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Патент USA US2137974

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Nov. 22, 1938.
E. FISCHEL.
2,137,974
AILERON CONTROL FOR AIRPLANES
Filed Sept. 9, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Nov. 22, 1938.
'
E. FISCHEL
- 2,137,974
AILERON CONTROL FOR AIRPLANES
Filed Sept. 9, 1956
Tiemvs/E/ese
/I ‘
\
D/PECT/ON 0F FUGHT
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Nov. 22, 1938
2,137,974‘
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘ OFFICE
2,131,974. r "
AILERON CONTROL FOR AIRPLANES
Eduard Fischel, Berlin-Tempelhoti, Germany, as-_
signor to Siemens Apparate und Maschinen Ge
sellschaft mit beschriinkter Battling, Berlin,
Germany, a corporation of Germany
Application September 9, 1936, Serial No. 99,967
In Germany September 13, 1935
14 Claims. '
My inventionrelates to improvements in ailer‘»
on controls for airplanes.
An object of my invention is to provide a hand
operated or automatic aileron control for air~
by additionally in?uencing the controlling mag
nitude given by an instrument responsive to
inclinations about the longitudinal axis of the
airplane but not responsive to the lateral dis
5 planes, whereby a stable position with respect to placements thereof, by a controlling magnitude
. the longitudinal axis of the airplane is main
given by a turn indicator. This may, for instance,
talned when ?ying straight away as well as along ' be attained by adjusting the intermediate con
a curve at a given speed. Another object of my,
trolling device associated with the arti?cial hori
invention is to maintain a stable position in. _ zon in accordance with the turning speed of the
10 curves at any speed of the airplane.
airplane about its normal axis in such a manner
It is a well-known fact that an airplane is in that the intermediate controlling device of the 10
a stable position with respect to its longitudinal ‘ arti?cial horizon is in the position correspond
axis if its transverse axis is at right angles to the
apparent vertical existing under the momentarily
prevailing operating conditions. Since the ap
parent vertical and the true vertical coincide
when ?ying straight away the stabilization is at
tained in this case when the transverse axis is in
, the horizontal plane.
ing to the above-mentioned stable position of the
airplane as soon as the transverse axis is at
right angles to the apparent vertical determined 15
by the turning of the airplane about the normal '
axis and by the speed of the airplane.
That the speed of the airplane is a determin
This fact is taken advan- _ ing factor for the magnitude of the bank of the
20 tage of in airplane stabilizing systems by actuat
ins the aileron control in accordance with the
reactions of a gyroscopic horizon.
.
airplane which the latter must have in a curve 20
will be apparent from the following considera
$1011:
;
'
Such a system fails to function when flying
The bank of an airplane depends chie?y upon
a curve, for the above-mentioned controlis not the curvature of the curve to be ?own. Since the
capable
of
setting
the
airplane
in
the
curve,
as
2
curvature is ‘determined by the radius of curva- '
it will always have the tendency to maintain the ture it would be possible to set the plane always 25
transverse axis exactly in the horizontal plane. properly in the curve. if the corresponding radius
It has already been proposed to determine the of'curvature were known or could be measured.
apparent vertical with the aid of a pendulum and Now, by the use of a turn indicator in connec
. c to cause the latter to act on the control so as to‘
tion with a speedometer it is possible to deter
3 render possible the use of one and the same device
mine thefradius of curvature, for at constant
for maintaining a stable position when ?ying speed,
the smaller the radius-of curvature the
straight away or in curves. The pendulum de— greater the turning speed about the normal axis
vices employed for this purpose present, however, will be while at constant turning speed the radius
the following disadvantages.
of curvature increases with increasing speed of 35
An oscillating body suspended in an airplane the airplane.
not only actuates the aileron control in response
Consequently, by properly combining a turn
to the lateral components of motion but also in indicator with a speedometer, a device could be
response to such components occurring for other provided which directly indicates the radius of
40 reasons.
-
An ‘airplane is, however, very often subjected
to such lateral components of motion; for in
stance, in stormy weather and, particularly, in
the case of cross-winds of variable strength. An
ordinary pendulum would actuate the aileron
control in response to these cross-forces acting
curvature or the curvature'of a curve ?own by an 40
airplane.
‘ Another object of my invention is to provide
an arrangement, whereby the action of the turn
responsive device on the banking responsive de
vice is brought into relationship with a speed 45
responsive device.
In the accompanying drawings are shown some
?ying straight away as if the airplane were set
‘ embodiments of my invention in diagrammatic
in a curve. This must be, as a matter of course, form.
onv the airplane even in the case of the airplane
avoided and that is the reason why the previ
ously proposed aileron controls operating with
pendulums, gyro pendulums and the like have
not given satisfactory results.
.
The object of my invention is, therefore, to
.'.5 provide an arrangement, whereby the advantages
Fig. 1 shows an aileron control with an elecj 60
tric servowmotor and an electric arrangement for ,
varying the de?ections of the turn responsive‘ de
vice in accordance with those of the speed~re~
sponsive device.
‘
'_
Fig. 2 shows a mechanical arrangement for 55
of a gyroscopic horizon and similar devices which‘ varying the de?ections of the turn responsive do,
are not in?uenced by the lateral displacement vice in accordance with those of the speed-re
are utilized also for stabilizing. the airplane in sponsive
device.
.
.
curves with respect to its longitudinal axis. This
Fig. 3 shows an aileron control with an hy
60 may be accomplished according to the invention
draulic servo-motor, responsive to the combined
'
2.137.074
~ actions or" the turn, speed and bank responsive
up?! Q5.
The arrows i, ‘2, 3 as shown in Fig. 1 indicate
cording to the invention irom a gyroscopic turn
indicator 38, which adjusts the fulcrum 31 of
the differential lever ID by means of the arm lll
secured to its precession axis 39 and 0! a rod
4! in such a manner that the aileron control
the direction of the ‘longitudinal axis (at the
same time direction or" flight), oi’ .the transverse brings about and maintains the sloping position
and of the normal axis. 4 and 5 denote the
ailerons with the aid of which the stabilization
about the longitudinal axis is to be effected. For
the stabilization is employed a device responsive
to the inclinations about the longitudinal axis
but not responsive to lateral displacements. The
necessary for the stabilization in the curve.
' device is shownin Fig. 1 in the form of a gyro
: scope ‘3 which ,Iorrhs a part of a gyroscopic ho
.
rizon.
‘
‘
As
soon as the airplane begins to rotate about its
normal axis the aileron control is caused to as
sume a new inclination and thereby stabilize the
craft with the aid of the above-described means.
In this manner, an automatic stabilization of
the airplane with respect to the longitudinal axis
>
During the straight flight the gyroscope 5 e1‘
the stabilization about the longitudinal axis
is attained in curves at a constant speed of the
airplane.
in the following manner:
An arm 8 which acts on the differential lever
it through the rod 9 is secured to the precession
3' sale ‘I lying in parallel relation to the direction
of flight. The lever to shifts a further rod H to
which is secured a contact arm I3 provided with
a contact roller i2. The contact roller i2 moves
over a contact block consisting oi.’ two contact
vieces ii and i5 and of the insulating piece 16
.
V
15
In considering di?erent speeds of the airplane
the additional control force supplied by the turn
indicator is combined with the speed of the air
plane. To this end, the de?ections oi the turn
indicator 26 are varied in accordance with the
de?ections of a speed responsive device. This may
be accomplished in various ways. For this pur
pose an electric and a mechanical arrangement is
shown in Figs. 1 and 2 respectively.
In Fig. 1, 42 denotes the spring oi the turn
arranged therebetween. The contact block ll,
it is also slidably mounted similar to rod ii.
The contacts l4 and 45 are connected to the
electric motor l9 through conductors l1 and i8,
indicator 38. It is secured to one end of a two
armed lever 43, the other end of which carries
the armature H of an electromagnet 45. The
‘ the motor being supplied with energy through
exciting current for the magnet 15 is supplied
by a power source 48 and the intensity thereof
may be varied by means oi a resistance ‘1. The
value of the resistance 41. is varied by a speed
the conductor to. The second pole of the power
source 22 is connected to the contact arm ll ‘ ometer, shown in Fig. 1 as a wind vane ‘I, with
through a conductor 22. The motor drives the aid of the lever 5| in?uenced by the spring
through
shaft 23, worm 24 and the worm
and of the slide rod 5|.
. wheel segment 25 the control surface lever 28 49,
' The operation of the arrangement is as fol
which in
actuates the ailerons l and 5 lows: The greater the speed of the airplane is at
through the control cables 21, 2B, 2! and 38.
A so~called isostatic member the piston 31 of
which is provided'witha passage 35 for the ?uid
under pressure consists further of cylinder 22 and
two springs 33 and 34 and is associated with the
control surface lever 26. The isostatic member
sets on a lever 36 for longitudinally shifting the
contact blocl; ‘l3, SE, iE.
‘
'
‘
It is assumed, for instance, that the airplane
'
unduly banked during the straight ?ight, so
the right-hand wing tip lies lower than the
le'ltdiand one. This causes the lever 8 to rela
t ely more to the left. In this manner, the lever
is rotated about the point 31 counterclockwise
thereby displacing the contact roller l2 to the
'
so that
engages the contact piece H.
The
motor it is thereby energized and rotates the
control surface lever 26 by means of a worm
it in such a manner that the aileron l‘ is moved
in the downward direction and the aileron 5 in
the upward direction, thereby causing the air
plane to return to the stable position. The le
ver
exerts at the same time in a manner well
~ known
follow-up control action by means of
the isostatic member ‘3i and or’ the lever 88,
moving contact block ill-l6 to the left and thus
disengaging the contact roller it from the con—
tact piece
and bringing it'bacls into contact
with insulation iii as soon as the ailerons have
been sufficiently deflected.
>
above-described arrangement would, how»
ever also have the tendency during the flight
through a curve to maintain the transverse axis
of the airplane in the horizontal position and
co
would thus lead to dangerous ?ying conditions.
This is avoided according to the invention by
additionally in?uencing the aileron control by
a controlling force which depends upon the turn
ing speed. This controlling force is derived ac
in .l
constant turning speed about the normal axis,
the greater the radius of curvature of the curve
ilown by the
required for
quently, this
indicator on
airplane and the smaller the bank
maintaining the stability. Conse
implies that the action of the turn
the control must be the smaller
the greater the speed of the airplane. This may
be accomplished with the aid 01.’ the above-de
scribed arrangement by in?uencing the device
for varying the de?ection in such a manner that
the deflections of the turn indicator decrease
with increasing speed of the airplane. During
a rapid ?ight the wind vane 48 is pressed rear
wardly. In this case, the wind vane 45 moves the
lever 55 and therod 5| in the downward direc
tion, thus reducing the resistance 41 and in
creasing the current. in the electromagnet Q5.
The armature M is pulled up to a greater ex
tent and the spring 42 for the gyroscope 38 is,
consequently, further stretched. This causes the
arm 40 to rotate to a lesser extent and. conse
quently, the point 31 to be shifted a smaller
amount than in the case or a slower ?ight.
In Fig. 2 is shown an arrangement which-per
mits to vary the action of the turn indicator in
accordance with the speed of the airplane by
mechanical means. The parts shown in Fig. 2
corresponding to the parts of Fig. l are denoted 65
by the same reference numerals. The operating
arm 52 of Fig.‘ 2 corresponding to the arm 40 of
Fig. 1 is designed in the form of anarcuated
slotted element which acts on the fulcrum 31 of '
the lever ill by means of the rod 53 guided in 70
slot 54. The action of tlie'turn indicator is var
led in this case'iin accordance with the speed of ,.
the airplane in the following manner: The slid
ing pivot of rod 53 in arm 52 is so designed that
it may be displaced in the slot 5L. The effective
length el' arm 52
hue
varied, wheweby
sll?eremt displacements at’ the Emmi; 3t‘ may be
obtained with an equal angular de?eetlun of
mm 52,
The jelnt is displaced on emu
This; {feet is w
in as"
sentence with the speed ef the airplane in the
felle'tzltng manner: Te the reel
is secured e- ten‘:
slum spring 55,, the other end. of which is con‘
meted! t0 the end. 0'2 the lever 52. Thie spring
has therefore the tendency to swing the red 53
in a downward ulirectlon and to render the effec»
tlve length of arm 52 as great as possible. Op
poslte to the force of the spring 55 acts a, con
trel wire 56 which passes over two rollers and
is aecured to one end of the twonarmed lever 51.
This lever is actuated at its other end by‘ red 58.
This red ls in operative eonnection with a measl
uring gauge 89 t0 ‘whieh the dynamic pressure
depending upon the speed of the airplane is sup
plied by means sf :1 eoneult 80.,
Upon an increase of the speed a! the airplane
the rod EB i8 shifted te the left, the cantrol wire
66 moves the-lever E3 opposite t0
?erce of the
spring; 55 in the upwez’tl dlreet'leex
thus: g
shertem; the effective length of exm 2132, thereby"
”- s‘llmlmshing the eetieu @123 the tum lmlleeter mm
- the aileron central.
wlnlelz ‘ is
eboveementlened
?ight-does not cause e‘cllspleeement ef point
31. C‘omequently, the elet a is ltax’efez'eely dew
signed in the foam of e segmeiit of a. elx‘ele, the
radius cat which ls equal te the length ef the red
W. 111 meter to in?uence the actlen {at the speed
e: the mrplene on the e?eetlve length et arm W,
the lever ?'l is eenneeted with a spring El, the
teneien of which may ‘m adjusted by meat-us, of e»
set aerew t2.
Mather embodiment
my luvemttem ls sheets
in
m elegy-m matte term, in which. is
Shawn
elleme central, in which the stel'sllleew
is elem effeeted,
tien elmut the lengltmlmel
with the aid of e lwx’izen,
The horizen is in
this case net as in the straight flight allotted
t0 the true vertical, but t0 the amlei‘ent vertical“
‘since the aimrileme
peeperly the curve
enly ‘when its awn vertleel axle eeinelzles with
k.
hermen
eliteetlen
is elletterii
el' tn the apparent
yemt vertical“
vertical in
the manner tlzet the pert 0f the intermediate
centmlllng dew/lee eonmectecl with the horizon is
adjusted by an angle eerres'gzeedmg ta the in“
clmetlon of the eppm'eet vertieel tn the true
vertieel,
"l‘hls angle which is designated
emwmgg;
devlee
te the adjustment
epparent
vertical eagle may be eletermlnerl with the aid
at a simple pemiuhzm subject, however, to the
diilieultles enumerated below. Besides the as»
eeleretien m” gmvlty 5? else the centrifugal ace
eeleretlon e eats on
e pendulum when the
airplane reuuels e eurve. The epperent angle a
eletez’mmed item the iermule,
The eentrltugel eeeelemtlen may be elatameel
l're'm the pwduct ef the speed 0;.’ fight e and the
the
es? the lntemmetllete etmo e:
ll
~‘
with the aid 01? e eemsiulum, time such pet um
lum beeldes being eulejeeteel t0 the eleuvewmlv re
tloned eceelemtlens, ewlng t0 the interfering
forces caused by swells, ewes Winds end the 16
like is also subjected to other acceleratiens whieh
cause it false indicetlan of the apparent vertical.
These disadvantage-e are avoided by deriving the
apparent vertical angle frem the speed at ?ight
v and the turning speed w. The part of the im 15
termediate controlling device at the herlzpn ls
then adjusted in accerdanee with the apparent
vertical angle thus determined.
In the embedlmeut shown diagrammetleally in
P13. 3 is illustrated an automatic adjustment of
the pert of the mtem‘ledlete eentrellmg clevlee elf
the human in acem‘denee with th€t$£¥€§¢ e1?
turning
?ight end
speed
the is
tummg
given by e gym tum
value
inelleetee
tt t0 the preeessiem
e? Wbi?l’l. t eeuretl 5: ea;
The turn lucllcetor ls-m this . contact lever tel which
eaee under the in?uence 01' the springs Gt eml
64. The slot in the arm 82 is preferably 50 de
slgmed that e mtetlen ef the lever Stevens ls
caused by the changes in speed without the arm
82 being slmulteneeusly de?eetedg l. e, in etmlght
may
,.
(
eut the mvemtlen
“mg te
male-eminent
shown in Fig, 3. “Bee epperent vertical eagle
ever at
*ellel 2e»
sistzmee
of a threemheue 5?]
system, The the
other
el'ieee
tweleemi
phase
leade ef the thee-emheee system we deneteel lay
53%
the reference characters 8 and ‘l!
value
The at
eexxteet
the turning:
l?li'v'll’ ?espeed
edjuetedv
W the tum lmlleetey
$35 m that phase Wielding ‘We elf a mete? reeeivee
a voltage in value we direetlm eerreseeedmg te
the turning epeeel emit elreatlm ef the elm
88 is sheen em etlezcelel eeeetleme' e2’
‘ At
em’tllng te the zxrtseetgule at t1 etetle tune and
which eeijuste the eemt’sset ZQWGX“ $9 in eecez‘eleeee
with the value e? the else-eel e? ?ight meeeufetl let” 1
the sgaeedemeteza Aeeerelmely, lime-age electing? We
at" the matey” reeelvee e, veltege f2" '41 the eh
the value
elr‘elene;
02%;‘ which
Meter ‘Ml ls glee
retetiim
ET,
l' at e it We:
"
met/m‘. it
by mama
wenlently selecting the e-emtents,. a torque whiell
ls monumental he the meeluet elf the sgeed ef
let I
'?lght amt turning seeerl. The muting flem
meter "893 is umiee the sentient ef eminent
elem
tuetee amines}; the t Wen.
these‘ ezerlnee 3
red H te whim
teelene variable elemetat $2
of the interim
eentrellmg device at the
lmrlzee, ' This inteeeeeziiete centmllmg
ehoul? have ttre variable elementa. in we
present eeee ee
eenteelllug devleey
for lnstence a bemmetee emell?e? may ‘be e l-“
ea
ployee" which west-eta; m” the sletteai plate “E2 teem
which the all’ lets ems-u":feteu the movable vane l3}
controlling
meme-eel m the jets, e3’
and
the
the
lets
wire
em}fesletsmeee
shielded item
or expesed te these tats eeeemllug m the ‘peeltlem
of vane ‘73. The efmementtened teal ‘H is in this
case ce'rmeeted te sletplete ‘61% ef the lwlemetem
@wlne; to the temue 1-, clueeel its; the mutating
?eld meme
‘mete ‘E2 ?e etlluetea‘l by an
angle teeterJ
);
amount whim were
“3"
"
mined by the elee'vewimliee-t lermule. Vane
ef the belemeter is
the wreeeepe ‘it
ef a gyreseeme lwelmn wlaielz t?feesmlte the em“
tml impulses in eeeeztlemce
the melluetlom
about the longitudinal axis. The retlstencee ‘93a 33%
70 turning speed an about the normal axis. It lob,
welbknewn
the belometer
manner
ampli?er
to e mtm'y
ereeemzectetl
magnet weinthe
laws then that the epp-erent vertical angle may - ei
be attained; lfrnm the following formula:
armature ef which epel'etes the eentml memleer
‘it of a hydraulic m“ pneumatic serve-motor "H.
With the am at the serve-meter “E7? the eentml
Mia:
4
2,187,974
cables for the aileron surfaces are then actuated
in a manner well known.
.,
The servo-motor arrangement is equipped with
a return control or follow-up control device in a
manner well known in the art. The return con
trol device may, for instance, consist of a plate
spring designed in the form of a power differential.
The plate spring 18 is ?rmly secured to the
rotor shaft of the rotary magnet 15 or, generally
a gyroscopic horizon operatively connected with
said mechanism for producing one of said control
forces in accordance with inclinations of the
plane about its longitudinal axis, a turn indicator
responsive to lateral turns of the plane for pro
ducing said second control force in accordance
with the curvature of the flight, means connect
ing said turn indicator with said mechanism, and
a speed indicator operatively coupled with said
speaking, to the adjusting member of the magnet
connecting means for correcting said second con
and pivotally connected to the slide valve of the
trol force in dependency on the speed of the plane.
motor control member 76 as well as to the piston
rod of the servo-motor 11. By means of this
6. In combination with an airplane an aileron
plate spring the slide valve is brought back to its
control, comprising an automatic controlling de
vice connected with the ailerons of the plane,
15 neutral position after the motor piston has moved
said controlling device having a movable actuating
to the desired extent, so that the piston stops.’
I claim as my invention:
1. An aileron control for airplanes having
means connected to the ailerons for producing a
20 roll control moment responsive solely to plane in
clinations about its longitudinal axis irrespective
of any lateral drift displacement of the plane,
and means connected to the ailerons and re
N
l
sponsive to lateral turns of the plane axis from
the direction of ?ight, for producing an additional
and corrective roll control moment in accordance
with the desired curvature of the ?ight path.
2. In combination with an airplane an aileron
control, comprising a gyroscopic horizon for pro
30 ducing a roll control moment responsive to in
clinations of the plane about its longitudinal axis,
a servomotor device operatively connecting said
gyroscopic horizon and the. ailerons to be con
trolled, a turn indicator responsive to lateral turns
of said plane for producing an additional roll
control moment according to the curvature of the
?ight path, and an operative connection between
said turn indicator and said servomotor.
.
3. In combination with an airplane an aileron
40 control, comprising a gyroscopic horizon for pro
ducing a roll control moment responsive to in
clinations of the plane about its longitudinal axis,
lo
member, a differential mechanism connected with
said member for moving said member responsive
to two control forces imposed on said mechanism,
a gyroscopic horizon operatively connected with
said mechanism for producing one of said con 20
trol forces in accordance with inclinations of the
plane about its longitudinal axis, a gyroscopic
turn indicator connected with said actuating
member for producing said second control force ,
in accordance with the curvature of lateral turns
of the plane, a lever disposed within said connec- -
tion between said turn indicator and said actuat
ing member, said lever being adapted for varying
its effective length, a speedometer, and means
operatively connecting said speedometer with said
lever for adjusting the effective length of said
lever in order to vary the relation between ,the
movements of said turn indicator and said actuat
ing member in dependency on the speed of the
plane.
7. Control apparatus for aircraft, comprising
means responsive to the motion of a craft about
one axis thereof to produce a controlling effect
on the craft, and means responsive to the rate
of turn of the craft about another axis thereof
coacting with said first means whereby the con
24L)
trol effect of said ?rst means is modi?ed in ac
a servomotor device operatively connecting said ' cordance with said rate of turn.
gyroscopic horizon and the ailerons to be con
45 trolled, a gyroscopic turn indicator responsive to
lateral turns of the plane, connecting means dis
posed between said indicator and said servomotor
for effecting an additional roll control, moment
according to the curvature of the ?ight, and a
speedometer coupled with said connecting means
for correcting in accordance with the speed“ of the
plane the roll control moment produced by said
turn indicator.
'
4. In combination with an airplane an aileron
55 control, comprising an automatic controlling de
.vice connected with the ailerons of the plane,
said controlling device having a movable actuat
ing member, a differential mechanism connected
with said member for moving said member re
sponsive to two control forces imposed on said
mechanism, a gyroscopic horizon operatively con
nected with said mechanism for- producing one
of said control forces in accordance with inclina
tions of the plane about its longitudinal axis, and
~65 a gyroscopic turn indicator also operatively con
nected with said mechanism for producing said
second control force in accordance with the
curvature of the ?ight.
’
5. In combination with an airplane an aileron
control, comprising an automatic controlling de
vice connected with the ailerons of the plane, said
controlling device having a movable actuating
member, a differential mechanism connected with
said member for moving said member responsive
75 to two control forces imposed on said mechanism,
'8. Control apparatus for aircraft, comprising
means responsive to a change in the attitude of A5
a craft with respect to one axis thereof to pro
duce a controlling effect on the craft, means
responsive to the rate of turn of the craft aboutv
another axis thereof coacting with said first
means to modify the effect thereof, and means
responsive to the speed of the craft for modify
ing said effects during turning of the craft.
9. Control apparatus for aircraft, comprising
means responsive to a change in the attitude of
a craft with respect to one axis thereof to pro
duce a roll control moment, and means respon
sive to the rate of turn of the craft about an
other axis thereof coacting with said ?rst means
whereby the roll control moment of said first
means is modified in accordance with said rate 60
of turn.
10. Control apparatus for aircraft, comprising
means responsive to the change in attitude of
the craft with respect to one axis thereof. to
produce a roll control moment, means responsive
to the rate of turn of the craft,about another
axis thereof coacting with said first means to
modify the roll control moment thereof, and
means responsive to the speed of the craft for
modifying said moment during turning of the 70
craft.
11. In combination with an aircraft, a control
surface therefor, gyroscopic means responsive to
the inclination of the craft about one axis there
of for producing a control eifect, gyroscopic fl
2,13%974
means responsive to the rate of turn of the craft
about another axis thereof, and speed responsive
means cooperating with said gyroscopic means
whereby said control (effect is modi?ed, and means
controlling said control surface in response to
said modi?ed control effect whereby the vertical
axis of the craft itself is maintained in the ap
parent vertical.
12. In combination with an aircraft, a control
10 surface therefor, means responsive to a change
5
means responsive to a change in attitude of the
craft about one axis thereof, lever means con
trolled by said responsive means, means responm
sive to the rate of turn of the craft about another
axis thereof, an arcuate slotted lever actuated
by said rate of turn device, a link, connected to
said lever means and mounted for movement in
said slot, and means responsive to the speed or"
the craft for controlling the position of said link.‘
14. In combination with an aircraft, a control 10
surface therefor, a servo-motor connected to said
surface, and means for controlling the operation
of said servo-motor, comprising means respon
in attitude of the craft about one axis thereof,
lever means controlled by said responsive means,
means responsive to the rate of turn of the craft
about another axis thereof whereby the fulcrum , sive to an inclination of the craft about one axis 15
of said lever means is changed in response to thereof and means coasting with said responsive
means, motor means controlling said coasting
said rate of turn means, means responsive to i
the speed of the craft whereby the effect of said means and means for controlling said motor
means, comprising means responsive to the rate
rate of turn device is modi?ed, and means con
trolled by said lever means whereby said control of turn of the craft about another axis thereof
20
surface is governed to produce stabilization of
the craft about said one axis.
13. Control apparatus for aircraft, comprising
and speed responsive means coacting with said
rate of turn responsive means.
EDUARi? FISCHEL.
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