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Патент USA US2137941

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Nov. 22, 1938.
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w. HELMORE ET A1.
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INTERNAL
COMBUSTION
2,137,941
ENGINE
'
Filed April 2, 1937
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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed April 2, 1957
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INTERNAL GOMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed April 2, 1937
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W. HELMORE ET AL
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INTERNAL COMBUS TI ON ENGINE
Fliled April 2, 1937
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Nov. 22, 1938.
w. HELMORE ET'AL
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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
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No_v. 272, 1938;
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w. HELMORE ET AL
I.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed April 2, 1957
16'
2,137,941 ‘
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Sheets-Sheet 6
Patented Neen, 193s'y
y 2,131,941
' ` Ailuln'rieto STATES/PATENT orifice
2.131.951
,
INTERNAL COMBUSTION .ENGINE
`'ummm nemers, cambridge, mi mmv-mnu.
Grullltli, South Farnborough, England
’ , Amlißlflon April 2, 1937, Serial No. 134,808 `
In Great Britain April 8, 1936
23 Claims.
This invention, relates to improvements' in in
ternal-combustion'engines of the kind provided
with means for varying Athe compression ratio
and is particularly applicable to engines for use
5
in aircraft.
'
(Cl. 12a-5l)
`
According to this invention, a variable-com.
pression internal-combustion engine comprises
two driving shafts geared together to rotate the
same number 9i revolutions per minute, one or
10 more pairs of "cylinders of equal diameter, each
pair having a combustion chamber common to
both _cylinders and containing pistons recipro
cated respectively-by the two driving shafts and
means for adjusting the >angular relationship
15 of the two driving shafts in respect to one an
other during the running of the engine, whereby
the compression ratio may be altered. The term
"‘driving shaft" is intended to include the crank
shaft or, in the case of a swash-type engine, a
shaft on which the swash member is mounted.
Heretofore, the mechanism provided for vary
ing the compression ratio has necessitated the
employment of excessive force in order to effect
present invention that as the driving shafts are
brought out-of-phase the mean torques of the
two driving shafts become increasingly different.
This can be illustrated by the fact that during` '.
the explosion-stroke one piston may be ascend
ing while the other is descending. VIn order to
compensate ~for this diii'erence in mean torque,
adjustable means are provided to balance the
difference betweenthetwo torque reactions, for
example by varying the eñect of the torque re
actions on said member so that the effective
'torque reactions of both ‘crank-shafts on said
member are as nearly as'posslble equal.
i The following is a description of two forms
of engine according to this invention, reference
being made to the accompanying drawings, in
' which:
Figure 1 is a verticalicross-section through an
engine having two crank-shafts arranged side- '
by-slde and a number of pairs of cylinders dis
posed above and below the crank-shafts,
Figures 2 and 3 are vertical longitudinal sec-__,
tions showing the two ends of the engine,
v
for eñecting a change oi compression _ratio was
unduly heavy, rendering it objectionable for use
Figure 4, which'is‘drawn on a larger scale than
the previous figures, is a horizontal cross-sec
tion on the line 4-4 of Figure 2. showing one
diiïerential gear in section and the other in
in aircraft.
elevation,
and 'maintain a change oi compression during
25 the running of the engine. Thus, the mechanism
`
_
.As indicated above, according tothe present
30 inventiommeans are provided for adjusting the
angular relationship. of the two driving shafts.
This necessarily involves movement of an adjust
i ing member which .is subjected to the torque re'
actions of the two driving shafts.
it will be
35< appreciated that if the torque reactions operate
on that'member in the same direction, a force
equal to the combined reactions will be required
to maintain the member in any one position, and
’ a stili greater force will be required to move it
against the reactions. Theoretically, during one
cycle of the engine, the torques in the driving
shafts, and thus the torque reactions, will vary
both in magnitude and direction but owing to
,l such factors as inertia and elasticity of the mov
- .ing parts, the torque reactions on said member
may be regarded as being equal to the mean
turques developed during a cycle. In order to
minimize .the force required to move or to main
tain the adjusting member in any one position,
the mean torque reactions may be made to oper
ate upon that member _in opposite directions. It
might be thought that by so opposing the mean
Figure 5 is an end elevation of a portion of
and
'_
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic vertical longitudi 35
nal section through an engine having a number
of pairs of cylinders, the two cylinders in each
pair being arranged end-to-end.
According to the construction shown in Figures
1 to 5, two crank-shafts i0 and Il AareA arranged 40
side-by-side parallel with on another, and a. num- ~
ber of pairs of cylinders l2 and I3 are arranged
above the crank-shafts and a similar number
of pairs of cylinders I4 and I5 are arranged be
neath the crank-shafts. It will be noted that the
axes of the two cylinders in each pair are in
clined towards one another as they extend away
from the crank-shaft.
A convenient angle for
the inclination of the engine illustrated is about -
20°; the said inclined axes are arranged to cut
respectively the axes of the two crank-shafts.
The cylinders, as is known, may comprise steel
torque reactions little or no resultant reaction « liners mounted in an outer casing I6 which pro
would be applied to the adjusting member. It is vides a water-jacket-space I1 between it and the
55
a characteristic, however, of the engine of the
'
the' forward part of the engine, showing diagram 30
matically the operating connection between the
two dilïerential gears and the mechanism for
enacting adjustment of the diñerential gears,
liner. In the engine illustrated six pairs of cyl
a
2
2,137,941
inders are arranged on each side of the two crank
shafts and the casing I6 housing the cylinders is
bolted to a two-part crank-case 1. The cylinder
head I8 which extends along the length of the
engine over the six pairs of cylinders is so shaped
tion to the valve-timing and ignition, and the
other will be advanced. In the setting shown
in Figure 1, the two pistons are in phase', that
is to say, they move up-and-down together and
for this setting the compression ratio is a max
as to provide one combustion chamber I9 for each
imum.
pair of cylinders. The two cylinders of each pair
out of phase there will be a period during each
cycle when one piston is rising while the other
is falling, thus reducing the effective swept vol
are controlled by the same set of valves compris
ing two inlet valvesl 20 arranged side-by-side
10 along the length of the engine and two~ exhaust
valves 2l. Dual ignition may be provided by two
sparking-plugs 22. Mounted in each cylinder is a
piston 23 connected by a connecting-rod 24 to
its respective crank-shaft. Each crank-shaft is
15 arranged to drive a differential gear which gears
are shown in Figure 4. Fixed to the end of each
crank-shaft is a sun-wheel 25 which is arranged
in gear with a number of planet-wheels 26 ro
tatably mounted on a carrier 21 secured to a
20 drum 28. A second sun-wheel 29 is also ar
ranged to gear with the planet-wheel 26, which
ume and compression ratio.
Should it be pos
tending out through a casing 3l that encloses
both diil‘erential gears. Secured to the outer
25 extremity of each of the sun-wheel-shafts 30 is
a control-lever-arm 32 and, as will be seen from
Figure 5, the two control-lever-arms 32 are piv
otally` connected together by a link 3_3. Also
pivotally connected to one of the lever arms 32
30 is an adjusting member 34. Both of the planet
drums 28 are provided Íwith an external gear
track 35. These two gear-tracks are arranged
to engage with one another. As will be seen
from Figure 2, one of the gear-tracks 35 en
It will be appreciated that so long as the crank
shafts are in phase, the mean torque reactions
on the sun-wheels 29 will be equal and opposite
and thus very little force will be required to be
transmitted by the adjusting member 34 to ro
tate them. When, however, the crank-shafts are 20
brought out of phase, the mean torque reactions
not be balanced.
This lout-of-balance of mean
torque reactions, however, may be compensated
by selecting an appropriate length for the link 25
33 between the two lever-arms 32. For example,
it will be seen from Figure 5 that when the lever
arms are in a position indicated by the full lines
which correspond to the in-phase relationship of
the crank-shaft, the angles between- the link 33 30
and the two lever-arms are the same and greater
than a right-angle. In this position, as already
indicated above, the two torque reactions are
equal and balance one another and the turning
35 gages a pinion 36 fixed to a power-shaft 31 which
may comprise the propeller-shaft or may be gear
connected to the propeller-shaft. Fixed also to
effort provided by the operating-member 34 will
the power shaft 31 is a gear-wheel 38 which drives
the cam-shaft 39 for the valve-gear through an
dotted lines in Figure 5, the angle between the
intermediate pinion 40 and a gear-wheel 4I con
nected with said cam-shaft. One of the gear
In a case where dual ignition is re
50 quired each cam-shaft may drive two magnetos.
The crank-shaft Il is connected through gear
ing 35 with an impeller 46 of a blower which
is provided with suitable outlets for connection
The
55 Carburettor is connected to the intake of the
blower.
be the same on each lever-arm.- When, however,
the lever-arms are in the positon shown in the
link 33 andthe left-hand lever-ann 32 is greater
than the angle between/the link and the other 40
lever-arm.
tracks 35 is arranged to drive a compound pinion
42, the smaller gear of which compound wheel is
arranged to drive an intermediate pinion 43 which
engages a gear-wheel similar to 4I attached
to the other cam-shaft 39.
As will be seen from Figure 3, each cam-shaft
39 is connected through gearing 43 with a mag
with the induction ports of the cylinders.
10
sible to bring the crank-shafts 180° out-oI-phase
(which it is not) lthe pistons would always be
moving in opposite directions and the effective
swept volume and compression ratio would be nil.
on the sun-wheels 29, as already explained, will
sun-wheel is secured to a hollow shaft 30 ex
neto 44.
5
As soon as the crank-shafts are brought
l
Thus, although the torque reaction
on one sun-wheel may be greater than on the
other, the resultant forces transmitted to the
adjusting member 34 may still be equal and op
posite.
.
v
As already indicated earlier in the specifica
tion, the phase-changing mechanism for the two
crank-shafts may be automatically operated by
changes in pressure in the induction system.
One form of such a control is diagrammatically
shown in Figure 5. In this arrangement, the
piston 41 of a servo-motor energized by the en
gine oil-pressure system is connected on one side
by a rod 48 to the adjusting member 34 and on
the other side is connected by a'link 50 to a slide
valve 5I. The slide valve controls ports 52 and
As indicated earlier, the axes of the pair of
53 at opposite ends of the -cylinder 54 in which
cylinders are inclined towards one another and
the piston 41 is mounted in such a manner that
the aforesaid ports 52 or 53 may either be con
nected to a source of oil-pressure through the
passage 4 or to the oil sump of the engine through
this necessitates the two crank-shafts being
driven in opposite directions in order that the re
quired phase relationship of the movements of
the two pistons may be obtained.
the passages55, 56.
It will be appreciated that the angular rela
tionship between the two crank-shafts may be
varied by rotating the two sun-wheels 29. As
will be seen from Figure 5, the movement of-the
to the slide-valve through a pin-and-slot con
operating-rod will cause both sun-wheels 29 to
be rotated in the same direction. Assuming the
engine is stationary, rotation of the sun-wheels
70 29 will impart rotation to 'the planet-wheels
The link 50 is connected
nection 51 which is located intermediate of the
length of the link. The link is also connected 65
through other links 58 and 59 to a. pressure-re
sponsive device communicating with the induc
tion system.
The said pressure or detonation
responsive device comprises an airtight chamber
60 in which is mounted an airtight bellows 6|
fixed at one end to the casing 60 and having se
4shafts I0 and Il also to be rotated in the sameA cured 'to the other end a rod 62 pivotally con
about their axes and this will cause the crank
direction. Since, however, in operation of the
engine, the two crank-shafts rotate in oposite
75 directions, one of them will be retarded in rela
nected to the link 59 and extending out through
a. gland 63 in the casing. The casing communi
cates through a suitable conduit 94 with the 75
3.
9,181,941
induction system. The pivot between the links
Each crank-shaft has secured to it a. bevel sun
wheel 18 which engages a number of bevel
a rod 66 connected to the carburetter mixture
control. Assuming there is an increase of pres
sure in the induction system without .movement
of the carburetter mixture control ,the bellows
planet-wheels 11, the carrier. for which (not
shown) is provided with a gear-wheel 18. Each
`Mandi!isconnectedbylinks8landllto
6| will contract, causing the lower end of lthe
link 50 to be swung to the left, because the pivot
axis between“ and 85 is ñxed and thus the
10 iiexing between 58 and 84 will cause the leit
hand end' of link 58 to move to the left and to
carry with it the lower end of the link 50. The
pin-and-slot connection between 58 and El will
cause the arcuate motion of 50 to be translated
15 into rectilineal» movement of 5I. 'I'his will cause
the slide valve to open the „left-hand of the
cylinder to oil-pressure and the right-hand to
gear-wheel 18 meshes with an intermediate gear
wheel 18 and the two intermediate gear-wheels
mesh with one another. The two crank-shafts
are arranged to rotate in opposite directions.
A second bevel sun-wheel is arranged 'to engage
(not shown) eachvset of planet-wheels and, as 10
in the previous construction, the _shafts of these
two sun-wheels are provided with lever-arms
which are connected together by a link to a. con
trol mechanism, whereby the rotation of the two
sun-wheels alters the phase relationship of the
two crank-shafts. Each .ofthe intermediate
gear-wheels 19 is provided with a~ compound
the oil pump of the engine'.- The piston l1 willv y wheel 80 which drives a cam-shaft 8i by engag
thus move to the right until its movement causes ing with a pinion 82. Opposite each cylinder
the cam-shaft is straddled by two cam-followers 20
20 the link 50 again to close the valve. The move
83 and 84. The cam-follower 83 is pivotaily
ment of the piston'7 and rod 48 to the right is ar
ranged to rotate the two sun-wheels 29 in such a _ connected by a link 85 to a flange 86 formed at
direction as to decrease the compression ratio.
Similarly, if the rod 66 is moved to the right,
with an increase of throttle opening, the pis-tons l1, 48 will be moved _to the right and the
compressionv ratio will be decreased. It will
be appreciated that with this arrangement, when
used with an aeroplane engine, the compression
30 ratio will require to be at its lowest at ground
level.
’
.
W'hen the aeroplane ascends, for example at
full throttle, the pressure in the induction sys
tem will gradually fall off and thus there will
35 be a tendency for reduction in power.
This,
however, is .to some _extent compensated by the
compression ratio then being automatically in
the v-outer end of the valve sleeve. The other
cam-follower 84 engages the inner face of said
liange. Thus, the sleeve is moved by a push-pull 25
action resulting’from the-,operation vof the cam
81 on the two cam-followers. 'I'he pivotal
mounting for the cam-follower 84 is fixed, where
as the mounting of the cam-follower 83 is mov
able and is urged towards the cam-shaft by a 30
plunger 88 under the inñuence of ' the oil-pres
sure system of the engine.
larly, upon descending, the pressure in the in
duction system will increase` whereby the com
pression ratio will be decreased thereby pre
venting detonation and excessive maximum pres
sure. At the same time the effective swept
volume will" be decreased thereby preventing ex
l. A variable-compression internai-combus
' tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
.rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts. adjustable gearing so arranged between
number of revolutions per minute and comprising 50
an adjusting member the movement of which
.- tional charge introduced into the increased>
combustion space. The compression, ratio may
>varies the angular relationship of said shafts'in
respect to another, which adjusting member is
arranged that the torque reactions transmitted
be varied» from between 8:1 and 4:5 by varying
the phase relationship of the two crank-shafts
from iii-phase to about 66° out-oî-phase.
to it by the driving shafts are in opposite direc 55
tions and adjustable means arranged to balance
'the diiïerence between the torque reactions on
said member (which diilîerence varies with. dif
f In the arrangement shown in Figure 6, the
two cylinders l2' and i8' in each pair are ar
ranged end to'end and the two crank-shafts Hi'
60 ders are provided with flanges 81 which are se
45
said driving shafts that they rotate the same
' cessive power being developed due to the addi
and Il' are arranged at opposite ends o! the
assemblage. -The adjacent ends of the cylin
„
14@
the left and causing the piston 41 and rod «is
lationship of the crank-shafts is altered. Simi
»
ratio may be varied between 9zl and 15:1 by
varying the phase relationship of the two crank
snafts from irl-phase to 47° out-of--phase.
creased by reason of the fact that the bellows Gl
tend to expand, thus moving the slide valve to
also to move to the left, whereby the phase re
‘
vThe above design is suitable `for a Diesel en
gine in which case a fuel injector may beac
commodated in a threaded hole 89 formed be 35
tween the 'two ñanges S1. The compression
x
ferent angular relationships oi said shafts).
2. A variable-compression internal-combus 60
cured together by bolts 68. The ñanged ends tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu- \
of the cylinders `may either be bolted to the outer rality of working chambers each having two
casing I8, as indicated at 89,. or the attach ' cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ment may be provided by a screw-threaded en
gagement, as indicated at 10. One of the flanged
ing with one another through a combustion space,
manifold 12 and with the interior of the cyl
inder, while the other flanged portion is provided
said driving shafts that they rotate‘the same
number ofrevolutions per minute andA compris
ing an adjusting member the movement ofy which 70
varies the angular relationship of said shafts in
respect to oneanother, which adjustingV member
is arranged that the torque reactions transmit
ted to yit by the driving shalt are in opposite di
rections and adjustable means interconnected 75ll
aA piston in each cylinder portion, .which pistonsv 65
vportions 81 may be `provided with a number of » arer connected respectively to the two driving
' inlet passages 1I communicating with an inlet shafts, adjustable gearing so arranged'between
4’1o
with a number of exhaust passages 18 com uni
I ter
, `l eating with anl exhaust manifold 18.
posed between each piston 23' and surrounding
cylinder, is a valve sleeve 15. As will be seen, one
sleeve controls the inlet passages 1i and the
75 other sleeve controls the exhaust passages 1I.
4
2,137,941
with said adjusting member and arranged auto
matically to balance the difference between the
_ torque reactionsl on said member (which dif
ference varies with different angular relationships
Cl
of said shafts).
v
shafts, two epicyclic gears, one driven by each
driving shaft, and gear-connected together so
that said driving shafts rotate the same number
of revolutions per minute and each provided with
a reaction member having a crank arm attached
3. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
thereto and a link connecting said crank arms,
which epicyclic gears are arranged to impart to
said link torque reactions in the opposite direc
tion.
ing with one another through a combustion space,
8. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
a piston in Ieach cylinder portion,- which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, an epicyclic gear so arranged to connect
together the driving shafts that they are ro
tated the same number of revolutions per minute
and means for adjustably rotating the reaction
member of the epicyclic gear so as to vary the
angular relationship of said driving shafts.
4. A variable-compression internal-combus
20 tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, two epicyclic gears, one driven by each
driving shaft, and gear-connected together so
that said driving shafts rotate the same number
of revolutions per minute and each provided with
30 a reaction member and means for adjustably ro
tating the reaction members of said epicyclic
gears, whereby the angular relationship of the
driving shafts is altered.
5. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the' vtwo driving
shafts, two epicyclic gears, one driven by each
driving shaft, and gear-connected together so
that said driving shafts rotate the same number
of revolutions per minute and each provided
with a reaction member, and adjusting member
interconnected with the reaction members of
said epicyclic gears so that both said reaction
members may be adjustably rotated and thereby
alter the angular relationship of the two driving
50 shafts.
6. A
variable-compression
internal-combus
` tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each. having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, two epicyclic gears, one driven by each
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, two epicyclic gears, one driven by each
driving shaft, and gear-connected together so
that said driving shafts rotate the same number
of revolutions per minute and each provided with 20
a reaction member having a crank arm attached
thereto and a link connecting said crank arms,
which epicyclic gears are arranged‘to impart to
said link torque reactions in the opposite direc
tion and the length and agular disposition of 25
which crank arms and link are so selected that
upon movement of the link the mechanical ad
vantages of the crank-arms on the link vary in
a manner to balance the changing difference be
tween the torque reactions transmitted by the 30
reaction members.
1
9. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat 35
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, two epicyclic gears each comprising
planet-wheels which engage both a gear-wheel 40
on a driving shaft and a reaction gear-wheel and
each comprising a planet-wheel carrier, which
planet-wheel carriers are gear-connected t0
gether, and an adjusting member interconnected
with the reaction gear-wheels so that both reac
tion gear-wheels may be adjustably rotated and 45
thereby alter the angular relationship of the
driving shafts.
10. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality oi’ working chambers each having two 60
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, two epicyclic gears each comprising 55
planet-wheels which engage both a gear-wheel
on a driving shaft and a vreaction gear-wheel and
driving shaft, and gear-connected together so
that said driving shafts rotate the same number
of revolutions per minute and each provided with
planet-wheel carriers are gear-connected to
a reaction member, an adjusting member so in
terconnected with the reaction members of said
ranged that the driving shafts rotate the same
number of revolutionsl per minute in opposite
epicyclic gears that the torque reactions imparted
to it from the two driving shafts are in opposite
directions and so that both said reaction mem
bers may be adjustably rotated and thereby alter
the angular relationship of the two driving shafts.
7. A variable-compression internal-combus
70 tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are
connected respectively to the two driving
75
each comprising a planet-wheel carrier, which
gether and which gearing as a whole is so ar
60
directions and an adjusting member so intercon
nected with the reaction gear-wheels that the 65
torque reactions imparted to it from the two
driving shafts are in opposite directions and so
that by movement of the adjusting member bothv
said reaction gear-wheels may be adjustably ro
tated and thereby alter the angular relationship
of the two driving shafts.
'
11. A variable-compression4 internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat- 75
Y
i,
2,187,941
the 'changing difference between the> torque re
a- piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons actions transmitted byv the reaction gear-wheels.
are connected respectively to the two driving , 14. A variable-compression internal-combus
shafts, two epicyclic -gears each comprising tion engine for aircraft comprising two driving
planet-wheels _which engage both a gear-wheel shafts. a plurality ot working chambers each hav- 5
- ing with one another through a combustion space,
on a driving shaft and a reaction gear-wheel and ing two cylinder portions of equal diameter ‘
each comprising a planet-wheel carrier, `which communicating with one anotherthrough a com
bustion space, a piston in eachl cylinder portion,
planet-wheel carriers are gear-connected to
which pistons are connected respectively tothe
gather and which gearing asa whole is so ar
ranged that the drivingy shafts rotate the same two driving-shafts, gearing arranged so to cori-A
nect together said driving-shafts that they rotate
number of revolutions per minute in opposite di
the same number _of revolutions per minute and
rections, a crank arm attached to each reaction means
adapted to adjust the angular relationship
gear-wheel, a link pivotaily connecting to
of
the
two driving-shafts in respect .to one an
gether the two crank arms, the length and angu
lar disposition of which crank arms and link are other during the running of the engine, a super- l5
so selected that upon movement of the link the
charger in lpermanent operative association with
link lvary in'- a manner to balance the changing
sponsive to changes of pressure in said engine for
operating the means for varying the compression
»
Y mechanical advantages of the crank arms on the ' the induction system of the engine, means re
difference between the torque reactions transmit
ted by the reaction gear-wheels.
12. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising twov driving shafts ar
ranged side-by-side and parallel with one an
other, a plurality of pairs of cylinders of equal
diameterarranged in two rows on both sides of
a plane containing the two
shafts, a plu
rality of combustion chambers, one associated
with each pair ‘of cylinders. a piston in each cyl
inder', which pistons of each pair are connected
ratio so as to increase the compression ratio with £0
decrease of engine pressure and to decrease the
,ratio upon increase of engine pressure.`
' 15. A variable-compression intemal-combus
tion engine for aircraft comprising two driving
shafts, a plurality of working'chambers each hav
ing two cylinder , portions of equal diameter
communicating with one another through a com
bustion space, a piston in each cylinder portion,
which pistons are connected respectively to the
two driving-shafts, gearing arranged so to con
. respectively to thetwo driving shafts, the cylin
-nect together said driving-shafts that they rotate
ders of each of which pairs are so inclined that
>the same number of revolutions per minute and
their outer ends are close together and so that means adapted to adjust the angular relationship
Átheir axes cut respectively the axes ofthe driving of the two driving-shafts in respect to one an
shafts, two epicyclic gears each comprising other during the running of .the engine, a lsuper
' planet-wheels which engage both a> gear-wheel > charger in permanent operative association with
on a driving shaft and a reaction gear-wheel `the induction system of the engine,- means re
_ and each comprising a planet-wheel carrier, sponsive to changes of absolute pressure in said
which planet-wheel carriers are gear-connected induction system for operating the means for
together andwhich gearing as a whole 'is so ar
varying `the compression ratio so as to increase
ranged that the driving shafts rotate-the/`l same ' the compression ratio with decrease of absolute
number of revolutions per minute in opposite di
pressure and to decrease the ratio upon increase
rections, a crank arm attached to each reaction of absolutepressure.
gear-wheel,v a link pivotally connecting together
16. A variable-compression internal-combus
the twocrank arms, the length and angular dis
tion engine for aircraft comprising two driving
45 position of which crank arms and link are so se
shafts, a plurality of working chambers each hav
lected that upon movement of the li
the me
ing `two cylinder *portionsy of equal diameter
chanical advantages of the crank arms on -the
link vary in a manner to balance the changing
communicating with one another through a com
bustion space, a piston in each cylinder portion,
difference between the torque reactions trans
mitted by the reaction gear-wheels.
13. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising a plurality of pairs of
cylinders of equal diameter, the cylinders in each4
pair being arranged end-to-end, a combustion
which pistons are connected respectively to the
chamber formed between the cylinders of each
other during the running of the engine, a super
pair and communicating with both of them, two
driving shafts arranged at opposite ends of the
pairs of cylinders, a piston in each cylinder, which
pistons of each pair are connected respectivelyl
60 to the two driving shafts, two epicyclic gears
each comprising planet-wheels which engage
both a 7gear-wheel on a driving shaft and a re
action gear-wheel and each comprising a planet
wheel carrierjwhich planet-wheel carriers are
gear-connected together and which gearing as
two driving-shafts, gearing arrangedso to con
nect together said driving-shafts that they rotate
the same number of revolutions per minute and
means adapted to adjust the angular relationship
of the two driving-shafts in respect to one an 55
charger in permanent operative association with
the induction' system of the engine, means re
sponsive to changes of maximum pressure Vin the
engine cylinders for operating the means for 60
varying the compression ratio so as to increase
the compression ratio with decrease in pressure
and to decrease the ratio upon increase of pres
sure.
17. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine for aircraft comprising two driving
shafts, a plurality of working chambers each hav
ing two cylinder portions of equal diameter
rotate the same number of revolutions per min
ute in opposite directions, a crank arm attached communicating with one another through a com
to each reaction gear-wheel, a link pivotally4 ccn . bustion space, a piston in each cylinder portion, 70
necting together the two crank arms, the length which pistons are connected respectively to the
and angular dispositionof which crank arms and two driving-shafts, gearing arranged so to con
link are s'o selected that upon movement of the nect together said driving-shafts that they rotate
link the mechanical advantages of 'the crank the same number of revolutions per minute and `
arms on' the link vary in a manner to balance means adapted to adjust the angular relationship 75
, a whole is so arranged that the driving shafts
6
^ 2,137,941
of the two driving-shafts in respect to one an
other during the running of the engine, a servo
motor operating said means, means responsive to
changes of pressure in said engine for controlling
said servo-motor so that the compression ratio
is decreased upon increase of engine pressure and
increased upon decrease of pressure and a super
charger in permanent operative association with
the induction system.
10
'
,
-
`
18. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine for aircraft comprising'two driving
shafts, a plurality of working chambers each hav
ing two cylinder portions of equal diameter
communicating with one another through a com
bustion space, a piston in each cylinder portion,
which pistons are connected respectively to the
two driving-shafts, gearing arranged so to con
nect together said driving-shafts that they rotate
the same number of revolutions per minute and
20 means adapted to adjust the angular relationship
of the two driving-shafts in respect to one an
other during the running of the engine, a servo
motor energized by an oil-pressure system of the
'engine for operating said means, means respon
25 sive to changes of pressure in said engine for
controlling said servo-motor so that the com
pression ratio is decreased upon increase of en
gine pressure and increased upon decrease oi'
pressure and a supercharger in permanent oper
30 ation associated with the induction system.
19. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
35
40
45
50
55
to one another, which adjusting member is ar
ranged that the torque reactions transmitted to
it by the driving shafts are in opposite directions
and adjustable means arranged to balance the
difference between the torque reactions on said 5
member (which difference varies with different
angular relationships of said shafts), a servo
motor operating said means, which servo-motor
is controlled by a mixture control of the engine
carburetter and by means responsive to changes
of pressure in said motor, whereby the compres
sion ratiois decreased upon increase of engine
pressure and increased upon decrease of pressure
and a supercharger in permanent operative as
sociation with the induction system.
21. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving-shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two cyl
inder portions of equal diameter communicating
with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two-driving
shafts, gearing adapted to drive said shafts at the
same speed and to drive valve mechanism and
means adapted so to adjust the angular relation 25
ship of the tw driving-shafts that one is ad
vanced in relat on to the valve mechanism, and
the other is retarded to the same extent.
22. A variable-compression internal-combus
tion engine comprising two driving-shafts, a plu 30
rality of working chambers each having two cyl
inder portions of equal diameter communicating
with one another through a combustion space,
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons
ing with one another through a combustion space, are connected respectively to the two driving 35
a piston in each cylinder portion, which pistons shafts, two epicyclic gears each comprising
are connected respectively to the two driving planet-wheels which engage both a gear-wheel
shafts, adjustable gearing so arranged between on the driving-shaft and a reaction gear-wheel
said driving shafts that they rotate the same and each comprising a planet-wheel carrier,
number of revolutions per minute and comprising which planet-wheel carriers are gear-connected 40
an adjusting member the movement of which_ together and to valve-driving mechanism and an
varies the angular relationship of said shafts in adjusting member interconnected with the re
respect to one another, which adjusting member action gear-wheels so that both reaction gear
is arranged that the torque reactions transmitted wheels may be adjustably rotated and thereby
to it by the driving shafts are in opposite direc
alter the angular relationship of the driving
tions and adjustable means arranged to balance shafts without alteration of the timing of the 45
the difference between the torque reactions on valve mechanism.
said member (which difference varies with dif
23. A variable-compression compression-ig
ferent angular relationships of said shafts), a nition engine comprising two driving-shafts, a
servo-motor connected to the adjusting member, plurality of pairs of cylinders of equal diameter,
means responsive to changes oi’ pressure in said the cylinders in each pair being arranged end-to 50
engine for controlling said servo-motor so that end, a combustion chamber formed between the
the compression ratio is decreased upon increase cylinders of each pair and communicating with
of engine pressure and increased upon decrease both cylinders, a sleeve-valve associated with
of pressure and a supercharger in permanent op
each cylinder, a piston in each cylinder, which 55
erative association with the induction system.
pistons of each pair are connected respectively to
20. A variable-compression`> internal-combus
the two driving-shafts, gearing arranged so to
tion engineI comprising two driving shafts, a plu
rality of working chambers each having two
cylinder portions of equal diameter communicat
ing with one another through a combustion space,
a pisto’n in each cylinder portion, which pistons
are connected respectively to the two driving
shafts, adjustable gearing so arranged between
said driving shafts,that they rotate the same num
ber of revolutions per minute and comprising an
adiustingmember the movement of which varies
the angular relationship of said shafts in respect
connect together said driving-shafts that they
rotate the same number of revolutions per min
ute, means for adjusting the angular relationship 60
of the two driving-shafts in respect to one an
other during the running of the-engine, a fuel
pump adapted to inject fuel into the compressed
charge in the combustion chamber, which fuel
pump and valve sleeves are driven by gearing
from said crank-shafts.
'
_
WILLIAM HELMORE.
ALAN ARNOLD GRIFFITH.
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