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Патент USA US2137966

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NOV. 22, 1938. '
Filed March 12, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet l
Nov; 22, 1938.
Filed March 12, 1955
‘4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Nqv. 22, 1938. I
Filed March 12,, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Nov. 22, 1938.
Filed March 12, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
Renvllle S. Rankin, Chicago, 111., assignor to The
Dorr Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application March 12, 1935, Serial No. 10,660
14 Claims.
This invention relates to a clari?cation and
treatment system for the removal of suspended
solids from liquids. More particularly it relates
to improvements in the operation and arrange
ment of the system with regard to potential oper
ating changes in response to certain varying de
With regard to its ?eld of application this in
vention relates preferably, although not exclu
sively, to sewage treatment, or more speci?cally
to improvements in a clarifying system for sewage
(Cl. 210-2)
time. ,This speci?c method of'dosing is advo
cated because it is economical in the use of co
agulating or precipitating agents and is prefer-x
able in certain instances to the dosing of the raw
sewage at a point ahead of the clari?ers. During 5
the winter months and otherwise however it may
be desirable to omit the dosing step, and substi
‘ tute operation of the clari?ers in parallel instead
of series.
Also certain requirements with regard to the 10
subsequent treatment by digestion of the respec
treatment in which periodic operating changes
tive clari?er sludges have a bearing upon the
are desired in view of certain requirements .of
preference of dosing between clari?er stages, in
?exibility, economy,and other plant operating
asmuch as this makes a substantial percentage
of undosed clari?er sludge available for subse- 15
5 principles, and also in view of such demands as
made upon the sewage plant according to sea
sonal conditions and ?uctuations.
To understand a difficulty in the case of sewage
clari?cation, according to one aspect a problem
exists in the layout of sewage plants, which has
to do with the fact that, as a rule, there is a
qucnt digestion.
Objects of the invention are to produce a clari
?cation plant, or clari?cation section of a plant,
or sewage treat‘inent plant, which is ?exible in
operation, which is economical in dosing and 20
power requirements and in total operating e?i
scantiness of hydraulic head between the point
ciency, which is optionally operable in parallel
of raw sewage supply and the lowest possible
and series respectively preferably at a minimum
clari?er over?ow elevation, so that a desired gravi
total of hydraulic head, and which altogether
; ity ?ow to and from the clari?ers can often only is simple to operate in view of changing operat- 25
be obtained by a very close margin. In a tenta ' ing requirements. To this end the invention con
tive example the. upper limitation of the head templates the arrangement of a pair of clari
available may be determined by a long approach ?ers at substantially equal over?ow levels and
thus adapted for parallel operation, in combina
from the respective municipality which the sew
‘9 age plant serves, while the lower limit might be tion with pressure boosting means operative to 30
controlled by the respective water levels of a make up for the head loss when switching the
stream or body of water into which the clari?er clari?ers from parallel to series, and preferably v
over?ow is to discharge.
Consequently, in this respect this invention
inoperative when returning to parallel'operation.
One feature therefore proposes an arrangement
5 contemplates having a battery of clari?ers v according to which a liquid supply channel has
changeable from parallel to series operation. interposed in a portion thereof a rotary mixing
Parallel operation can be satis?ed with a smaller device of the type which has suiilcient centrifugal
margin of head with both clari?ers arranged on e?ect to act as a low lift pump. _ =
or for operating at substantially the same level.
This feature can therefore be said to reside in
Series operation of the clari?ers requires addi
the selective use of a combined mixing device
tional head to compensate for the necessary drop and low lift pump in a ?ow sheet which is alter
between the primary and secondary clari?ers.
nately operable with clari?ers parallel or in seAnother reason to account for the preference
underlying this invention of having the clari?ers
Other features relate to a system of interconin
between the respective operating points
for series operation respectively, lies in’ a re ' of the clari?cation or treatment plant for selec
quirement fo'r chemically dosing the sewage pref
tively effecting a desired variety of operating
erably at certain points of the ‘?owsheet. Such changes.
dosing may comprise the addition of a chemical
Other features revolve around.the details of
precipitating agent at certain seasons of the year. structural arrangement and operation of 'a liquid
That is to say, when'dosing is required,- as for - conditioning and ?occulating unit to be used
instance during the summer months, it is pre
in connection with the present. clari?cation sys
ferred to interpose such dosing step between a
primary and a secondary clari?er, therefore se
a ries operation of the clari?ers is desired atsuch
Still 'other features relate to the type and spe
ci?c arrangement of a low pressure pumping 55
means for boosting gravity flow in a liquid clari
tioning and ?occulating unit, taken upon Fig. 6.
?cation system, or to the use for this purpose of
what is known and may be referred to as a “turbo
Fig. 8 is an enlarged detail section of the com
bined mixing and low pressure pumping device.
mixer” or “turbo ?ash-mixer".
A_preferrecl embodiment therefore in a sewage
Fig. 9 is an end view upon the ?occulating tank
and the clari?er tanks associated therewith.
Figures 1 to 5 show ?owsheets disclosing di
agrammatically a variety of operating connec
.tions which may be selectively established in a
preferred clari?cation or .treatment system ac
cording to this invention. The system includes
as operating elements: A pair of mechanically
cleaned clari?ers III and H; a liquid conditioning
treatment plant, while simple, compact, and
otherwise capable of meeting the various prime
requirements set forth above, permits variant
modes of operation; with selective use of the
clari?ers, ?occulating devices, mixing chamber,
mixing device, and various auxiliary channels.
That is to say, with parallel connection of the
clari?ers the clari?cation plant is‘selectively op
erable: with or without dosing in the mixing de
vice, or with or without a ?occulating step fol
and ?occulating unit collectively indicated by
the numeral I2, and‘ comprising a pair of individ
ual ?occulating sections or units I3 and H; a
lowing the mixing step.
. conditioning or mixing chamber or unit l5 as
The advantages derived from the foregoing sociated with the in?uent end of the ?occulating
?exible arrangement are not con?ned to the
operation of the clari?cation section proper but
extend their bene?t further into the subsequent
units; a receiving chamber i6 for the mixing
able to digesting sludge which has been wholly
coagulating precipitable solids in the liquid. At
chamber; and a control chamber or arrange
ment I ‘I equipped for selective feed distribution 20
step of digesting the clari?er sludge, because to various sections of the system.
the arrangement in a broader aspect also in
The numeral l3 indicates an auxiliary ar
volves the mixing of raw primary sludge with. rangement for dispensing a coagulating or_ pre
chemically precipitated secondary sludge, which cipitating agent or chemical; "la a feed line
25 for the purpose of digestion is; considered prefer
therefor jointly comprising a device for causing 25
precipitated chemically. .
l9 and 20 is shown a battery of sewage digesters.
The invention possesses other objects and fea
Numeral 2i may indicate a screening chamber
tures of advantage, some of which with the fore
for removal of roughage.
30 going will be set forth in the following descrip
_ The respective operating connections in the di 30
tion. In the following description and in the agrams are shown in the way of arrowed lines,
claims, parts will be identi?ed by speci?c names the arrows’ indicating the ?ow direction in the
for convenience, but they are intended to be as lines. .
generic in their application to similar parts as
More speci?cally, Fig. 1 includes an in?uent
35 the art will permit. In the accompanying line 22 leading into the control chamber I1, di-' 35
drawings there has been illustrated the best em
rect feed connections 23 and 24 from the control
bodiment of the invention known to me, but such chamber I‘! to the clari?ers l0 and II respec;
embodiment is to be regarded as typical only 0.‘ tively, over?ow-lines 25 and'26 from the clari
many possible embodiments, and the invention ?ers. The‘ numerals 21 and 28 indicate the re
40 is not to be limited thereto.
spective clari?er under?ow or sludge lines.
In‘ particular there are possible within the
In Fig. 2, an in?uent line '29 leads into the
scope of this invention ‘a variety of operating control chamber 11, continuing into a feed line
' combinations not enumerated above, such variety 30 to the clari?er [0. An over?ow line 3| from
being covered by the appended description, clari?er‘ I 0 leads into the receiving chamber l6
45 claims, and drawings.
and the ?ow continues through’ the mixing 45
The novel features that I consider character- a chamber l5 into a feed line 32 leading therefrom
istic of my invention are set forth with particu
larity in the appended claims. The invention
itself, however, both as to its organization and
50 its method of operation, together with additional
objects and advantages thereof, will best be un
derstood from the following’ description of a
speci?c embodiment when read in connection
with the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is a diagram showing parallel operation
of the clari?ers, with connections active to by
pass the ?occulating unit.
' .
Fig. 2 is a diagram showing series operation of
the clari?ers, with connections active to by-pass
the ?occulating unit.
Fig. 3 is a diagram showing parallel operation
of the clari?ers, with connections arranged to in
clude the ?occulator unit.
Fig. 4 is a diagram showing series operation of
65 the clari?ers, and connections arranged to in
clude the ?occulating unit intermediate the clar
Fig. 5 is a diagram showing the clari?ers in
series with one ?occulator section ahead of the
?rst clari?er, and the other ?occulating section
intermediate the clari?ers.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged plan view of the condi
tioning and ?occulating unit including premix
ing and distributing chambers.
Fig. '7 is a longitudinal section of the condi
to the second clari?er II from which leads an
over?ow line 33. Respective clari?er under?ow
lines 34 and 35‘are indicated to lead from the
respective clari?ers l0 and II. Arrows 36 lead 50
ing from the dispensing arrangement l8 indi
cate‘ that the line “la in this ?owsheet is active
to- introduce a chemical precipitating agent.
In Fig. 3 the in?uent 31 splits in the mixing
chamber l5, to allow the split portions to con 55
tinue individually through the ?occulating units
l3 and I4 as indicated by the respective lines 38
and 39. Corresponding connections 40 and 4|
lead from the ?occulating units to the respec
tive clari?ers Ill and H. Clari?er over?ows are 60
shown at 42 and 43. Arrows 46 leading from the
dispensing arrangement l8 indicate that the line
I8a in this ?owsheet is active to introduce a
chemical coagulating agent ahead of mixer l6
and ?occulating devices i2, i3. Clari?er.under 65
?ows are shown at 41 and 48.respectively.
Fig. 4 has an in?uent 49 passing through the
control chamber 11, to continue into the feed line
~50 toelari?er l0. An over?ow line 5| leads from
the clari?er ill to the receiving chamber Hand 70
to the mixing chamber l5 where the ?ow splits to
enter into the two ?occulating sections I3 and 14
respectively, the split portions being indicated at
52 and 53. Discharges from both ?occulating
sections combine in the line 54 to feed the clari 75
or ?occulating agents into the liquid stream to
?er from which over?ow leaves at 55. Under?ow
from clari?er II is shown at 56 to lead away,
obtain what is known as a ?ash mixing effect
while an under?ow or sludge line 51 from clari?er
when the stream thus dosed is drawn through the
I0 enters the digesters I8 and 20 respectively in
series, digester discharge being indicated at 58.
Arrows 50 leading from the dispensing arrange—
ment I 8 indicate the introduction of a chemical
impeller dévice.
coagulating agent.
Fig. 5 has in?uent 60 pass through the control
chamber I1, by-passing the mixing chamber I5
as by a line 6| to continue into the one ?occu
lating unit I3 as indicated by the line 62. A feed
connection 63 then leads from the ?occulating
unit 13 to the clari?er I0. An over?ow line 60
from the clari?er leads back through the receiv
ing chamber I6, to continue via the mixing cham
ber I5 into the second ?occulating unit or section
II as indicated by the line 65. A feed connection
66 from there leads to the second clari?er II
from which over?ow 61 ?ows away. An under
?ow line 63 from clari?er I0 leads to the ?rst
digester or digestion treatment stage I 5, while a
line 63 carries imder?ow from clari?er II to the
point of raw feed for recirculation.
‘Hie enlarged detail of the conditioning and
?occulating unit I2 with suitable pipe connections
for selective modes of operation is shown sub
stantially in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. An in?uent pipe
In Fig. 6 direct passages or passageways or
transitions 88 or 89 respectively lead from the
mixing chamber I5 over a submerged wall por
tion 80 into the respective sections I3 and II of
a ?occulating tank 9| de?ned by the side walls
92 and 33, the in?uent end 94, the e?luent end 95
having an e?iuent launder 96. A removable par
tition 91 divides the launder into two sections 98
and 39. Eliluent pipes I00 and IOI lead from the 4
respective ends of the launder and have closure
valves I02 and I03 respectively; A pair of sluice
gates I04 and I05 control the in?uent from the
mixing‘chamber I5 into the respective ?occulat
ing sections I3 and I4.
The control chamber I1 is connected through
a passage I06 with an auxiliarychamber I01 from 20
which a connection I08 having valve or closure
means I09 leads into ?occulating section I3, by
passing the receiving chamber I6 and the mixing
chamber I5. Through a valve I09a, a connection
or pipe I I0 leads from the auxiliary chamber I01
to the clari?er_l0 (not shown in Fig. 6), and
forms at II I a junction with the e?iuent pipe I00
from the ?occulator tank.
A corresponding connection or pipe I I2 from
trol chamber I1, mentioned above. Another ‘gate, the control chamber I1 is provided with a valve 30
H3 and leads to a junction II4 with the ?occu
valve or closure means 12 leads from the control
chamber I1 into the receiving chamber I6 which . lator effluent pipe IOI and on to the second clari
is separated through a'wall 13 from the mixing ?er II (not shown in Fig. 6). A connection II5
leads from the mixing chamber I5 to a point of
chamber I5 (see Fig. 7). A passage 14 under
neath the wall 13 leads into the mixing chamber junction II6 with the pipe IIO, a. valve II1 being 35
in which is provided a rotary mixing device 15 inserted in the connection II5. Another corre
10 leads through a. gate or valve 1I into the con_
such as a turbo-mixer shown in the further en
larged detail section of Fig; 8.
The agitator or
device may comprise a
vertical impeller shaft ‘150, is‘supported and ro
tated'i'rom a drive or motor unit 16 shown to
sponding connection II8 leads from the mixing
chamber I5 to a point of junction HQ with the
pipe II2, a valve 120 being inserted 'in the con
nection II8. A pipe I2I having a gate or valve 40
I22 is shown to lead into the receiving chamber
be mounted on beams or channel irons 11, (see I6, which pipe constitutes the connection carrying
Fig. '7). At its lower end the vertical'shaft 15a over?ow from the clari?er I0 (not shown in
carries a rotor or impeller 18, (see Fig. 8) which Fig. 6).
A horizontal sequence of transverse paddle-like 45
is shown to consist of a hub 18 carrying a disc 80,
which has extending freely downwardly therefrom assemblies of paddle shafts I23 carries blades or
radial impeller blades 8|. A'substantially annu
paddles. I24 for the ?occulation units I3 and I4,
lar stator 82 surrounds the'impeller 18, and which :to move or rotate about horizontal axes in re
consists of a dished annular member 83, having‘ petitive paths. The shafts are shown to be driven
freely extending therefrom a set of stator blades ‘by a set of chains I25, I26, I21 and corresponding‘
84 to guide the liquid ejected from the impeller sprockets, and a motor or driving unit I28.
The annular dished member 83 is shown .
< At I29 and I30 respectively, in Fig. 6 there are
to be seated and anchored by bolts 85 upon a indicated pipe connections for the return or re
ledge 86 protruding from the walls of the mixing . ‘circulation of clari?er sludge or the like.
chamber 15. Itis noted that, with the exposed
Numerals I3I and I32 in Fig. 7 indicate drain
blades 8| and 84 extending freely in their respec-i connections for the ?occulation sections having‘ 55
?ve directions, the movement of liquid through valves I33 and I34.
the impeller device is eifected under relatively
. In Fig. 9 the numerals I35 and I36 indicate the
little lossof head on the one hand, while causing under?ow or sludge outlet connections from the
a low pressure hydraulic boost on the other hand. respective‘ clari?ers I0 and II. I31 and I38 indi
With these impeller- and guide-blades being open a cate the respective over?ow launders of the
or exposed as they are, the walls of the mixing clari?ers I0 and II.
chamber in fact form the housing for this im
peller- or low-lift pumping device which other- .
wise is known of itself. In other words, the walls
of the mixing chamber or section, which may
also be called a rising channel, section or column,
can be said to constitute in connectionwith the
stator, the pressure chamber of the impeller de
When operating the system with connections 65
established according to the diagram of Fig. 1
and for parallel operation of the clari?ers I0 and
II, the gates or valves 12 and I09, I02 and I03, and
vice; or it can be said that the stator 82 is associ
ated with the chamber I5 in such a manner as
age 22 continually enters‘ the control chamber I1‘ 470
H1 and I20 and I 22' are closed.
Raw feed or sew
through gate 1|, where it splits into portions one
to form a constriction thereof for the pamage ' of which passes through passage I06 into the
therethrough of the liquid being mixed and lifted.
A pipe 81 terminating 'undemeath the impeller
device serves for the introduction of conditioning
auxiliary chamber I01 and from there through
a gate I091: into the pipe or conduit IIO leading
to feed the clari?er tank I0, the other portion of
the split up leaving the control chamber I ‘I,
through gate I I3 to feed through pipe or conduit
II2 the other clari?er tank _I I. The ?occulating
unit is thus completely by-passed. Clari?er over
?ows 25 and 26 respectively may ?ow to a joint
disposal. Clari?er under?ows or sludge dis
subsequent ?occulation. Therefore, valves I094:
and II3, I22, Ill and I20 and I22 are closed while
?ow is permitted to pass through valves 1| and
‘I2, gates I04 and I05, and valves I02 and I03.
Consequently, _raw feed 31 may enter into the
control chamber‘ I‘I, pass on into the receiving
charges may also conjointly lead away. The chamber‘ I6, and through the submerged passage
chemical dispensing arrangement I8 in this set v‘l4 via the mixing device ‘I5 into the mixing
up is shown to be inactive although ‘its use is chamber I5. The dosing pipe 81 may now be
10 optional. The operating arrangement estab
activedischarging a coagulating agent into the
lished according to Fig. 1 may serve at times ?ow oi.’ liquid prior to entering the ?ash mixing
‘ when no special treatment is needed in the way phase of the mixer, such dosing being indicated
of ?occulating a dosed or undosed sewage.
by the arrows 46 in the dosing feed line I8a of
The arrangement of _Fig. 1 may be modi?ed Fig. 3. Now the liquid is ready for e?ective ?oc-v
15 when it is desired to use a chemical coagulant culation of the suspended solids when the ?ow 15
and the mixing device ‘I5, by closing the valves splits to enter and pass through the' respective
I09a and H3 andopening the valve ‘I2'as well as ?occulating sections I3 and I4 by way of open
the valves Ill and I 20, while maintaining gates gates I 04 and I05. The removable partition 9‘!
I04 and I05 towards the ?occulation zone closed,
'20 and starting the mixer ‘I5 goingwhile adding the
chemical through pipe 81 from the dispensing
device I8 with the clari?er sludge lines 21 and 28
leading away.
in the ‘overflow launder 96 of the ?occulating
apparatus may now be eiIective to receive the 20
individual over?ows from the sections I3 and I4
in individual launder sections 98 and 99 so that
the proper proportion of the total ?ow may reach -
When operating the system with connections
25 established according to diagram Fig. 2 for series
operation of the clari?ers I0 and II, the gates I04
and I05 remain closed to block entrance into the
?occulating devices I2, I3; vvalve I I3 is closed and
so are valves ‘I2 and Ill. Valves I02 and I03
Valve I22 in pipe I2I is now open
30 remain closed.
and active together with valve I20 in pipe H8.
Consequently, raw feed 29 may enter through
open main gate ‘II into the control chamber I‘I,
through passage I06 into the auxiliary chamber
35 I01, and through open gate I09a into the conduit
I I0 through which it feeds theclari?er I0 which
now becomes a primary clari?er. ~ Over?ow from
this clari?er, brie?y called primary over?ow, en
ters the conduit I2I which brings it through open
40 valve I22 into the receiving chamber l6 when a
chemical coagulant or precipitation _agent may
each respective clari?er I0 and II by way of pipes
I00 and IOI through the open valves I 02 and I03 25
The clari?er over?ows 42 and 43 may con
jointly lead away to disposal. The clari?er un-
der?ows 41 and 48, both containing chemically
precipitated sludge, are in this case shown to be 30
led away to suitable disposal.
In other words, the operating arrangement of
.Fig. 3 affords increased purity of ‘clari?er over
?ow irrespective of under?ow or sludge treat
It is understood that with both clari?ers
discharging dosed precipitate the character 01' the
sludge thus obtained is not preferable for the
process of. digestion. ‘
The operation according to Fig. 4 answers the
demand for a highly puri?ed clari?er over?ow 40
and a clari?er sludge of such characteristics as
to be‘ suited for the process of digestion. Conse
be introduced through pipe 81 prior to entering
the mixer ‘I5 in the mixing chamber I5. At this ‘quently, this ?owsheet suggests series operation
stage the mixer effects a quick vigorous mixing of the clari?ers I0 and I I, coagulating and ?occu
45 or ?ash mixing while simultaneously inducing‘a lation of the secondary stage, and the use of
low pressure pumping effect upon the liquid, undosed primary clari?er under?ow or sludge in
which pressure compensates for the drop or head
‘the digesters I9 and 20, as well as digesting un
loss incurred in the primary over?ow, and which
dosed primary sludge ,‘together with dosed sec
ondary sludge.
will cause the liquid to enter pipe or conduit II8
50 with valve I20 open, and through conduit II2
will feed the clari?er II which now becomes the
secondary clari?er.
The reason for the drop or head loss incurred
through transfer from primary to secondary
55 clari?er is illustrated in Fig. 9_ which makes it
clear that while both clari?er over?ows are on
equal level in ‘the case of parallel operation, ‘the
loss occurs. when changing to series operation and
the primary over?ow drops into the over?ow
launder of the primary. clari?er I0 from where it
must be lifted again to the feed level of the sec
ondary clari?er I I.
A series ‘operation as described in connection
with Fig. 2 is desirable for instance during cer
65 tain summer months when it is desired to apply‘
an economical and practical dosing method such
as dosing the second stage, in order to effect a
greater purity of the clari?er effluent in view of
the low water of the natural streams into which
the clari?ers may discharge and the greater
putrefying tendencies concurrent with summer
The diagram according to Fig. 3 again suggests
parallel operation of the clari?ers I0 and U, ad
75 vancing over the setup oi’ Fig. 1 by the use of
Consequently, the operating set up in Fig. 4 is
as follows: The valves H3 and ‘I2, and I09 are
closed. Closed are also the valves II‘! and I20
leading from the mixing chamber I5, and the
valve I02 in pipe I 00 leading from the ?occula
tion apparatus launder 98. Open is the valve 55
I 09a from the auxiliary control chamber I01,
open the valve I22 in pipe I 2| leading into the
receiving chamber I6, and open are the gates I04
and I05 into the ?occulation tank. Open is the
?occulation apparatus discharge valve I03, lead 80
ing to the secondary clari?er II. The partition
91 is assumed to be removed from the ?occulation
device launder 95. .’
Iri?uent 49 enters the control chamber I1, and
through the auxiliary, chamber‘ III‘! with the valve
I09'a opeuinto the pipe IIO, which carries the
sewage to the primary clari?er I0 from which
settled raw sludge becomes available for diges
tion in the digesters I9 and 20 when led thereto
through under?ow line 51 (see Fig. 4) .
Over?ow 70
_from the primary clari?er passes through pipe
I2 I into the receiving chamber I6, and on through
the submerged passage ‘I4 via the mixer into the
mixing chamber I 5. The mixer then of course
exercises its additional function of boosting the
pressure head compensating for the drop incurred
in the primary over?ow. ' Again, arrows 59 in the‘
dosing supply line I80 indicate that a ?occulant
enters the liquid through pipe 81 below the mixer.
The liquid thus conditioned splits to enter
through gates I04 and I05 and ?ow through the
?occulating sections I 3 and I4 of the ?occulation
tank 9| where the solids in the conditioned liquid
undergo a process of ?occulation or coalescence
10 in preparation for a more effective subsequent
I claim:
1. A clari?cation system ior‘the removal of sus
pended solids from ?owing liquids, and equipped
for conditioning of the liquid preparatory to sedi
mentation, which system comprises a raw liquid
supply, a pair of clari?ers substantially arranged
at an elevation for parallel operation, means for
‘selectively conducting liquid from said raw liquid
sections ‘combines in the e?luent launder 96 with
supply to said clari?ers so that under one set of
selected conditions the clari?ers are arranged in
parallel and so that under another set of selected
conditions said clari?ers are arranged in series
- the partition 91 removed, and throughconduit
whereby they function-as associated primary and
sedimentation. E?luent from both ?occulation
I 0| and valve I03 reaches the terminal section
15 of the conduit I I2 and thus to feed the secondary
clari?er I I from where over?ow 55' and sludge
secondary clari?ers, said means comprising a
mixing section arranged to receive liquid obtained 15
from said raw liquid supply and wherein the liquid‘
discharge 56 maybe disposed of in suitable-ways received therein can be subjected to a condition
as by leading all or a desirable part thereof
through the connection 56a into the digester I9
to be digested therein together with the primary
sludge from the line 51.
ing operation, and a mixing device in said mixing
sectiomwhich said device includes impeller means
surrounded by the walls of said mixing section in 20
a manner to substantially form a.‘ housing for the
The operation ‘according to Fig. 5- involves a
further re?nement, in that it a?ords. secondary
stage dosing for chemical precipitation, inde
impeller means, said impeller means being effec
tive to boost the hydraulic head of the liquid
passing through said mixing section, said means
pendent ?occulation. for each clari?er stage, as
well as far-reaching clari?er sludge ultilization,
in the digesters as well as for recirculation pur
when arranged for series operation being ar 25
ranged to have said mixing chamber interposed
Consequently, the set-up requires that valves
30 IOBa, H3 and ‘I2, II‘! and H8 and the gate I04
between the primary and the secondary clari?er
to e?ect e?‘icient mixing of any added condition
ing material and of the primary clari?er over?ow
at a place ahead of the secondary clari?er, said 30
be closed, while valves I09, I02, I22, the gate I05,
mixing device also being effective to supply su?‘i
and valve I03 be open. Eilluent 60 then passes
through the control chamber I1 and the auxiliary
chamber I01, and through valve I05 via the by
cient hydraulic head to ensure the transfer of
liquid from the primary to the secondary clari?er.
2. A clari?cation system according to claim 1,
35 pass conduit I08 through the ?rst ?occulation. characterized by the including of an agitating 35
section I3 where solids are ?occulated and made section for effecting ?occulation of the solids in
settleable by .the peculiar agitation in?uence of the conditioned liquid, and by the further fact
the ?occulating paddles I24. Assuming the re
,(a) that said means when selectively set for
parallel operation of the clari?ers have controls
movable partition 91 to be' inserted in- the ?occu
lation device eiiluent launder 96, the liquid treated for selectively conducting the liquid from the 40
in the ?occulation section I3 may leave through point of raw liquid supply consecutively through
the launder section 98 via the e?luent pipe I00 the mixing section and past the mixing device and
and valve I02, in order to feed the primary clari _ thence through said ?occulating section, and
?er I 0 after passing through the terminal section (b) that there are controls whereby the volume
of the pipe conduit IIO.
of the ?occulated liquid is split for subsequent
Over?ow 64 from‘ the primary clari?er I0 passes parallel treatment of the component volumes in
said clarifiers.
by way of pipe l2! and valve I22 into the receiv
3. A clarification‘system according to claim 1,
ing chamber IS in preparation for its secondary
‘coagulation and sedimentation step‘. That is to characterized by the addition of an‘ agitating sec
tion to effect ?occulation of the solids in the
say, the liquid after passing through the sub
merged passage ‘I4 may now again be dosed with liquid, and by ‘the fact that with the clari?ers
a chemical coagulant through the dosing pipe 81, " operating in series the agitating section is oper
atively interposed'in the flow connection leading
from the mixing section to the secondary clari?er,
4_ with arrows in the dosing feed line I 8a indicating
that the line is active in this respect. The dosed
liquid by reason of the boosting e?ect of the
mixer ‘I5 is drawn into the mixing chamber l5,
the boosting pressure‘being su?icient to insure
compensation of the head loss incurred in the
primary clari?er over?ow and to cause the ?ow
of liquid to pass through open gate I05 and
through the second ?occulation section I4 and to
reach the secondary clari?er I I’ by way of effluent
pipe I 0| and the terminal section of the pipe “2
(not shown in Fig. 6). Over?ow from the sec
ondary clari?er I I may leave through 61 to suit
able disposal. Under?ow or sludge from the sec
ondary clari?er may advantageously be utilized
for recirculation or redistribution within‘ the plant
as by reintroducing it into the control chamber
IT or the auxiliary chamber I01, via the pipes I29
and I30 respectively.
A divisional patent application has been ?led
‘' by me on December '18, 1937, covering subject:
matter carved from this patent,
and by the further fact that operating means are
providedfor selectively by-passing said agitating
4. A'clari?cation system according to claim 1,
‘characterized by the addition of an agitating sec
tion to effect ?occulation of the solids in the 60
liquid, and by the fact that with the clari?ers
operating in series the agitating section is oper
atively interposed in; the ?ow connection leading
from the mixing section to the secondary clari?er,
and by the further fact that operating means are 65
provided for selectively by-passing said agitating
section and said mixing section.
5. A clari?cation system according to claim 1,
characterized by the addition of an agitating sec
tion for the purpose of ?occulating the solids in 70
the liquid, which section comprises a pair of ?oc
' culating units adapted for parallel operation, and
also characterized by the fact that connections
and controls therefor are provided, selectively
operable to include one ?occulating unit in the 75
?ow connection between the raw liquid supply
and the primary _clari?er,‘and to include the
second ?occulating unit in the ?ow connection
between the mixing section and the secondary‘
6. A liquid clari?cation plant, comprising a raw
liquid supply; a clarifying section, including a
pair of clari?ers; a liquid conditioning and ?oc
culating section, including a ?occulating unit and
10 an impeller mixer having hydraulic lifting power,
and closure means selectively operable between
‘?occulating unit and mixer; a feed ‘connection
from the ?occulating unit to each clarl?er, and
individual selectively operable closure means for
15 each connection; a by-pass: connection between
said liquid supply and each clari?er, and closure
means associated therewith selectively operable
to eliminate the ?occulating unit; an over?ow
return conduit between one clari?er and said
wardly through said mixing section and adapted
to effect combined mixing and hydraulic lifting of 10
the liquid passing through the apparatus, said
rotor element comprising a substantially hori
zontally-extending rotary disc member and radial _
blades extending downwardly therefrom, said
stator comprising a substantially horizontally. 15_
extending. annulus and radial blades rising there
from; said impeller device adapted to have a sub
merged pressure discharge and to be effective to
.maintain in said mixing section a zone of rela
tively-increased hydraulic head at the delivery 20
means associated with said return conduit; all
of said connections and closure means selectively
operable in such coordination as to effect changes
of operation substantially as described.
side of the device as compared with a relatively
lower hydraulic head at the inlet side thereof.
13. In a liquid treatment apparatus having a
'7. A liquid clari?cation plant according to
for, arranged between the raw liquid supply and
the mixer.
liquid supply, and having a liquid mixing section
and a subsequent treatment section to receive 25
liquid therefrom, said section adapted for sub
the ?occulating unit for selectively eliminating
8. A liquid clari?cation plant according to
claim 6, in which the-raw liquid supply comprises
a control chamber ahead of the mixer for selec
including a rotor and a stator element interposed
in the path of the liquid which must pass up
liquid supply, and selectively operable closure
claim 6, with the addition of a by-pass connec
tion and selectively operable closure means there
and in horizontal sequence to the latter a subse- ’
quent treatment section to receive liquid there
from, said mixing adapted for substantially up
ward ?ow therethrough of said liquid and con
tinued ?ow by way of hydraulic communication
into said ?occulating section; an impeller device
tively directing feed to desired points of the plant.
9.v A liquid clari?cation plant according to
claim '6, in which the raw liquid supplycomprises
a control chamber ahead of the mixer for selec
tively directing feed to desired points of the plant,
and with the addition of an intermediate receiv
stantially upward ?ow therethrough of said liquid '
and continued flow by way of hydraulic com
munication into said treatment section; an im
peller device interposed in the upward path of 30
the liquid through said mixing section and adapt
ed to have a submerged pressure discharge and
' to effect combined mixing and hydraulic lifting of
the liquid passing through the unit, said impeller
device comprising a rotor revolving about a sub 35
stantially vertical axis, and a stator surrounding
the same and which is associated with the sur
rounding walls of said rising portion so as to
form a constriction thereof for the passage there
through of the liquid being mixed and lifted, said
and the mixer and adapted for receiving over?ow impeller device, by its operation, being effective _
through said over?ow return conduit from said ,to maintain in said mixing section a zone of rela
tively-increased hydraulic head at the delivery
10. A liquid clari?cation plant according to side of the device as compared with a. relatively
lower hydraulic head at the opposite side thereof.
45 claim 6, in which the ?occulating unit comprises‘
14. In a liquid clari?cation system, an appara
a.pair of independently operable units, and with
tus combination which comprises a liquid dis
the addition of individual closure means selec
tributlng section, a liquid supply therefor, a liquid
- tively operable between said mixer and the re
dosing section, a controlled outlet connection
spective ?occulating units.
leading from said distributing section, a con-,
11. A liquid treatment apparatus, which com
40 ing chamberinterconnecting the control chamber
trolled connection between said distributing sec
tion and said dosing section, a pumping pressure
section, a pumping device between said dosing
combined mixing and hydraulic pressure-impart
ing device therein adapted to have a submerged section and said pressure section and through
‘which there exists hydraulic communication be
55 pressure discharge and which is effective to main
tain above said device in the conditioning section. tween the pumping and the dosing sections, a
a zone of relatively increased pressure head; and controlled outlet connection from said pumping a subsequent treatment section in ‘horizontal pressure section, and a controlled separate inlet
sequence to said conditioning section and adapted connection as distinguished from said controlled
. prises a mixing section adapted to have liquid
?ow substantially upward therethrough, a rotary
60 to have said liquid ?ow thereto by way of direct
hydraulic communication.
12. In a liquid treatment apparatus having a
liquid supply and having a liquid mixing section,
connection between the distributing section‘ and
the dosing section, leading into said dosing
- section.
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