close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2138071

код для вставки
Nov. 29, 1938.
E. H. PARKINSON ET AL
v
2,138,071
DAM
Filed Nov. 24, 1936
.________l
I\
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
l
s}.
I
l
I
l
Fig. 2.
THoMHs Enwnsw
RDN ER
W‘momzm Tusoo
BY?
‘
-
5 i
47' 7'GAO/V5)’
Nov. 29, 1938.
E. H. PARK'INSON ET AL
2,138,071
DAM
Filed Nov. 24, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Enema Hqnmsou PHRHINsoN
.
Tuomns Eownao GFmoNsR
Wvnonqm THEODORE VINT
Patented Nov. ‘29, 1938
_ 2,138,071
' UNITED -.STATES PATENT "OFFICE
2,138,071
D'AM
Edgar “Harrison Parkinson, Thomas Edward
Gardner, and Wyndham Theodore Vint, Brad
ford, England
‘Application November 24, 1936, Serial No. ‘112,487
In-‘GreatBritain December 3, 1935
6 Claims.
This invention. relatesrto ‘improvements in
dams, walls of reservoirs, and‘ the like formed
of concrete ferro-concrete or other suitableima
terials, and is particularly adaptable for thin
wall construction with a view'to elimination of
all instability with increased margin of safety
and at much reduced constructional and main
tenance cost.
The invention is'a reservoir or dam construc
10 tion in the form of a‘wall of L-shaped vertical
section made up of 021601‘ a series of units. In
the latter case ‘the ‘units are conneotable. The
foot of the unit or units projects a convenient
distance into the reservoir and is arranged to
15 have no upward pressureon its underside, the
inner end or edge, i. e. the toe ofthe foot, being
turned down and connected to the “cut out”
20
‘
(CI. 61-30)
Fig. 1 represents a plan of a portionof a dam‘
arranged in diagrammatic form according to ‘our
invention.
Fig. 2 represents a section on‘line a—‘b of Fig. :1.
Fig. 3 represents a section on‘line c+>-d~ of Fig-1. 5.
Fig. 4 represents‘ia composite elevation of :a
dam according to one form of our invention
showing upstream and downstream ifaces Ltd the
right and left respectively.
Fig. 5 represents a section through'one of the
dam wall units.
‘
Fig. 6 represents a composite sectional plan of
the parts incorporated in ‘Fig. vLl. .In this-.flg
we the left hand part shows the"‘cut 'out”"and
joint below the 'foot portion on line 12-)‘ .of Fig.4.
The central parts is a section on>line.g—h of Fig.
4 and the left hand section ‘or part is a section
or impervious strata, which-prevents water from
seeping under the foot .of the dam.
.
on line 11-9‘ of 'Fig. 4, and
The construction ‘is such that the downward
pressure of water upon the foot‘ portion .will
the joint referred to.
balance or exceed the'outward' thrust upon the
ring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the-drawings in ‘Fig.1,
A, A1, A2, A3, and A4 represents .units :of a-dam,
units A, A2 and ‘A4 beingshown in vfullilines, the
breast portion'of the wall..
Rigid connections between the foot and wall
portions are made in the‘form of buttresses in
tension. and will preferably be connected to the
down-turned toe portions. >
The possibility of upward water pressure on
the underside of the foot may :also be avoided by
providing a space beneath such foot, to which
access may be had from the downstream side of
the wall, which serves to drain away any water
seeping in and provides inspection for the un
derside of the foot ‘portion of the .darn.
35
Where the wall is made up of aseries of units,
suitable joints will be provided preferably those
of a type'projecting into the water, which will
ensure that ‘the lateral pressure of the water
acting thereon will ‘close and tighten them.
40
While the'verticali section of the wall is L
shaped it must be understood that the actual
form of wall may vary and may be of hollow rec
tangular form braced internally and provided
with means of access .of water to the interior to
enable horizontal water pressure to act. against
the vertical downstream part of the wall, and the
vertical pressure to act upon the foot portion, all
substantially as hereinafter more particularly
described.
Fig. 7 represents an enlargedisectional'viewlo'f
.
To carry our invention into-effect :and refer
other two in broken lines. Each unit is char~
acterized by a wall .3 and .a foot'or?oorB1 'pro
jecting into the reservoir, or upstream. This
foot ‘is connected at its toe.B2 to a “cut out”
C projecting intotheimpervious strata, and be
tween the ‘undersi'de'of such foot and the upper 30
face of the ground is a space D which ‘is freely
drained. Each unit .isprovided with two but~
tresses in the form of webs F, 'one on each side,
and each buttress along its inclined waterside
edge is=curved toward the adjacent buttress, so 35.
that when the units are assembled the 'said
curved edges form a joint as indicated at J.
This arrangement results in a space v‘S ‘being
provided between each unit and its .next adjoin
ing unit on each side, such space ‘being closed 40
to the passage of water on the waterside at the
joint. J, but open on the downstream side of the
device.
From' the general arrangement before de
scribed it will be understood and clearly seen 4.5
that a great advantage over prevailing systems
is gained as the forces exerted by ‘the water are
used to effect its own support, thus making it
unnecessary to amass great quantities of mate
ther details of construction will also be re
ferred to.
For the better understanding of our invention
rial to secure that end.
reference is made to the accompanying drawings
in which the same reference characters refer to
material such as asphalt and the curves ‘at the
joints J will be such as to ensure that the lat
A the same parts and wherein:
26
The meeting faces‘ of the web members pref
erably will be provided with'a suitable sealing
eral pressure, of the water acting thereon will
50
5,6.
2 I
2,138,071
close and tighten such joints. The projections
of the foot of the dam under the water will be
such as to secure a load adequate to o?‘set,
through the medium of the connecting webs or
buttresses, the outward thrust upon the dam.
For shallow dams we propose that units of a
size and weight suitable for road transport be
made for stock at a works specially equipped for
the purpose, and when ordered conveyed to site,
10 placed in position with their “cut outs” C let
decrease in size from the water side wall B3 to
the wall B, and that no single chamber shall
receive water from more than one connection
or opening 0.
The lower portion of each unit is shown in
section in the central portion of Fig. 6, and this
portion connects-to the “cut out” C. What may
be termed the main body of the unit is erected
over this base portion, the floor B4 separating the
two and covering or roo?ng the lower part. The 10
into a clay-puddled or like trench, and bolted
webs R of the lower part will be formed as con
together along the line of the joints, which in
tinuations with the webs R of the main body of
the unit and the re-inforcing rods used in con
struction with the lower webs will continue up
wards and serve the upper webs thereby assisting 15
to secure the continuity desired.
P and P1 represent protective skins over the
most cases will be vertical throughout. As the
walls of such units would be very thin and
15 the manufacture both rapid and economical, the
economy over prevailing systems is obvious even
for shallow dams, and the: rapidity of erection
determined only by the rate of delivery, will be
a great asset.
With regard to each unit it will be understood
20
that the outward thrust is concentrated on the
wall B and this thrust is balanced by the down
ward pressure on the foot B1 via the buttress
members which, in effect, are tension webs.
The lateral pressures upon the projecting
25
webs of the buttresses balance similar pressures
on the adjoining units and in so doing tighten
the jointsv between the units.
The effects of temperature changes are local
30 ized in each unit, and cannot become cumulative.
Each unit will, by preference, be cast in one con
work, the skin P being pierced by apertures O
to permit water to pass through the skin'and
into the hollow wall and to permit water pressure 20
to have access to the ?exible webs F2 forming be
tween them the joints J. This construction is
best seen in Fig. 7.
Where the skin P surrounds the webs it is not
desired to stay or strengthen the webs by the skin 25
and such skin will consequently be entirely sev
ered or cut through from bottom to top as at D1
between every two supports for same from the
projections F, su'ch severances preferably having
30
overlapping sliding portions.
It is preferred to cover the downstream part
tinuous operation in order to avoid junctions of the space S and likewise the top or roof there
formed between castings made at differing dates. _ of by overlapping lips or projections S1 to pre
Referring now to Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the a'c
vent. the entrance of extreme cold or hot air, but
companying drawings, wherein we have illus
such arrangement will not be allowed to inter 85
trated a modi?cation in the form of a somewhat fere in any way with the freedom of movement
massive dam. Here it will be noted that the between adjacent units. Each unit may have
units are substantially rectangular honeycomb
blocks. each with an upstream wall B3 parallel to
‘Y a downstream wall B, and from the wallB3 extend
webs F‘2 of such curvature that the free edges of
the webs of adjacent units form between them
vertical open joints J2 through which access is
provided for water from the upstream side. In
if this form the walls are provided with a ?oor B‘,
which is the equivalent of the projecting foot B1
before described. The sectional plan views of
each unit shown in Fig. 6 are taken reading from
left to right, on lines e-f, g—h, 5-7‘ of Fig. 4.
557 Each unit is built up as a hollow honeycomb-like
body wherein the numerous walls marked R
supplement the webs or buttresses E and are dis
tributed throughout the unit in such a manner
as to (1) materially support and stiffen each
other (2) to relieve at numerous points the out
ward thrust upon the wall B, and (3) to pass
through the ?oor B4 at frequent intervals down
to the foundations, and in some cases to the
bottom of the “cut out” thereby distributing the
60 load evenly over the whole area.
The water in the reservoir will at all times have
free access to the whole of the inter-connected
interstices or chambers in the said honeycomb
like unit above the floor B4, entering them by the
65 way of a series of openings 0 through the water
side wall B3 and any protective skin or like as
hereinafter referred to. This ensures the neces
sary load for balancing the outward thrust.
It will be understood that where a honeycomb
like structure is utilized the interior will receive
water from the reservoir, each interior chamber
being connected by suitable apertures to one or
more adjacent ones and the unit will be ?lled with
water to the reservoir water level. It is preferred
that the apertures between the chambers will
one or more cross ?oors N and a roof N1, the
former being pierced to afford access and relieve
trapped air, and to allow the unit to ?ll with
water to water level. The necessary service
openings above the over?ow level will relieve any
tendency for air trappings in the upper portions
of the units.
Access to the interior of each unit may be had 45
along a ?oor or gangway, provided with water
tight doors T on. each side of each space S below
the Water level, to which doors access may be
gained from the space S. Preferably however, a
?oor or series of gangways are made above over
50
?ow level which will likewise give access to the
top of each chamber. These continue across or
over spaces S where they are made with overlap- V
ping sliding joints to maintain freedom of move
ment for each unit the whole length of the dam. 55
In assembling, alternate units will ?rst be
erected and when set will have their projecting
webs F covered with a suitable layer of mastic
asphalt or similar jointing or sealing material as
at J1, Fig. '7. Such webs F2 are then strained
back from their original positions in which they
are cast.
The intermediate units are then cast
with their half portions F of the joint directly
against the asphalt referred to. When the in
termediate units are set and the backward strain 65
is relieved from the previously cast portions they
will spring towards the newly cast parts until
the pressure upon the asphalt is equal on both
sides of the joint, causing such joint to be reason
ably tight even before receiving any lateral pres 70
sure from the water. These springy projections
will absorb all movement of the concrete without
any detectable or permanent results and will ‘cut
out the possibility of movement of the various
units becoming cumulative.
75
2,138,071
The said joints are composed of lasting mate
rials and are not subject to disintegration thus
completely solving the problem of leak preven
tion as the forces tending to open the joints are
as nothing compared with those available for
closing them and squeezing the mastic sealing
into any voids that might otherwise permit leak
age.
In order to take off or o?set any undue or ex
10 cessive strain upon the webs F2, each web may
be provided with one or more ribs F1 after the
manner illustrated in Figs. 6 and ‘7.
Pairs of doors or lock-gates T, shown in the
space S, are attached to opposite buttress mem
bers and are adapted to close in the direction
of water pressure should any damage occur at
the joint J and water leak therethrough as de
scribed in our companion speci?cation. Two or
more pairs of such doors or lock-gates may be
adopted in such space S.
We have described a reservoir construction
wherein only one main wall is employed, but the
construction may be applied to walls at any an
gle to each other or upon any curve.
Having thus described our invention
we
claim:—
1. A dam structure including a downstream
vertical Wall, an upstream vertical wall, tension
members connecting said walls, and a dam foot
30 extending upstream from the bottom of the
downstream wall, said upstream wall having
openings therein to permit water to enter the
space between said walls thereby to subject the
dam foot to downward water pressure between
the walls.
2. A dam structure including a downstream
vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall, tension
members connecting said walls, a dam foot ex
tending upstream from the bottom of the down
40 stream wall, said upstream wall having open
ings therein to permit water to enter the space
between said walls thereby to subject the dam
3
space between ‘said walls thereby to subject the
dam foot to downward water pressure between
the walls, said foot having drainage channels at
its under side open at their downstream ends
and closed at their upstream ends.
a. A dam structure including a downstream
vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall, tension
members connecting said walls, a dam foot ex
tending upstream from the bottom of the down
stream wall, said upstream wall having open 10
ings therein to permit water to enter the space
between said walls thereby to subject the dam
foot to downward water pressure between the
walls, said foot having‘ drainage channels at
its under side open at their downstream ends
and closed at their upstream ends, and a toe
extending downwardly from the forward edge
of said foot and imperviously anchored in the
geological structure supporting the dam where
by to prevent upward pressure beneath said dam 20
foot.
5. A dam consisting of a plurality of sections
each having a downstream vertical wall, an
upstream vertical wall spaced parallel to the
downstream wall and perforated to admit water 25
between said walls, a ?oor connecting the bot
toms of said walls, and side walls rising from
the sides of said ?oor and connecting the side
edges of the upstream and downstream walls;
said upstream wall having at each side edge a
?exible joint portion extending upstream from
the wall, and means to secure the ' upstream
edge portions of said joint portions in water
tight conjunction.
6. A dam consisting of a plurality of sections
each having a downstream vertical wall, an
upstream vertical wall spaced parallel to the
downstream wall and perforated to admit water
between said walls, a ?oor connecting the bot
toms of said walls, and side walls rising from
the sides of said floor and connecting the side
edges of the upstream and downstream walls;
foot to downward water pressure between the
said upstream wall having at each side edge a
walls, and a toe extending downwardly from the
?exible joint portion extending upstream from
forward edge of said foot and imperviously an
the wall, and means to secure ‘the upstream 45
chored in the geological structure supporting the
dam whereby to prevent upward pressure be
neath said dam foot.
-
3. A dam structure including a downstream
vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall“, tension
members connecting said walls, and a dam foot
extending upstream from the bottom of the
downstream wall, said upstream wall having
openings therein to permit water to enter the
edge portions of said joint portions in water
tight conjunction, the pairs of said walls at the
adjacent sides of the dam sections being spaced
to provide for access to said joints from the
downstream side of the dam.
50
EDGAR HARRISON .PARKINSON.
THOMAS EDWARD GARDNER.
WYNDHAM THEODORE VINT.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
545 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа