Патент USA US2138071код для вставки
Nov. 29, 1938. E. H. PARKINSON ET AL v 2,138,071 DAM Filed Nov. 24, 1936 .________l I\ 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 l s}. I l I l Fig. 2. THoMHs Enwnsw RDN ER W‘momzm Tusoo BY? ‘ - 5 i 47' 7'GAO/V5)’ Nov. 29, 1938. E. H. PARK'INSON ET AL 2,138,071 DAM Filed Nov. 24, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Enema Hqnmsou PHRHINsoN . Tuomns Eownao GFmoNsR Wvnonqm THEODORE VINT Patented Nov. ‘29, 1938 _ 2,138,071 ' UNITED -.STATES PATENT "OFFICE 2,138,071 D'AM Edgar “Harrison Parkinson, Thomas Edward Gardner, and Wyndham Theodore Vint, Brad ford, England ‘Application November 24, 1936, Serial No. ‘112,487 In-‘GreatBritain December 3, 1935 6 Claims. This invention. relatesrto ‘improvements in dams, walls of reservoirs, and‘ the like formed of concrete ferro-concrete or other suitableima terials, and is particularly adaptable for thin wall construction with a view'to elimination of all instability with increased margin of safety and at much reduced constructional and main tenance cost. The invention is'a reservoir or dam construc 10 tion in the form of a‘wall of L-shaped vertical section made up of 021601‘ a series of units. In the latter case ‘the ‘units are conneotable. The foot of the unit or units projects a convenient distance into the reservoir and is arranged to 15 have no upward pressureon its underside, the inner end or edge, i. e. the toe ofthe foot, being turned down and connected to the “cut out” 20 ‘ (CI. 61-30) Fig. 1 represents a plan of a portionof a dam‘ arranged in diagrammatic form according to ‘our invention. Fig. 2 represents a section on‘line a—‘b of Fig. :1. Fig. 3 represents a section on‘line c+>-d~ of Fig-1. 5. Fig. 4 represents‘ia composite elevation of :a dam according to one form of our invention showing upstream and downstream ifaces Ltd the right and left respectively. Fig. 5 represents a section through'one of the dam wall units. ‘ Fig. 6 represents a composite sectional plan of the parts incorporated in ‘Fig. vLl. .In this-.flg we the left hand part shows the"‘cut 'out”"and joint below the 'foot portion on line 12-)‘ .of Fig.4. The central parts is a section on>line.g—h of Fig. 4 and the left hand section ‘or part is a section or impervious strata, which-prevents water from seeping under the foot .of the dam. . on line 11-9‘ of 'Fig. 4, and The construction ‘is such that the downward pressure of water upon the foot‘ portion .will the joint referred to. balance or exceed the'outward' thrust upon the ring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the-drawings in ‘Fig.1, A, A1, A2, A3, and A4 represents .units :of a-dam, units A, A2 and ‘A4 beingshown in vfullilines, the breast portion'of the wall.. Rigid connections between the foot and wall portions are made in the‘form of buttresses in tension. and will preferably be connected to the down-turned toe portions. > The possibility of upward water pressure on the underside of the foot may :also be avoided by providing a space beneath such foot, to which access may be had from the downstream side of the wall, which serves to drain away any water seeping in and provides inspection for the un derside of the foot ‘portion of the .darn. 35 Where the wall is made up of aseries of units, suitable joints will be provided preferably those of a type'projecting into the water, which will ensure that ‘the lateral pressure of the water acting thereon will ‘close and tighten them. 40 While the'verticali section of the wall is L shaped it must be understood that the actual form of wall may vary and may be of hollow rec tangular form braced internally and provided with means of access .of water to the interior to enable horizontal water pressure to act. against the vertical downstream part of the wall, and the vertical pressure to act upon the foot portion, all substantially as hereinafter more particularly described. Fig. 7 represents an enlargedisectional'viewlo'f . To carry our invention into-effect :and refer other two in broken lines. Each unit is char~ acterized by a wall .3 and .a foot'or?oorB1 'pro jecting into the reservoir, or upstream. This foot ‘is connected at its toe.B2 to a “cut out” C projecting intotheimpervious strata, and be tween the ‘undersi'de'of such foot and the upper 30 face of the ground is a space D which ‘is freely drained. Each unit .isprovided with two but~ tresses in the form of webs F, 'one on each side, and each buttress along its inclined waterside edge is=curved toward the adjacent buttress, so 35. that when the units are assembled the 'said curved edges form a joint as indicated at J. This arrangement results in a space v‘S ‘being provided between each unit and its .next adjoin ing unit on each side, such space ‘being closed 40 to the passage of water on the waterside at the joint. J, but open on the downstream side of the device. From' the general arrangement before de scribed it will be understood and clearly seen 4.5 that a great advantage over prevailing systems is gained as the forces exerted by ‘the water are used to effect its own support, thus making it unnecessary to amass great quantities of mate ther details of construction will also be re ferred to. For the better understanding of our invention rial to secure that end. reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which the same reference characters refer to material such as asphalt and the curves ‘at the joints J will be such as to ensure that the lat A the same parts and wherein: 26 The meeting faces‘ of the web members pref erably will be provided with'a suitable sealing eral pressure, of the water acting thereon will 50 5,6. 2 I 2,138,071 close and tighten such joints. The projections of the foot of the dam under the water will be such as to secure a load adequate to o?‘set, through the medium of the connecting webs or buttresses, the outward thrust upon the dam. For shallow dams we propose that units of a size and weight suitable for road transport be made for stock at a works specially equipped for the purpose, and when ordered conveyed to site, 10 placed in position with their “cut outs” C let decrease in size from the water side wall B3 to the wall B, and that no single chamber shall receive water from more than one connection or opening 0. The lower portion of each unit is shown in section in the central portion of Fig. 6, and this portion connects-to the “cut out” C. What may be termed the main body of the unit is erected over this base portion, the floor B4 separating the two and covering or roo?ng the lower part. The 10 into a clay-puddled or like trench, and bolted webs R of the lower part will be formed as con together along the line of the joints, which in tinuations with the webs R of the main body of the unit and the re-inforcing rods used in con struction with the lower webs will continue up wards and serve the upper webs thereby assisting 15 to secure the continuity desired. P and P1 represent protective skins over the most cases will be vertical throughout. As the walls of such units would be very thin and 15 the manufacture both rapid and economical, the economy over prevailing systems is obvious even for shallow dams, and the: rapidity of erection determined only by the rate of delivery, will be a great asset. With regard to each unit it will be understood 20 that the outward thrust is concentrated on the wall B and this thrust is balanced by the down ward pressure on the foot B1 via the buttress members which, in effect, are tension webs. The lateral pressures upon the projecting 25 webs of the buttresses balance similar pressures on the adjoining units and in so doing tighten the jointsv between the units. The effects of temperature changes are local 30 ized in each unit, and cannot become cumulative. Each unit will, by preference, be cast in one con work, the skin P being pierced by apertures O to permit water to pass through the skin'and into the hollow wall and to permit water pressure 20 to have access to the ?exible webs F2 forming be tween them the joints J. This construction is best seen in Fig. 7. Where the skin P surrounds the webs it is not desired to stay or strengthen the webs by the skin 25 and such skin will consequently be entirely sev ered or cut through from bottom to top as at D1 between every two supports for same from the projections F, su'ch severances preferably having 30 overlapping sliding portions. It is preferred to cover the downstream part tinuous operation in order to avoid junctions of the space S and likewise the top or roof there formed between castings made at differing dates. _ of by overlapping lips or projections S1 to pre Referring now to Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the a'c vent. the entrance of extreme cold or hot air, but companying drawings, wherein we have illus such arrangement will not be allowed to inter 85 trated a modi?cation in the form of a somewhat fere in any way with the freedom of movement massive dam. Here it will be noted that the between adjacent units. Each unit may have units are substantially rectangular honeycomb blocks. each with an upstream wall B3 parallel to ‘Y a downstream wall B, and from the wallB3 extend webs F‘2 of such curvature that the free edges of the webs of adjacent units form between them vertical open joints J2 through which access is provided for water from the upstream side. In if this form the walls are provided with a ?oor B‘, which is the equivalent of the projecting foot B1 before described. The sectional plan views of each unit shown in Fig. 6 are taken reading from left to right, on lines e-f, g—h, 5-7‘ of Fig. 4. 557 Each unit is built up as a hollow honeycomb-like body wherein the numerous walls marked R supplement the webs or buttresses E and are dis tributed throughout the unit in such a manner as to (1) materially support and stiffen each other (2) to relieve at numerous points the out ward thrust upon the wall B, and (3) to pass through the ?oor B4 at frequent intervals down to the foundations, and in some cases to the bottom of the “cut out” thereby distributing the 60 load evenly over the whole area. The water in the reservoir will at all times have free access to the whole of the inter-connected interstices or chambers in the said honeycomb like unit above the floor B4, entering them by the 65 way of a series of openings 0 through the water side wall B3 and any protective skin or like as hereinafter referred to. This ensures the neces sary load for balancing the outward thrust. It will be understood that where a honeycomb like structure is utilized the interior will receive water from the reservoir, each interior chamber being connected by suitable apertures to one or more adjacent ones and the unit will be ?lled with water to the reservoir water level. It is preferred that the apertures between the chambers will one or more cross ?oors N and a roof N1, the former being pierced to afford access and relieve trapped air, and to allow the unit to ?ll with water to water level. The necessary service openings above the over?ow level will relieve any tendency for air trappings in the upper portions of the units. Access to the interior of each unit may be had 45 along a ?oor or gangway, provided with water tight doors T on. each side of each space S below the Water level, to which doors access may be gained from the space S. Preferably however, a ?oor or series of gangways are made above over 50 ?ow level which will likewise give access to the top of each chamber. These continue across or over spaces S where they are made with overlap- V ping sliding joints to maintain freedom of move ment for each unit the whole length of the dam. 55 In assembling, alternate units will ?rst be erected and when set will have their projecting webs F covered with a suitable layer of mastic asphalt or similar jointing or sealing material as at J1, Fig. '7. Such webs F2 are then strained back from their original positions in which they are cast. The intermediate units are then cast with their half portions F of the joint directly against the asphalt referred to. When the in termediate units are set and the backward strain 65 is relieved from the previously cast portions they will spring towards the newly cast parts until the pressure upon the asphalt is equal on both sides of the joint, causing such joint to be reason ably tight even before receiving any lateral pres 70 sure from the water. These springy projections will absorb all movement of the concrete without any detectable or permanent results and will ‘cut out the possibility of movement of the various units becoming cumulative. 75 2,138,071 The said joints are composed of lasting mate rials and are not subject to disintegration thus completely solving the problem of leak preven tion as the forces tending to open the joints are as nothing compared with those available for closing them and squeezing the mastic sealing into any voids that might otherwise permit leak age. In order to take off or o?set any undue or ex 10 cessive strain upon the webs F2, each web may be provided with one or more ribs F1 after the manner illustrated in Figs. 6 and ‘7. Pairs of doors or lock-gates T, shown in the space S, are attached to opposite buttress mem bers and are adapted to close in the direction of water pressure should any damage occur at the joint J and water leak therethrough as de scribed in our companion speci?cation. Two or more pairs of such doors or lock-gates may be adopted in such space S. We have described a reservoir construction wherein only one main wall is employed, but the construction may be applied to walls at any an gle to each other or upon any curve. Having thus described our invention we claim:— 1. A dam structure including a downstream vertical Wall, an upstream vertical wall, tension members connecting said walls, and a dam foot 30 extending upstream from the bottom of the downstream wall, said upstream wall having openings therein to permit water to enter the space between said walls thereby to subject the dam foot to downward water pressure between the walls. 2. A dam structure including a downstream vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall, tension members connecting said walls, a dam foot ex tending upstream from the bottom of the down 40 stream wall, said upstream wall having open ings therein to permit water to enter the space between said walls thereby to subject the dam 3 space between ‘said walls thereby to subject the dam foot to downward water pressure between the walls, said foot having drainage channels at its under side open at their downstream ends and closed at their upstream ends. a. A dam structure including a downstream vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall, tension members connecting said walls, a dam foot ex tending upstream from the bottom of the down stream wall, said upstream wall having open 10 ings therein to permit water to enter the space between said walls thereby to subject the dam foot to downward water pressure between the walls, said foot having‘ drainage channels at its under side open at their downstream ends and closed at their upstream ends, and a toe extending downwardly from the forward edge of said foot and imperviously anchored in the geological structure supporting the dam where by to prevent upward pressure beneath said dam 20 foot. 5. A dam consisting of a plurality of sections each having a downstream vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall spaced parallel to the downstream wall and perforated to admit water 25 between said walls, a ?oor connecting the bot toms of said walls, and side walls rising from the sides of said ?oor and connecting the side edges of the upstream and downstream walls; said upstream wall having at each side edge a ?exible joint portion extending upstream from the wall, and means to secure the ' upstream edge portions of said joint portions in water tight conjunction. 6. A dam consisting of a plurality of sections each having a downstream vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall spaced parallel to the downstream wall and perforated to admit water between said walls, a ?oor connecting the bot toms of said walls, and side walls rising from the sides of said floor and connecting the side edges of the upstream and downstream walls; foot to downward water pressure between the said upstream wall having at each side edge a walls, and a toe extending downwardly from the ?exible joint portion extending upstream from forward edge of said foot and imperviously an the wall, and means to secure ‘the upstream 45 chored in the geological structure supporting the dam whereby to prevent upward pressure be neath said dam foot. - 3. A dam structure including a downstream vertical wall, an upstream vertical wall“, tension members connecting said walls, and a dam foot extending upstream from the bottom of the downstream wall, said upstream wall having openings therein to permit water to enter the edge portions of said joint portions in water tight conjunction, the pairs of said walls at the adjacent sides of the dam sections being spaced to provide for access to said joints from the downstream side of the dam. 50 EDGAR HARRISON .PARKINSON. THOMAS EDWARD GARDNER. WYNDHAM THEODORE VINT.