close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2138131

код для вставки
Nov. 29, 1938.
l. E. ASKE
2.l38,13l
CYLINDER HEAD AND COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES '
'
1_
\/ \/ _\/
Filed Jan. 9, 1956
s sheetsfsheet 1
24
U
\
/
_5
p:
. .
m
H
12u
, ./
3
\
_
_ -_
\
.
/1,5
./
2
m
w
, v , .1_
a
iV v
‘ .I
/
/m
/
w
7
/
.
M
,,
\ \ \\\?\\‘. ./
.i/\é#”/? aw.z/vz
,a/
‘4,.a/
.@
\ \/\\\\\ \ .\w
>1.»\\\\/\./w\m
w."
,f.
4
R/f
/
r
. ,
BY
aka/1114 W; 1PM“
ATTORNEY
Nov. 29, 1938. _
._ E ASKE,
'
2,138,131 -
CYLINDER HEAD AND COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES‘
Filed Jan. 9,- 1936
£134”
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
//////////////// //,\'
,
_
z
/
Way” W
/3
I
'
,
Z?
2v zl
/4
£1 —4—
/ /// /
/7
/ // //////// ///
7
I / //// '
//
Z
/
§
q‘ //
§—J
-6’
4
7w
I‘Z49
W J1 "Z"
INVENTOR
[PW/Y6 ids/(4'
BY
.
ATTORNEY
Nov. 29, 1938.
I
LE, ASKE
2,138,131
CYLINDER‘ HEAD AND COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTlON ENGINES
Fi'led Jan. 9, 1936
‘Parwna
s Sheets-Sheet 3
:f/marl/
n
-
F
C
H
0
I0
20
30
40
£0
60
70
50
.90
m0
fZ/WE Zeal/E4 m Pzecr/vr or 707794
INVENTOR '
few/v6 5.’ 195K:
BY
M w. Dal/<1,
ATTORNEY
Patented Nov. 29, .1938
2,138,131
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFlCv
2,138,131
CYLINDER HEAD AND COLIBUSTION CHAM
BER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION EN
GINES
‘Irving E.‘ Aske,-Muskegon, Mich., assignor to
Campbell, Wyant & Cannon Foundry -Com->
pany, Muskegon Heights, Mich, a corporation
of Michigan
Application January 9, 1936, Serial No. 58,273
8 Claims. (01. 123-191)
My present invention relates to internal com
bustion engines and ‘particularly to combustion
chambers thereof, and
'
'
'
volumes of fuel begin to burn, pressures are
generated which rapidly increase as the burning
process continues and the rapidity of these
changes in pressure set up reaction forces against
g
The objects of my present invention are, to
improve distribution of the combustible mixture
within the combustion chamber of-the ‘engine;
to increase.the throat opening between the com
bustion chamber and the cylinder without intro
ducing roughness in the» engine; to minimize
H O roughness of combustion caused pressures; _to
5
the piston head, connecting rod; crankshaft, and
bearings which act as a sudden and blow-like
impulse. The greater the volume of fuel burned
eat any instant in the in?ammation wave front,
the greater becomes the acceleration of pressure
created and the greater the magnitude of the 10
cause a substantially uniform progressive rise of
reaction and ‘restoring forces.
combustionpressure°to the engine's piston; to
The magnitude of the said reaction force is a
lessen noise and vibration of the engine and to
measure of the roughness of the engine’s opera
increase the horse power output of the engine
15 per unit of fuel burned.
,
tion and its effects in producing vibration are
I
far more pronounced than the maximum pressure v
In carrying out my invention and to obtain the
developed from the entire explosion-like com
aforesaid objects, it is necessary to set forth
bus‘tion of the fueL. For illustration, if a unit
certain geometrical relations applying to the pressure of one hundred pounds suddenly in
shape, length, volume and spark plug location of creases to one-hundred ?fty pounds in one
20 the combustion chamber, whereby the designer
' thousandth of a second, the acceleration of pres--_ 20
can accurately lay out. a combustion chamber to sure rise becomes ?fty thousand pounds per
more closely approach the ideal form without
second. If the growth of this unit pressure was.
having to resort to cut and try methods involving
limited to one-half the former volume of fuel, the
acceleration would be reduced to twenty-?ve
thousand pounds per second. When multiphed 25
many actual tests on an engine.
ID
30
Therefore, to understand my invention, it is
necessary tov know certain fundamental facts by the area of the piston this reaction ‘force be- Y
concerning the combustion process that have ,comes very large, creating noisy operation and
been established by scienti?c investigation, to also damage to engine bearings. It is obvious
wit: that the ignition spark ignites only that in the light of these factors that the arrange
portion of the fuel mixture which closely sur
ment of combustion volume distribution con
rounds it, that the initial combustion ignites the
succeeding layers of adjacent fuel giving rise to
an in?ammation wave that spreads progressively
throughout ‘the gaseous fuel mixture until all
combustibles therein are consumed, that the
velocity of combustion or chemical reaction is -
approximately equally rapid in all directions,
contained in the in?ammation wave front equals
' bustion chamber as related'to the position of the
engine roughness is to ,be minimized, as dis
tinguished from combustible volumes that are
haphazardly arranged as practiced in conven 35
tional combustion chamber designs.
In present designs of (combustion chambers, the
skill of the designer isre?ected by his ability to
which thereby, unless obstructed, forms a
spherically shaped wave. front, that the volume
that of the incremental portions ‘of mixture it
encounters at any instant, and that the volume
of the incremental portions consumed are deter
mined by the volume and shape of the com
'
provide maximum power output of the engine,
and economy thereof through choice of mechani 4.0
cal details. Very little attention has been paid.
‘to the importance ‘of volume distribution and its
effects upon the performance of the engine.
And, where these, factors have been considered,
no de?nite pattern or bogey has been established
'point of ignition, that pressures developed at any
by geometrical considerations to guide designers
. instant, of combustion are‘ proportional to the
in their lay-out of the combustion chambers for ‘
ratio of the incremental fuel volume'consumed
in the. wave front‘ to that of the entire volume
to be burned. Hence, pres-determination of rates
and values of pressures generated are possible
through proper control of volume distribution
in the combustion chamber, as related to the
ignition spark at the spark plug.
55
It is further understood that when small
30
sidered from the point of ignition must be care
fully done in designing'a combustion chamber if
various engine sizes and compression ratios.
I attain the above named objects and others
not at this time enumerated by distributing the 50
volume'of the combustion chamber in accordance
with the following description when taken in
connection with the accompanying drawings il
lustrating the preferred embodiment of my in
vcntion, in which:
2
' 2,188,181
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of the cylinder
head taken on irregular line I—I of Fig. 5.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2-2 of
Fig. 5.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional _view illustrat
ing the cup-like cooling ?uid depression over the
engine’s exhaust valve.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4 of
Fig. 5.
10
.
Fig. 5 is an under or closing-side plan view of
the cover showing the preferred arrangement of
the combustion chamber and parts pertaining
thereto.
'
Fig. 6 is a plan view illustrating an alternative
15 arrangement of the combustion chamber and
parts, and
.
Fig. '7 is a chart illustrating the rate of change
of concentrically spherical volumes considered
from the source of ignition to the farthest bound
20 ary point of the combustion chamber as shown
in Fig. 5.
Throughout the several views of the drawings,
Referring to Fig. 7, the graph ‘indicates the
space rate of change of incremental volumes con
sumed at‘ constant pressure as the in?ammation
wave spreads through to the outermost limits of
the chamber shown in Fig. 5. This is illustrated
by the curve 0EPC. The ordinate .HP taken at
the point of maximum value representing 25%
of the total radial distance of the chamber, cor
responds to the ratio of 136%. This value in
dicates that the volume consumed is increasing 10
1.36 times as fast as the lineal radial distance
for the same interval F, which represents 5%
of the total radial distance. The distance from
the spark plug to the outermost limit or boundary
of the chamber is designated by line X in Fig. 5
and ?xed at 100% of the radial distance in the
chart of Fig. '7. The interval F corresponds to
the interval Y of Fig. 5 where Y represents a
lineal radial distance or increment swept through
by the ?ame as it travels beyond the radius 0M. 20
During this interval, volume v is consumed
which represents a percentage ratio of
similar numerals refer to similar parts, and re-,
V
ferring thereto:
The reference numeral I represents the cylin
der head having a cooling ?uid chamber 2, cylin
der closing face 3, in which is formed combus
tion chamber 4, having a long extended portion
5 and a shorter extended portion 6 joined to the
30 long extended portion 5 by curved wall ‘I. The
combustion chamber boundary wall 8 extends
in an irregular curve from the long extended por
tion 5 to around the spark plug position 9 join
ing, by reverse curve ‘extending around the ex
haust valve chamber portion I0 to the short ex
tended portion 6. The upper wall or ceiling I I has
a curved depression I2 extending from the wall 8
at one side of the combustion chamber to the wall
at a point between the exhaust valve position and
40 the spark plug position. Boss I3 extends into the
combustion chamber to bring the cooling ?uid
V
25
I00 where V represents the total volume of the
chamber and considered as 100% of the volume
burned in establishing the graph. As the ?ame.
advances a distance Y in Fig. 5 from 0M and con
sumes an increment of volume v, the space rate of
change of volume expressed in percent is obtained
by dividing the percent increase of burned volume
by‘ the percent advance in ?ame travel distance
multiplied by 100 and- represented algebraically
by the ratio
35
1
V
X
.
.
v
21oo='{,—Y 100, m which T,
X
.
I00 is the percentage increase of volume burned
near the exhaust valve I4 thereby preventing ex
Y
cessive heating of the exhaust valve.‘ The boss
X
.
I3 also may serve to support heat transfer mem
45 ber I5 which is used in cases of extremely high ‘ I00 is the percentage increase in distance th 46
compression and high combustion temperatures. ~ ?ame advances in distance Y.
The heat transfer member I5 is held in place by
The line 0ABC is the proposed bogey‘ within
casting the cover body wall l6 onto it. Spark which the volumetric rates of change will sub
plug I'I provides the electric arc spark for ignit
stantially occur for all combustion chambers
50 ing the fuel charge in the. combustion chamber coming within the scope of my invention. The 60
and is preferably located over the fuel inlet valve bogey is defined by three lines connecting the
I8, as shown in Fig. 1.
points 0, A, B and C of the chart shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 6 illustrates the spark plug I‘! located over Point 0 is the initial or starting point of the
the exhaust valve position"; with the long ex
graph from which the rates of change of. volume
55 tended portion 5 of the combustion chamber on and ?ame travel distance in percent are reckoned.
the same side of the chamber as the spark plug; The abscissas and ordinates of points A, B, C
While this location is operable and minimizes are designated respectively by the ?gures (I6,
engine roughness, it does not to the same extent
I50), (85, I20) and (I00, 40) the ratio
as when the spark plug‘ is located over the fuel
Y
60
60 inlet valve and with the long extended portion 5.
X
on the same side of the combustion chamber "as
the spark plug. I9 illustrates the cylinder block I00 establishes the value of abscissas and
and
of the engine closed by the cover body I except
for the opening 20 between the combustion cham
ber 4 and the engine cylinder bore 2|. 22 repre
sents the gasket between the cover body I and
the cylinder block I9. Suitable bolts passing
through holes 24 secure the cover in place on
70
the cylinder block.
Heat transfer member 23 pertains to the sub
ject matter of my earlier application, Serial No.
736,477, ?led July 23, 1934, and forms no part
of my present invention.
Interrupted circular line 25 designates the
75 peripheral line of the engine cylinder.
_
.
xx
vY.
I00 the ordinates. The shape and amplitude of
the curve‘ 0EPC depends upon the position of the
spark plug relative to the volumes of fuel to be‘
burned and the shape of the chamber. .As there
are an in?nite number of positions for a spark
plug in any combustion chamber of given shape.
and volume there -will be found only one location
which will substantially satisfy the condition im
posed by the boundary chart or bogey and give
uniform increase in combustion pressures.
3%
2,138,131
The bogey UABC of Figure 7 was established by
analyzing the combustion volume distribution,
considered from the ignition point, of many
5, the outermost boundary point of the chamber,’
having consumed all combustibles in its path in
proportion to the incremental volumes encoun
combustion chambers used in present day en ' tered. Thus, the progression of the combustion
gines, and noting from measurements of vi
wave front generates pressures at predetermined
bration and noise the relative harshness of the rates and values which increase uniformly to the
engine in operation; fromfthese observations, total force applied to the piston and not with
it was found that when the maximum space the sudden blow-like impulse of accelerated pres
rate of change of volume took place within sure as of the conventional combustion chamber
10 forty percent of the total distance from the
where combustible volumes are haphazardly ar 10
ignition spark to the outermost end of the com
ranged in relation to the progress of the wave
‘front from the point of ignition.
bustion chamber, there was improvement over a
chamber designed having‘the same maximum
value occurring at a greater distance from the
The space between the engine’s piston and the
face of the cover and designed as the piston
clearance is thin and being of considerable area 15
in proportion to the volume enclosed, the flame
15 ignition spark. Hence, the peak of the bogey
BABC Figure 7 was established as well as the
lower limit. Any chamber graphically analyzed
and .coming substantially within the bogey OABC
' will be satisfactory.
is rapidly cooled and controlled in its reaction
velocity. The heat transfer member i5, in contact
with combustibles within the combustion cham
'
In analyzing a combustion chamber for volume
distribution, I employ a plaster of Paris cast
ber directly over and asnear as practical to the 20
portions of the plaster, preferably one-eighth
the valve is in its open position and thereby
greatly cools and prevents the burning and warp
exhaust valve, tends to cool that portion of gas
made of the entire interior of the combustion in contact with the exhaust valve and thereby
chamber, including the gasket and piston clear
limit the heating of the exhaust valve to a tem
ance volume- - The location of the ignition spark perature that will not cause premature ignition
is established on the cast and the cast mounted of the fuel charge. Also,'the raised boss l3 pro
upon a turntable machine designed for the pur
jecting into close proximity to the exhaust valve
pose of sweeping or removing de?nite spherical brings the cooling ?uid close to the latter when >
inch wide at given radial distances from the ig
30 nition point. The sections thus removed, which
‘are in the form'of powder, represent the progress
ing of the valve.
I
.
‘
30
Having described my invention, I desire it to be
of the wave front of ?ame as it travels through ‘ ‘understood that the invention is not to be limited
the chamber, and the’ weight of these powdered to the‘ particular illustrative embodiment dis
incremental sections represent relatively exact closed, the scope of inventionbeing set forth i
proportions of the fuel mixture that are burned, the following claims.
_
' '
which is expressed in percent of the total weight
I claim:
'
‘
of the cast. Thus, it is possible to cut up the
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
cast of plaster of Paris chamber into a large der head with a combustion chamber therein pro
number of increments and chart out the ‘space
vided with ignition means, the said chamber
rate of change of volume for 'each and every
having concentrically spherical volume portions 4.0.
radial section. The increment of radial distance
corresponding to the volume removed is expressed
so related to the point of ignition, that the total
in percent of the total distance measured to the
outer boundary ‘of the chamber cast. The per
volume of the combustion chamber and total
radius distance from initial ignition that the
respective ratios expressed in percent of any in
cent volume represented by each increment di
videdby the corresponding percent radial incre
crement of said volume to the total volume 45
divided by the corresponding ratio ‘of incremental
ment in distance multiplied by one hundred es
radius to the total radius distance shall come
substantially within the limits of 150% during
tablishes the points on the graph OEPC of Fig
ure 7. The graph therefore represents the space
50 rate of change of volume for the ?ame front
as it advances through the mixture from the
at 85% of the said distance and then rapidly
spark plug to the outermost boundary of the
combustion chamber.
In my present invention, combustion takes
dropping to within 40%‘ at 100% of the said dis
place at reaction velocity and in a preferred and
predetermined manner, as illustrated in Fig. 5.
It starts at‘the ignition spark between the ter
minals of the spark plug, preferably located in
GU
the ?rst 40% of the radius distance from the
point of ignition and reducing to within 120% 50
the portion of the combustion chamber above the
fuel inlet valve and spreads in a supposedly
concentrically spherical wave front consuming
combustibles in proportion to the volumes swept
through from the ignition spark to the curved
wall 1 and into the extended portions 5 and 6 of
the combustion chamber, then through the pas
sage 20 into the clearance space between the
piston and-the face 3 of the cover. The area of
the throat passage 20 is considerably greater than
the area of the
70 stantially closed
of combustion.
at the ignition
inlet valve opening and is sub
by the engine piston at the start
The combustion wave starting
spark and. spreading in a sup
posedly concentrically spherical form encounters
?rst the curved wall ‘I, spreads thereover and
progressively advances into the extended portion
I
tance.
' 2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der head with a combustion chamber therein, pro 55
vided with ignition means, said chamber having
concentrically spherical portions so related to
the point of ignition, total volume of- combus
tion chamber and total radius distance from ini
tial ignition that the percentage rate of change 60
of volume for any incremental radius of ?ame
travel advance from the point of ignition shall
come substantially within the graphical limits
prescribed by the said bogey 0, A, B, G'of Fig. 7.
3. ‘In an internal combustion engine, a cylinq 65
der block, a cylinder, a piston contained therein, a
cylinder cover attached to said block, a gasket
between said cover and said block, forming a
clearance volume between said cover and piston,
a combustion chamber common to said cover and 70
top of said piston, an ignition point contained
within said chamber, said combustion chamber
~having concentrically spherical volumes so re
lated to the ignition point, total combustion
volume and maximum radius distance that the 75
4
2,138,131
maximum ratio of any radial increment of com
bustion volume to the total volume multiplied
by one hundred, and divided by the correspond
ing ratio of incremental radius to the total
radius distance, shall not substantially exceed
160% between the limits of 40% and 85% of the
radius distance from the said ignition point, the
maximum radius representing the distance from
the said ignition point to the outermost edge of
10 said chamber and the total volume represented by
cylinder cover. attached to said block, a gasket
between said cover and said block forming a
clearance volume between said cover and piston, a
combustion chamber common to said cover and
piston, an ignition point contained within said
chamber, said combustion chamber having con
centrically spherical volumes so related to the
ignition point, total combustion volume and
maximum radius distance that the percentage
rate of change of volume for any incremental 10
the total combustion space enclosed by said ' radius of flame travel advance from the ignition
chamber, and said clearance volume when the point shall come substantially within the limits
said piston is at the top'of said cylinder.
of 150%, 120% and 40% at the respective radius
4. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder distance of 16%, 85% and 100% from the said
15 block, a cylinder, a piston contained therein, a ignition point, the maximum radius distance rep
cylinder cover attached to said block, a gasket resenting the distance from the said ignition point
between said cover and said block forming a to the outermost edge of the said chamber and
clearance volume between said cover and piston, the total volume represented by the total com
an ignition point contained within said combus
bustion space enclosed by said chamber and said
20 tion chamber, said combustion chamber having
clearance volume when said piston is uppermost 20
concentrically spherical volumes so related to in said cylinder.
the ignition point, total combustion volume and
7. In an internal combustion engine having a
maximum radius distance that the maximum cylinder block, a cylinder, a piston contained
ratio of any radial increment of combustion vol
therein, a cylinder cover attached to said block,
25 ume to the total volume multiplied by one hun
. dred, and divided by the corresponding ratio of
incremental radius to the maximum radius dis
a gasket between said cover and said block, a 25
clearance space between said cover and piston,
a combustiton chamber in said cover common
tance, shall come approximately within the to said cylinder and piston, an ignition point
limits of 160%, between the respective limits of contained within said chamber, said ignition
30 16% and 40% of the radius distance from the point so located with regard to the extremities 30
said ignition point, the maximum radius distance of the. said combustion chamber and said cyl
representing the distance from the ignition point inder that the radial distance measured from the
to the outermost edge of said chamber and the said ignition point to the outermost edge of
total volume represented by the total combustion the said chamber shall not exceed 68%, nor be
35 volume enclosed by said chamber and said clear
less than 58% of the radial distance between the 35
ance volume when under maximum compression said ignition point and the outermost edge of
by said piston.
the said cylinder.
5. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder
block, a cylinder, a piston contained therein, a
cylinder cover attached to said block, a gasket
between said cover and said block forming a clear
ance volume between said cover and piston, an
8. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der block, a cylinder, a piston contained therein,
a cylinder cover attached to said block, a gasket 40
between said cover and said block forming a
clearance volume between said cover and piston,
ignition point contained within said combustion
an ignition point contained within said combus
chamber, said combustion chamber having con
centrically spherical volumes so related to the
ignition point, total combustion volume and
maximum radius distance that the maximum
tion chamber, said combustion chamber having
concentrically spherical volumes so related to the 45
ignition point, total combustion volume and maxi
‘ratio of any radial increment of combustion vol
ume to the total volume multiplied by one hun
dred, and divided by the corresponding ratio of
incremental radius to the total radius distance,
shall come substantially between 150% and 100%,
between the respective limits of I70% and 85%
of the radius distance from the said ignition
55 point, the maximum radius distance represent
ing /the distance from the ignition point to the
outermost edge of said chamber and the total
volume represented by the sum total of combus
tion volume enclosed by said chamber and said
clearance volume when thecombustion volume is
under maximum compression by the said piston.
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder
block, a cylinder, a piston contained therein, a
mum radius distance that the maximum ratio
of any radial increment of combustion volume
to the total volume, multiplied by one hundred,
divided by the corresponding ratio of incremental 50
radius to the total radius distance, shall come
substantially between 150% and 100%, between
the respective limits of 70% and 85% of the
radius distance from the said ignition point, the
maximum radius distance representing the dis 55
tance from the ignition point to the outermost
edge of said chamber and the total volume repre
sented by the sum total of combustion volume
enclosed by said chamber and said clearance vol
ume when the combustion volume is under maxi
mum compression by the said piston.
navnvor E.‘ AsKE
60
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
804 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа