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Патент USA US2138115

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Nov. 29, 1938.
E. A. NELS‘ON
2,138,115
APPARATUS FOR FORMING DISK WHEELS OR THE LIKE
Original Filed March 23, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
.Z'mz'Z /7. Nelson,
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Nov. 29, 1938,
E_ A_ NELSON
’
2,138,115
APPARATUS FOR FORMING DISK ‘WHEELS OR THE LIKE
Original Filed March 23, 1935
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Emil ? Nelsen
2,138,115
Patented Nov. 29, 1938
UNlTED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,138,115
_ APPARATUS FOR FORMING DISK WHEELS
OR THE LIKE
Emil A. Nelson, St. Clair Shores, Mich.
Original application March 23, 1935, Serial No.
12,555, now Patent No. 2,095,343, dated October
12, 1937. Divided and this application De
cember 11, 1936, Serial No. 115,330
4 Claims.
This invention relates to an improved appara
tus for forming metal articles, and is a division of
my application for Letters Patent 'of the United
States for Improvements in method of making
5 disk wheels, ?led March 23, 1935 and serially
numbered 12,555, now Patent Number 2,095,343,
dated Oct. 12, 1937.
More particularly, the invention pertains to
apparatus for forming improved steel disk wheels
and/or blanks from which such wheels and other
articles may be constructed.
One of the main objects of the invention is to
provide apparatus of this character by which se
lected portions of the ?nished product may be
brought to different predetermined thicknesses
during formation thereof from stock of substan
tially uniform thickness.
Another object of the invention is to provide
apparatus of this character which is adapted to
2 O bring selected portions of a tubular blank to a
reduced diameter and which may be so construct
ed and arranged as to maintain the thickness of
the metal of such reduced portions equal to, less
than, or greater than the initial thickness of the
25 stock of the blank.
.
A further object of the invention is to provide
apparatus of this kind by which substantially the
initial grain and ?ow line structure of the stock
is preserved in the thin portions of the article
30 formed thereby, and which is provided with a
greater compactness in the structure of the metal
(Cl. 113—52)
ed zone thereof so as to prevent a reduction in
‘the thickness of the metal at and adjacent the
inwardly distorted zone; to provide means of
this character which can be so constructed and
arranged as to predetermine the relative rates 5
of inward distortion and axial feeding of the
metal of the stock as Well as the resulting thick
ness of the inwardly distorted and adjacent por
tions of the stock; to provide apparatus of this
character which produces wheels‘ of uniform 10
shape, size and contour; to provide apparatus by
which disk wheels can be formed from rectangu
lar shaped pieces of sheet metal stock of uniform
thickness without requiring removal of any of
the metal in. the formation of the central hub 15
passages with which wheels of this kind are con
ventionally provided; and to provide apparatus
of this character by which the portion of the disk
wheel, which ‘in practice is securable to the wheel
hub, may be brought to a greater thickness than '
the initial uniform thickness of the blank from
which it is formed.
Additional objects of the invention are to pro
vide an improved steel disk wheel having diverse
thicknesses at selected portions and in which sub- ‘
stantially no portion thereof has a thickness ma
terially less than the initial thickness of the stock
from which it is formed; to provide a wheel of
this character which is free from ?ow lines that
are elongated materially with respect to the ini
tial flow lines of the stock; and to provide thick
ened portions in articles of this kind in which
of the thickened portions of such articles as com
pared with the corresponding initial characteris
tics of the stock.
35
A further object of the invention is to provide
the grain structure of the metal thereof is more
compact than that of the original stock. ‘
apparatus by which articles, particularly steel
ent invention, the same consists in certain novel
disk wheels, can be formed from sheet-like metal
features of construction and combination of parts
stock substantially without waste thereof.
to be hereinafter described with reference to the
‘
A still further object of the invention is to pro
ide fast acting apparatus of this character which
occupies comparatively little floor space and which
has a capacity for producing a relatively large
number of articles in a short period of time.
ther objects of the invention are to provide
4 01 a disk wheel forming machine of this character
which is adapted to simultaneously form two
wheels to an approximately ?nished contour from
one sheet metal blank; to provide apparatus of
this kind in which preformed, or unaltered, tubu
50 lar blanks'may be brought substantially to their
?nished contour in a single operation; to pro
5
The above being among the objects of the pres- ~
accompanying drawings, and then claimed, hav
ing the above and other objects in view.
40
An illustrative embodiment of the invention is
shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a tubular
blank from which a pair of disk wheels may be
formed by the improved apparatus and method.
Fig. 2 is an end elevational view of the tubular
blank shown in Fig. 1.
_
,
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary, side elevational view,
partly in section, of a preformed blank which is
suitable for formation into a pair of disk wheel
blanks by apparatus embodying the invention.
vide means in such apparatus for distorting one
zone of a tubular blank radially inwardly and si
Fig. 4 is a side elevational View, partly in verti
cal section, of a wheel forming machine embody
multaneously feeding the metal of other portions
of the blank axially toward‘ the inwardly distort
ing the invention.
'
Fig. 5 is a top plan‘ view showing a mandrel ‘of 55
2
2,138,115
the machine illustrated in Fig. 4, as viewed from
the line 5——5 of the latter.
Fig. 6 is a transverse, sectional view, partly in
end elevation, taken on the line 6--6 of Fig. 4 and
showing the mandrels of the forming machine
in their extended positions corresponding to the
positions thereof before commencement of their
forming strokes.
Fig. 9 is a diametrical, sectional view of one of
a pair of completed disk wheels which may be
produced from one of the united wheel blanks
illustrated in Fig. 8.
In the form of the invention illustrated in the
20 drawings, the forming machine shown in Figs. 4
to '7, inclusive, includes a base supporting struc
ture, generally designated by the numeral 19, and
preferably comprising a suitably cored casting
which is centrally located with respect to a frame
as
structure generally designated by the numeral
I I. The frame structure I I includes upper and
lower vertically aligned and longitudinally ex
tending I-beams I2 and Ill, respectively, which
are supported intermediate their ends by the
30
base structure l0 and at their opposite end por
tions by pairs of vertical supports i4 and I5, re
spectively. Formed in the central base structure
I 0 are co-axial, ?xed sleeves I5’ extending trans
versely of the length of the frame structure II
and in each of which is shiftably mounted an in
ner sleeve I6. Formed on the inner end of each
shiftable sleeve I6 is a radial ?ange IT.
A roller I8 having an elongated stem or hub
portion I9 is rotatably carried by each sleeve I6
40 and disposed in facing relationship between the
radial ?anges ll of the sleeves I6. The hub por
tion I9 of each roller is supported by a pair of
rolling contact bearing elements 29 disposed
within the central passage of each sleeve I6, as
The bearing mem-V
bers20 are seated in counterbores 2I formed in
the opposite end portions of each sleeve I 6 and
they are so constructed and arranged that one
bearing member resists inward axial thrust of
50 the hub portion I9 while the other bearing resists
45 illustrated in Figs. 6 and '7.
outward axial thrusts thereof, the outward axial
thrust being applied on the innermost bearing by
a nut 22 threaded on the inner end of each hub
portion I9. The facingsides 23 of the rollers I8
55 are of frusto-conical contour and the peripheral
portion of each roller is provided with an under
cut continuous slot 24.
Shiftably mounted on the: upper I-beam I2 of
the frame structure II is a mandrel 25 having a
60 forming portion 32 which tapers in width and in
creases in depth from its right end, as viewed in
Fig. 4, to its left end portion. The mandrel 25
is shiftably supported on the I-beam I2 by spaced
rollers 26 which are rotatably mounted on lugs 21’
65 attached to or formed integral with the mandrel.
The rollers 26 extend between the ?ange of the
opposite sides of the I-beam I2 and are disposed
in rolling contact engagement with the lower op~
70 posite side ?anges thereof so as to support the
mandrel 25 in suspended relation.
Fig. 4.
The mandrel 2'! is shiftably mounted on the
I-beam I3 by spaced pairs of rollers 28 which are
rotatably mounted on lugs 29 formed integral
with or ?xed to the lower side of this mandrel.
The rollers 28 extend between the ?anges of the
. opposite sides of the I-beam I3 and are dis
Fig. 7 is a view, similar to Fig. 6, but illustrat
10 ing the positions in which the mandrels are dis
posed at the completion of their stroke thereof.
Fig. 8 is a diametrical, sectional view showing
the condition of the stock after removal thereof
from the forming machine.
15
from its left end to its right end, as viewed in
Shiftably
posed in rolling contact engagement with the low
er ?anges of the opposite sides thereof so as to 10
support the mandrel 21 in upright position. Each
of the mandrels 25 and 21 is held against outward
movement from the axes of the rollers I8 by a
pair of wheels 30 journaled on a shaft 3I carried
by the base structure I0 and disposed in vertical 15
alignment with the axis of the roller I8, as illus
trated in Figs. 4, 6, and 7. The wheels 30 relieve
the rollers 26 and 28 of the outward thrust exerted
upon the mandrels 25 and 21 during the forming
operation.
20
Each forming portion of the mandrels 25 and
21 varies in cross sectional shape from the con
tour shown in Fig. 6 at the wide end portion
thereof to the contour shown in Fig. '7 at the
smaller end portion. The forming portion 32 and
32’ of the respective mandrels are constructed
and arranged so as to extend between the frusto
conical facing sides of the rollers I8 to a suc~
cessively greater depth during progressive move
ment of the mandrels from their starting posi 30
tions illustrated in Fig. 4, to their respectively
opposite limiting positions illustrated in section
in Fig. 7. The forming parts of the mandrels
25 and 21 have side wall portions 33 which con
form generally to the facing conical side portions 35
of the rollers I8. These portions of the side walls
of the forming parts of the mandrels are relieved,
as illustrated at 34 in Fig. 7, in order to reduce
the areas of frictional contact between the man
drels and the work. This construction provides
arrow-head shaped edge portions 35 at the adja
cent edge portions of the mandrels which serve
to perform the ?nal forming operation of the
machine.
Provided on the opposite longitudinal sides of .45
each mandrel 25 and 21 are substantially verti
cal, converging cam surfaces 36 which converge
from a maximum spaced relationship at the in
ner ends of the mandrels, as viewed in Fig. 4, to a
minimum spaced relationship at the outer end 50
portions thereof. These cam surfaces are adapt
ed to predetermine the rate of feeding of the
metal of the stock operated upon by the machine
to the space between the facing frusto-conical
sides of the rollers I8 in a manner hereinafter 55
set forth.
The mandrels 25 and 21 are, during operation
of the machine, moved simultaneously in oppo
site directions from their starting positions shown
in Fig. 4 by hydraulic, pneumatic or combina 60
tions of hydraulic and pneumatic actuating’
means. In the form shown, each mandrel is
provided with an actuating rod 31 which extends
longitudinally of the supporting frame II and
which is threaded in an aperture of, or otherwise
suitably attached to, the starting end portion of
its associated mandrel. Provided on the outer
end portions of the actuating rod 31 are pistons
38 which are slidably mounted in cylinders 39,
each mandrel having its own associated piston 70
and cylinder. The adjacent ends of the cylinder
mounted on the lower I-beam I3 is a mandrel 21
39 are connected in parallel with a source of
substantially identical in shape to the mandrel
25. The forming portion 32' of the mandrel 27,
however, tapers in width and increases in depth
?uid medium under pressure, such, for example,
as oil, by a conduit 40 which communicates inter
mediate its ends with a three-way valve 4|, hav 75
2,138,115
ing a ?uid medium inlet 42 connected with a
suitable source (not shown) of ?uid pressure me
dium, and an exhaust outlet 43 leading to a suit
able drain or return pipe (not shown). The out
er ends of the cylinder 39 are connected in par
allel with the valve 4| and ?uid medium inlet 42
by a conduit 44. The valve 4| is adapted to be
adjusted so as to supply the ?uid medium to the
conduit 46 and to bring the conduit 44 into com
10 munication with the exhaust outlet 43, for the
purpose of forcing the pistons 48 outwardly with
respect to each other and moving the mandrels
25 and 2? inwardly from their starting positions
shown in Fig. 4. The valve 4| may be also set,
15 as illustrated in Fig. 4, to bring the source of
?uid pressure into communication with-the con
duit 44 and the exhaust outlet 43 into communi
cation with the conduit 4|] so as to supply ?uid
medium to the outer ends of the cylinders 39' and
20 move the pistons 38 inwardly with respect to each
other and to thereby return the mandrels to their
starting positions.
During movement of the mandrels longitudi
nally of the frame structure II and transversely
25 with respect to the axes of the rollers l8, the lat
ter are moved inwardly toward each other by
?uid pressure actuating mechanism illustrated in
Fig. 6 and including a pair of cylinders 46 associ
ated with each roller |8 respectively. Slidably
30 mounted in each cylinder 46 is a piston 41 hav
ing a piston rod 48 threaded in an aperture 49
formed in the ?ange ll of the roller supporting
sleeve |6. The ?ange ll of each sleeve I6 is
metal tubular blank 58 of the form shown in Figs.
1 and 2, may, if desired, be operated upon directly
in the foregoing forming machine, but it is pref
erable to perform the blank to the contour shown
in Fig. 3 in any conventional rolling process. The i
blank 59, as shown in Fig. 3, has a depressed in
termediate portion 60 of arcuate contour which
is disposed between cylindrical rim or end por
tions 6|. The blank 59, or a blank of the type
shown in Figs. 1 and 2 may be brought to a de 10
sired contour in a single operation of‘ the fore
going machine so as to simultaneously provide a
pair of joined disk wheel blanks of the character
shown in Fig. 8. This may be accomplished by
bringing the mandrels 25 and 21 to their starting 115
positions illustrated in Fig. 4, and then placing a
blank, for example, the blank 59 which has pref
erably been heated to a desired plasticity, on the
lower mandrel 2'! in the position illustrated in
dotted lines in Fig. 4 and allowing the blank to 20
roll into the space between the rollers l8 while
the latter are spread apart. The operator then
adjusts the valve 52 to that position thereof
which admits ?uid under pressure to the outer
end portions of all of the cylinders 46 so as to 25
force the rollers I8 inwardly toward each other.
During inward movement of the rollers |8, the
cylindrical rim portions 6| of the blank 59 are
engaged in the undercut slots 24 of the rollers iii,
the relationship of the' blank, mandrels and roll- *
ers at this state of the process being illustrated in
section in Fig. 6. The valve 52 is left in the fore
going adjusted position and the operator then
provided with spaced pairs of inwardly extending
adjusts the valve 4| so as to apply ?uid pressure
35 lugs 59 on which spaced rollers 5| are rotatably
mounted about vertical axes. Each roller of each
?ange I‘! is disposed in rolling contact with one
of the cam surfaces of corresponding sides of the
to the inner ends of the cylinders 39, thereby
causing the upper mandrel 25 to be shifted to the
mandrels 25 and 27 respectively.
When ?uid
40 pressure, such, for example, as oil under pressure,
is admitted to the outer end portions of the cylin
der 46, the pistons 41 and piston rod 48 are urged
inwardly, thereby forcing the sleeve l6 and rollers
l8 carried thereby, inwardly to the extent permit
45 ted by the cam surfaces 36 of the mandrels.
The supply of ?uid pressure to the opposite
end portions of the cylinders 46 may be manually
controlled by a valve 52 having a ?uid medium
outlet 53 connected by a conduit 54 with the in
50 ner end portions of all of the cylinders and hav
ing a ?uid medium outlet 55 connected with the
outer end portions of all of the cylinders by a
conduit 56. The valve 52 has a ?uid medium
inlet 5'1’ connected with a suitable source (not
55 shown) of ?uid under pressure, and it is also pro
vided with an exhaust outlet 58 which is con
nected with a drain or return pipe (not shown).
When the valve is set in the position illustrated
in Fig. 6, the outlet 53 thereof communicates
60 with the ?uid pressure inlet 51 so as to supply
?uid medium under pressure to the inner end
portions of all of the cylinders, and the conduit
56 communicates with the exhaust outlet 58.
This valve may be adjusted to bring the outlet 55
65 into communication with the inlet 51 so as to
supply ?uid medium under pressure to the outer
end portions of all of the cylinders while permit
ting the inner end portions of the cylinder to
communicate with the exhaust outlet 58.
In operation, a piece of sheet metal, such as
70
sheet steel, of substantially rectangular shape is
brought to cylindrical form in any conventional
manner and the edge portions of the stock are
welded together, as illustrated at 51 in Fig. 2, so as
75 to provide a sheet metal tubular blank 58. A sheet
right and the lower mandrel 27 to be shifted
simultaneously to the left, as viewed in Fig. 4.
During these operating strokes of the mandrels
25 and 2?, the rollers M of the feeding mecha
nism follow the converging cam surfaces'36 of
the mandrels so as to permit progressively in
ward movement of the rollers toward each other
in timed relation to the movement of the man
drel. - The cam surfaces 36 are so constructed
its
and arranged with respect to the contour of the
working parts 32 of the mandrels as to propor
tion the feeding of the metal of the blank with
respect to the rate of depression of the inter
mediate portions thereof between the rollers. In
the formation of steel disk wheels it is preferable
to feed the work at such a rate as to increase the
thickness of that portion of the blank which is
brought to the contour of the facing frusto
conical sides of the rollers 48. In some instances, $55
however, it may be desirable to maintain the
initial thickness of the metal of the blank in the
?nished product and in this event the cam sur
faces 35 may be predetermined to accomplish
this result. If desired, the cam surfaces may be
so constructed and arranged as to permit a pre
determined amount of stretching of the metal
during depression thereof between the rollers so
as to thereby reduce the thickness of the de
formed portion of the blank. When the de
formed portion of the blank is increased in thick
ness as compared to the initial thickness thereof,
a gradual variation in thickness, illustrated in
Figs. 8 and 9, from the thickness of the stock at‘
the outermost portions of the blank to a maxi 70
mum thickness at the innermost deformed por
tions thereof, may be produced. After the work
ing strokes of the mandrels have been completed
and the normally outer ends of the mandrels 21
have passed each other at the inner positions of 75
4
2,138,115
their strokes, the blank is removed and the oper
ator then adjusts the valve 52 to exhaust the ?uid
pressure from the outer end portions of all of
the cylinders £6 and to admit fluid pressure to
the inner end portions of such cylinders. There
after, the valve 4| is so adjusted as to admit
?uid pressure to the outer end portions of the
cylinders 3d so as to retract the mandrels 2‘! to
their starting position, and to condition the ma
10 chine for- another operating cycle.
The formed blank which has been removed is
substantially in the condition illustrated in Fig. 8
and is then severed along the line 62 so as to pro
vide two steel disk wheel blanks which may be
15 readily brought to the ?nal shape shown in Fig. 9,
between suitable dies (not shown). The result
ing disk wheel has a rim portion 63 which has
been subjected to substantially no work during
the forming operation and in which the grain
20 structure and flow lines are substantially the
same or correspond substantially with the grain
and ?ow lines of the initial blank. The side por
tions 64, however, of the disk wheel shown in Fig‘.
9, is increased in thickness as compared to the
25 thickness of the stock. This increase has been
effected by crowding of the metal of the blank
during the forming operation and, as a result,
the grain structure is somewhat more compact
than that of the initial blank and the flow lines
30 of the metal of the side portion 64 of the wheel
are not elongated as compared to the ?ow lines
of the initial blank.
_
During the foregoing forming process, the in—
termediate portion 68 of the blank 59 is forced
inwardly suf?ciently to provide a disk wheel side
forming portion having a length of cross section
substantially equal to that desired in the ?nished
product. The central opening 65 with which disk
wheels of this character are conventionally pro
40 vided is formed by discontinuing the inward de
pression of the intermediate portion of the blank
at a predetermined depth and substantially no
metal is cut away or otherwise wasted. In this
manner, a material saving is effected for all of
45 the metal which the original flat, rectangular
sheet of stock contained, is present in the ?nal
product.
Although but one speci?c embodiment of the
invention has been illustrated and described in
50 detail, it will be apparent to those skilled in the
art that various modi?cations may be made with
out departing from the scope of the appended
claims‘.
What is claimed is:
55
1. Apparatus for simultaneously forming a pair
of wheel blanks from tubular stock including a
supporting structure, a pair of spaced rollers ro
tatively and shiftably mounted on said support
ing structure for supporting said tubular stock
60 and urging the end portions thereof toward each
other, a pair of mandrels shiftably mounted on
said supporting structure having portions regis
tering with and engageable between said rollers
for urging intermediate portions of said stock
65 between said rollers, means for simultaneously
2. Apparatus for forming an article having a
peripheral portion and a portion angularly dis
posed relative thereto from a tubular metal blank
including a support, spaced rollers rotatively and
shiftably mounted on said support for supporting
said blank and so constructed as to engage and
urge the end portions thereof inwardly relative
to each other, an elongated mandrel shiftably
mounted on said support having a longitudinally
tapered portion registering with and engageable 10
between said rollers for urging an intermediate
portion of said blank therebetween, said mandrel
having cam surfaces thereon, means for shifting
said mandrel relative to said rollers to bring suc
cessive parts of progressively greater dimensions
of the tapered portion thereof between said roll
ers, apparatus for urging said rollers together dur
ing movement of said mandrel, and members co
acting between said rollers and said cam surfaces
for predetermining the rate of movement of said 20
rollers toward each other with respect to the rate
of movement of said mandrel relative to said
rollers.
3. Apparatus for forming an article having a
peripheral portion and a portion angularly dis
posed relative thereto from a tubular metal blank
including a support, spaced rollers rotatively and
shiftably mounted on said support for supporting
said blank and so constructed as to engage and
urge the end portions thereof inwardly relative 30
to each other, a mandrel shiftably mounted on
said support having an engaging portion which
engages an intermediate portion of said blank
and which is disposed for movement between said
rollers, said engaging portion being of progres
35
sively varying dimensions, means for shifting said
mandrel relative to said rollers to bring succes
sive portions of progressively varying dimensions
of said engaging portion between said rollers in
engagement with intermediate portions of said 40
blank, apparatus for urging said rollers together
during movement of said mandrel, and members
co-acting between said rollers and said mandrel
for predetermining the rate of movement of said
rollers toward each other with respect to the rate
of movement of said mandrel relative to said
rollers.
4. Apparatus for forming an article having a
peripheral portion and a portion angularly dis
posed relative thereto from a tubular metal blank 50
including a support, spaced rollers rotatively and
shiftably mounted on said support for supporting
said blank and so constructed as to engage and
urge the end portions thereof inwardly relative
to each other, a mandrel shiftably mounted on ,
said support having an engaging portion which
engages an intermediate portion of said blank
and which is disposed for movement between said
rollers, said engaging portion being of progres
sively increasing depth and progressively de
creasing width, means for shifting said mandrel
relative to said rollers to bring successive por
tions of progressively increasing depth and pro
gressively decreasing width of said engaging por
tion between said rollers in engagement with in
shifting both of said mandrels relative to said ' termediate portions of said blank, apparatus for
urging said rollers together during movement of
rollers and simultaneously shifting the latter to
ward each other, and mechanism for positively said mandrel, and members co-acting between
‘proportioning the rate of shifting movement of said rollers and said mandrel for predetermining
said mandrels with respect to the rate of shifting the rate of movement of said rollers toward each 70
movement of said rollers so as to predetermine
other with respect to the rate of movement of
the thickness of the portion of said blank oper
said mandrel relative to said rollers.
ated upon.
EMIL A. NELSON.
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