barrel at a‘ portion with a transverse bore therethrough
parallel'to thexbarrel axis, a rotary reactance
maximum stroke.
5. In a rotary, radial piston, variable stroke means surrounding the barrel and'mounted for
15
5
the rollers with the associated hole walls at less
'
10
15
pump or motor, comprising a barrel having a _ adjustment to different positions 01 eccentricity
plurality of-radial cylinders, pistons carried by
the cylinders respectively, piston actuating pins
carried by the pistons respectively, a reactance-v
20 rotor, means mounting said'rotor for? adjustment
to vary the stroke, said ieactance rotor compris
ing axially separable and spaced portions dis- ‘
posed alongside the opposite sides of the plane‘
‘of the pistons and having annular, troughs there
25 in for ‘receiving the ends of the piston actuating
pins, a radial ?ange on said barrel received'be
tween the said spaced annular portions and hav
relative thereto and'including a pair of rings
spaced apart axially from‘ each other for accom
modating the'sald piston portions therebetween
with operative clearance, reactance surfaces on
the rings, cross pins carried by the'pistons re
spectively, each cross pin comprising a large di
20v
ameter central'portion antifrictionally mounted '
in and‘ substantially coextensive with the trans- _,
‘verse bore of the associated piston and end >por-. ’ 25
tions of less diameter extending axially of the‘ -,
pin from and beyond the large‘diameter portion
ing a series of circumferentially spaced circular " whereby radial shoulders are formed on the cross
pin at the juncture of said large and small diam
holes therethrough extending parallel to the bar
30 rel axis, coupling bolts connected at the endsto e'ter portions, said extending end portions being 30
the rotor portions and extending through said in rolling engagement with said ring surfaces
holes respectively with their axes parallel to the ‘respectively, and said rings having radial face
barrel axis, spacing sleeves slidably received on ‘portions alongside the piston portions in engage
the bolts and bridging the space betweenthe rings ment with, said shoulders and constraining each
piston from rotation about its .axis.
'
" 35
at and extending at their ends into said annular .1 ‘8.; ma rotary radial plunger pump or motor
troughs and abutting the bottom [walls oi.‘ said
troughs for positively limiting the spaced rela ‘including a rotatable barrel having a plurality
tion of the portions, anti-friction rollers "carried ’ of radial cylinders, valve means in valving coop
on said sleeves and coaxial therewith and dis-' I .eration with the cylinders, solid plungers in said
40 posed in said ?ange holes, and said rollers being
cylinders, and a reactance surrounding the barrel
smaller in’ diameter than their associated holes {or actuating the plungers consequent. upon'ro
and-being so related in size thatgthe’roller means tation of the barrel, each plunger having a bore
are continuously in rolling engagement with the extending parallel to the barrel axis and entirely _
circumferential walls of the holes at the maxi ‘ unconnected with the cylinders, a load transmit
ting pin rotatably mounted in said bore and hav
mum eccentricity of the barrel and rotor. '
6.. In a rotary radialdpiston pumpor motor ing reduced diameter end portions engaging the
including a barrel having a plurality of radial 'reactance and rotatable relative to said react;
cylinders, a ?ange on the barrel in ‘the zone of
ance. and means antifrictionally mounting the
reciprocation, an adjustable reactance rotor sur
rounding the barrel and comprisingsaxially sep
9. In a rotary radial piston pump or motor,
a rotatable barrel having a'plurality of'radial
the cylinders, pistons in the cylinders respectively, pin for rotation in said plunger bore with less
said ?ange having radial guideways respective to frictional resistance to rotation than the resist 50
the cylinders, heads on'the pistons reciprocable ance to rotation of the. ends of the pin relative
'
in said guideways and guided thereby for radial vto ‘the reactance.‘
arable portions spaced at opposite sides of- the
cylinders, pistonsin the cylinders‘ respectively, 55
zone of the pistons and accommodating the pis
ton heads and ?ange therebetween, means con
heating the piston heads and reactance rotor for
vvalve means for the cylinders, each piston hav
ing a portion with a transverse bore therethrough
parallel to the barrel axis, a rotary reactance
reciprocating the piston and for transmitting
means surrounding the barrel and mounted ec- _
torque between the rotor and barrel through the
centrically reltaive‘thereto and including a‘pair
‘to ,medium of the heads, said radial ?ange ‘having of rings-spaced apart axially from each other for
a series of cir'cumferentially spaced circular holes
3 therethrough extending parallel to the barrel
. axis; coupling’ elements connected at the ends to
the rotor portions and extending through said
holes respectively *for connecting said rotor por
tions for rotation as a unit, each of said portions
.having ‘bores aligned with bores in the other por
tion, the bores inone of ‘ said‘po'rtions being in
ternally screw threaded, screw coupling bolts re
accommodating the said piston portions there
between with operative clearance, reactance sur
faces on the rings, cross pins carried by the pis-.\
tons respectively, each cross-pin comprising a 65
large diameter central portion antifrictionally
mounted in and substantially coextensive vwith
the‘ transverse bore of the associated piston and
encl'portions of less diameter extending axially
of the pin-from and beyond the large diameter ,,
spective to the aligned bores and received therein, portion whereby radial shoulders are formed on , ‘
each bolt having a head portion engageable _with --the cross pin at the juncture of said largehand
the other i said portions for drawing the rings small diameter portions, said extending end por; ' ~
toward ea h other and having a threaded portion tions being in rolling engagementwith said ring
cooperable with the threaded bores‘for constrain; surfaces, respectively, and said rings having ra-l‘ 75
8
2,187,986
dial face portions alongside ‘the piston portions
in engagement with said shoulders and constrain
ing each piston from rotation about its axis.
10. In a rotary radial piston pump or motor
including a barrel motor, piston assemblages car
ried thereby; a reactance rotor; means mounting
said reactance rotor eccentrically with respect
to said barrel rotor with its axis parallel to the
barrel rotor axis; thrust transmitting means con»
10'
nected between the respective piston assemblages
and said reactance rotor, one of said rotors being
formed with a plurality of spaced circular holes
extending parallel to the barrel rotor axis and
being deployed circumferentially around said
axis; and means for transmitting torque between
said two rotors and having surfaces in rolling, 5
engagement respectively vwith the walls of said
holes, said means including respectively sets of
antifriction rollers, the rollers of each set being
spaced slightly apart for maintaining a cushion
ing capillary oil ?lm therebetween.v
10
ELEK K. BENEDEK.
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